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Artikel

Kiezen voor stadsrepublieken? Over administratieve afhandeling van overlast in de steden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden social disorder, incivility, governance, communal sanctions, Mayor
Auteurs Elke Devroe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The theme of governing anti-social behaviour and incivilities in the public space became more important on the policy and research agenda over the last twenty years. This article describes the law on incivilities in Belgium, namely the ‘administrative communal sanctions’ (GAS). This law is studied in a broader context of contemporary crime control and its organizing patterns. The development of the politics of behaviour can be explained by different characteristics of the period referred to as the late modernity. In the dissertation ‘A culture of control?’ (Devroe 2012) we studied the application and the concrete strategies behind the governance of incivilities on a national and on a city level. The incivility law broadened the competences of the Mayor and the city council especially in the completion of anti social behaviour and public disorder problems in his/her municipality. Instead of being dealt with on a traditional judicial way by the police magistrate, the Mayor can, by this law; himself lay on fines until maximum 250 euro. We mention ‘city republics’ as this punitive sanction became a locally assigned matter, which means that one municipality differs from another in their ‘incivility policy’. Due to the split up of competences of the Belgian state arrangements of 1988, each municipality finds itself framed in different political and organisational executive realities. In this view, Mayors can be called ‘presidents’ of their own municipality, keeping and controlling the process of tackling incivilities as their main responsibility and determining what behaviour had to be controlled and punished and what behaviour can be considered as normal decent behaviour in the public space. Problems of creating a ‘culture of control’, creating inequality for the poor, the beggars and the socially ‘unwanted’ can arise, especially in big cities.


Elke Devroe
Dr. Elke Devroe is Universitair Hoofddocent Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: e.devroe@law.leidenuniv.nl
Artikel

Informele huwelijken in Nederland: in het echt verbonden?

Een kritische reflectie op een vermeend veiligheidsrisico

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden informal marriages, radicalization, religion
Auteurs Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun en Avalon Leupen MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch law solely recognizes civil marriage. According to law, religious marriages can only take place after these civil marriages. Over the last years there have been several indications of rising numbers of ‘informal marriages’ which conflict with the law. These informal marriages were presupposed to take place primarily in Muslim circles. Amongst politicians and media the worries were expressed that these marriages pointed to an aversion with regard to the state of law and to radicalization of the young people involved. They were also seen as a risk to the security of society. In this explorative study we did not find any evidence for this securitisation link.


Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. J.P. van der Leun is als hoogleraar criminologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

Avalon Leupen MSc
A.J. Leupen, MSc. is docent criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open Het smalle pad van Jan Donner

De ontstaansgeschiedenis van de Lex Donner 1932

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden Jan Donner
Auteurs Ben Koolen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Provocative anti-religious articles and pictures in the communist newspaper De Tribune incited the Christian majority in the Netherlands’ Parliament in the early thirties of last century to penalizing blasphemy. Jan Donner, minister of Justice, convinced that legal proceedings in reference to blasphemy as such will not stand before court, introduced the crime of brutalizing believing people by mocking their God.


Ben Koolen
Dr. G.M.J.M. Koolen was tot zijn pensionering in 2003 ambtenaar van het ministerie van Justitie. Hij is redactielid van het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.
Artikel

Integrale veiligheidszorg en de burgemeester

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden integraal, burgemeester, veiligheidsbeleid, religie
Auteurs Ruth Prins en Lex Cachet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Changing public safety problems as well as an increasing societal demand for public safety made way for new policy approaches. During the 1990s, the so called ‘integral safety approach’ was introduced in the Netherlands. This approach manifested itself mainly on the municipal level where the mayor is being held responsible for managing public safety and order. The central question raised in this article is: what are the consequences of an integral approach to public safety problems for the mayor when managing local order and public safety? We will demonstrate that ‘integrality’ is no clear cut concept. Careful inspection of the concept learns that it has multiple meanings. Of these various meanings, especially the ambition to address public safety problems by means of ‘new alliances’ characterized the actual implementation of integral policies. However, working together within these new alliances uniting various more or less independent actors from both the public and private sector, seemed to be hampered by a lack of coordination and control. In that sense, the introduction of the integral approach had consequences for steering and control of public safety policies. These consequences have to be addressed, especially by the mayor who is accountable for local order and safety. The mayor had attributed to him – first in practice, soon by law as well – the role of director of public safety policy on the municipal level. However, as we will demonstrate in this article, the mayor lacks an important trait needed for effective directorship: decisive powers. Therefore the mayor is not able to realize effective cooperation between partners within the new alliances of the integral approach to public safety problems. As a potential solution, we will describe the characteristics of a ‘model of anticipation’ granting the mayor a certain level of decisive powers to be used as an ultimum remedium.


Ruth Prins
Ruth Prins MSc is promovendus Burgemeester en Veiligheid, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Contactadres: Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Burg. Oudlaan 50 (kamer M7-06), Postbus 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam. Tel. 010-4088714, e-mail: prins@fsw.eur.nl

Lex Cachet
Dr. Lex Cachet is Universitair Hoofddocent Bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Opleiding Bestuurskunde. E-mail: cachet@fsw.eur.nl
Artikel

Burgemeesters beter voorbereid

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2010
Trefwoorden Informatievoorziening, Burgemeesters, Ex-gedetineerden
Auteurs Mr. drs. Ad Schreijenberg en Drs. Joost van den Tillaart
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Minister of Justice has promised that a city’s mayor will be informed if a former prisoner, who was sentenced for a sex offense and/or serious violent crime, returns to the municipality. Because of an improved information position, the mayor is able to take founded and timely measures in order to prevent disturbances in public safety. To determine how this information can be organised in the best way, a pilot was carried out. The evaluation of this pilot suggests that the information meets a need, but that the information processing is vulnerable in certain parts. Following the evaluation the process will be adapted and may be rolled out nationwide.


