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Artikel

Vertrouwen en wantrouwen in de Belgische justitie en de rol van de krantenberichtgeving

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Trust in justice system, Belgium, reporting of newspapers
Auteurs Stien Mercelis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution it has been set out that trust in the Belgian justice system cannot be taken for granted. The article contains empirical research on the reporting of newspapers on the Belgian justice system and tries to uncover a possible causal relationship between reading certain newspapers and trust in the justice system. Although it turns out that quality newspapers report on the justice system in a more negative way, readers of popular papers have less trust in the justice system. A direct link between negative reporting and reduced trust was therefore not found. Socio-economic variables and the priming effect on punitive attitudes in popular newspapers are cited as possible explanations.


Stien Mercelis
Stien Mercelis is master in de Rechten en bachelor in de Criminologie. Momenteel is zij assistente Rechtssociologie aan de Universiteit Antwerpen. Zij schrijft een proefschrift over de interne en externe factoren van het vertrouwen in de Belgische justitie als openbare dienst.
Artikel

Conferencing internationaal: vaker toegepast dan gedacht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden Conferencing, Internationale toepassing
Auteurs Estelle Zinsstag en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Conferencing is a restorative justice practice which has started developing quite consistently since the 1990s, in majority in Anglophone countries such as New Zealand, Australia, the USA, Canada or the UK and in particular with consistently promising results for juvenile justice in Northern Ireland. Some continental European, Latin American and African countries are also starting to introduce this alternative to traditional criminal justice, especially in the case of juvenile justice, with some equally promising results. This article presents up-to-date information about the state of conferencing in the world and discusses some of the major conclusions that have come out of a European research project and book.


Estelle Zinsstag
Estelle Zinsstag is senior onderzoeker aan het KU Leuven Instituut voor Criminologie (België) en coördineert een EC Daphne project rond seksueel geweld en herstelrecht. Ze is managing editor van Restorative Justice: An International Journal.

Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is senior onderzoeker aan het KU Leuven Instituut voor Criminologie (België) en manager van een Europees FP7 project rond herstelrecht en interculturele conflicten.

    At the end of 2000, a pilot project began in Flanders (Belgium) to offer family group conferencing for juvenile offenders. Since June 2006, this restorative practice – together with victim-offender mediation – has been inserted in the new Youth Justice Act, making conferencing available in all judicial districts in Flanders. Five years later, however, the mediation-services had to conclude that the number of referrals for conferencing remains rather limited. This observation inspired the mediation services to take actions to bring conferencing more to the attention. This article reports on the findings of a study that was part of this process. Based on (1) an analysis of all conferencing-files that were referred between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 31, (2) focus groups with youth court social workers and criminologists working at the level of the public prosecutor and (3) surveys conducted with youth judges, the study aimed to identify and discuss barriers and obstacles within the current referral practice of conferencing in Flanders.


Lieve Bradt
Lieve Bradt studeerde af als sociaal agoog aan de Universiteit Gent. In 2009 promoveerde zij op een proefschrift over herstelbemiddeling en sociaal werk. Momenteel is zij als doctor-assistent verbonden aan de Vakgroep Sociale Agogiek van de Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

De vrijwilliger-ondersteuner en het herstelgericht groepsoverleg

Een experiment binnen de bemiddelingsdienst van Leuven (BAL)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden Vrijwilliger ondersteuner, hergo
Auteurs Erik Claes en Emilie Van Daele
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article sketches an experiment initiated by a local mediation service in Flanders (BAL) with regard to the role of a supporting volunteer in the context of family group conferencing. Engaged as researchers in this experiment, the authors reconstruct the conceptual challenges of this project and the solution proposed by the team of mediators. One of these challenges revolves around finding an appropriative account of restorative justice that fits with the aims of the Belgian conferencing practice and clarifies the role of the supporting volunteer. Another comes down to distinguishing this role with the essential tasks of the moderator, and formulating deontological devices. In the last part of this contribution a few learning points are formulated with regard to the process and results of the experiment. One of these points is the need to rethink how successfully offering the possibility of engaging a supporting volunteer to the stake holding parties.


Erik Claes
Erik Claes is docent filosofie en recht aan de Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel (HUB), opleiding sociaal werk. Hij is projectleider van de onderzoeksprojecten ‘Herstelbemiddeling en vrijwilligers’ (2010-2013) en ‘Herstelrecht en interculturele spanningen in Brussel’, gefinancierd door PWO-financiering van de HUB.

Emilie Van Daele
Emilie Van Daele is stafmedewerkerster bij Socius en voormalig onderzoeksmedewerkster op het onderzoeksproject ‘Herstelbemiddeling en vrijwilligers’.
Artikel

Een herstelgerichte benadering van delinquenten met een psychische stoornis

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2013
Trefwoorden resocialisatie, psychisch gestoorde delinquenten, herstelrecht, actieve verantwoordelijkheid
Auteurs Prof. dr. Frans Koenraadt en Mr. dr. Renée Kool
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Today’s risk based criminal justice policy leaves but little room to tune sentencing decisions to the individual offender’s mental capacities. As a result, sanctioning has become one-sided, being directed towards retribution. However, in the long run such a non-reciprocal concept of sanctioning, implying a denial of the need to facilitate rehabilitation, weakens the social fabric. Moreover, it holds a denial of citizenship towards (mentally ill) offenders. For the past decades, restorative justice has offered alternative solutions to deal with delinquency. Using informal procedures, taking into account peculiarities of the case, including the offender’s mental capacities, offenders are invited to take accountability for wrongful acts. A similar approach has been introduced within the field of mental health services, including the sector of the forensic mental health care. In response to the popular social biological model, a model of restorative treatment has been introduced, implying treatment to be directed towards reintegration, requiring active participation of the patient/offender. Bearing in mind the communalities between both models, we explore the potential of such a restorative citizenship based approach to better the integration of mentally disturbed offenders.


Prof. dr. Frans Koenraadt
Prof. dr. Frans Koenraadt is hoogleraar Forensische psychologie en psychiatrie aan de Universiteit Utrecht en wetenschappelijk adviseur in het Pieter Baan Centrum (NIFP) te Utrecht en bij de FPK te Assen.

Mr. dr. Renée Kool
Mr. dr. Renée Kool is universitair hoofddocent bij het Willem Pompe Instituut, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Actieve rechtvaardigheid

Herstelrecht als vruchtbare bodem voor de uitoefening van burgerschap

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2013
Auteurs Brunilda Pali
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article reflects on the conceptual work undertaken during the first year of ALTERNATIVE, a project coordinated by KU Leuven. The overall objective of the project is to provide an alternative and deepened understanding of justice and security based on empirical evidence of how to handle conflicts within intercultural contexts, mainly through the active participation of citizens. The paper focuses mainly on