Mr. drs. Ad Schreijenberg
Ad Schreijenberg is onderzoeker bij het cluster Criminaliteit en veiligheid, Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek.

Drs. Joost van den Tillaart
Joost van den Tillaart is onderzoeker bij het cluster Criminaliteit en veiligheid, Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek.
Artikel

Uitbreiding bevoegdheden ter handhaving van de openbare orde en veiligheid

Een versterking of verzwakking van de positie van de burgemeester?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden bestuurlijke handhaving, burgemeester, bestuurlijke bevoegdheden, openbare orde
Auteurs Arnt Mein
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Lately, mayors’ powers for maintaining public order and safety have been considerably extended, and even more powers are in preparation. These powers must enable the mayor to act quickly against public order disturbances and security threats. The novelty is that the mayor may conditionally use and exercise these new powers preventively against groups of rioters. Their freedom of action and their privacy can also be considerably curtailed. This means these powers have to be used carefully and reluctantly. If the mayor overdoes the crimefighter role, he/she may lose the public’s confidence.


Arnt Mein
Mr. Arnt Mein is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en de vakgroep Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: AMein@verwey-jonker.nl.
Artikel

Lokaal veiligheidsbeleid in Nederland en België: op zoek naar verschil

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden lokaal veiligheidsbeleid, politie, gemeente, Nederland en België
Auteurs Lex Cachet en Ruth Prins
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Public safety has always been a core task for local, municipal authorities. However, until rather recently only the police has been actively involved in addressing local problems of public safety and maintaining order instead. Local public safety policy – as a responsibility for local authorities together with many other partners – is a relatively new phenomenon.This article compares the main developments and trends in local public safety policy in the Netherlands and Belgium. Special attention is paid to the role and position of the local, municipal authorities. What strikes most, are the strong similarities between the two countries. National governments played an important and catalyzing role in the development of public safety policy in the Netherlands as well as in Belgium. After many years and not without a lot of trouble, the monopoly of the police on designing and implementing policy for addressing public safety and order came to an end in both countries. Which, amongst other effects, presented the local authorities with new challenges.


Lex Cachet
Dr. Lex Cachet is universitair hoofddocent Bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Opleiding Bestuurskunde. E-mail: cachet@fsw.eur.nl.

Ruth Prins
Ruth Prins MSc is promovendus Burgemeester en Veiligheid, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Opleiding Bestuurskunde. E-mail: prins@fsw.eur.nl.

A.C. Hendriks

    Offenders of the law used to be sentenced by the criminal courts of justice. However, the Dutch Government is striving for better and more efficient law enforcement, and is increasingly delegating this enforcement to local authorities, especially to the mayor's level. For example, to maintain order, not only does the mayor decide on camera surveillance, preventative body search, restraining orders and curfews; he/she is now also allowed to shut down houses and evict people from their homes. New laws are in the making to delegate even more power to local authorities. The question arises whether the position of mayor can and should include the Sheriff Star. After all, he/she is politically accountable, plus it would take Superman to take on this new role as upholder of justice. Meanwhile, legal protection is in a sorry state, and citizens rarely take advantage of their legal protection rights. Adequate judicial control is lacking, and whether orders given out by the mayor based on the new responsibilities actually comply with the European Treaty of Human Rights is something that remains to be seen.


H.J.B. Sackers
Prof. mr. Henny Sackers is als hoogleraar bestuurlijk sanctierecht verbonden aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Delen van deze tekst zijn gebaseerd op zijn inaugurele rede (Sackers, 2010).
Artikel

Swiebertje en Superman

De burgemeester en zijn taak in openbare orde en veiligheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2010
Auteurs A.B. Engberts en H.G.M. Cornelissen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article paints the picture of a mayor who is proactive, assumes a directive role, signals and tackles problems, while also playing a binding role in the community. When it comes to matters of public order and safety, the mayor obviously works in close cooperation and consultation with the other parties of the local triangle, e.g. the chief of police and the public prosecutor. Points of improvement are presented as regards the functioning of the triangle as well the mayor's position in terms of information. The directive role of the mayor can in the near future be embedded, whereby the mayor ‘oversees’ the integral safety policy in his municipality.


A.B. Engberts
Mr. Bart Engberts is als senior beleidsmedewerker respectievelijk adviseur verbonden aan de Directie Veiligheid en Bestuur van het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties.

H.G.M. Cornelissen
drs. Hans Cornelissen is als senior beleidsmedewerker respectievelijk adviseur verbonden aan de Directie Veiligheid en Bestuur van het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties.

    In a changing social and political environment, mayors assume quite a few different roles in local government. This is because they face different expectations, held by social and political actors at different times. Based on the distinction between strong and weak mayoral leadership, this article develops a typology of mayoral leadership roles. The authors argue that inherent tensions exist between some of these roles, making it impossible for mayors to fulfill all roles at once. Therefore, political leadership is best conceived as something that is contextually dependent. Mayors continually have to find a temporal balance between different roles, depending on the institutional setting and social and political context in which they operate at that time. Therefore, a caleidoscopic perspective on political leadership may provide valuable insights for mayors on how to develop their own leadership style.


N. Karsten
Niels Karsten, MSc MA is als promovendus respectievelijk universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur, Universiteit van Tilburg.

L. Schaap
dr. Linze Schaap is als promovendus respectievelijk universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur, Universiteit van Tilburg.

W.J. Verheul
Drs. Wouter Jan Verheul is als programmamanager en promovendus verbonden aan de Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur. Het artikel is mede gebaseerd op Cachet, Karsten e.a. (2009).
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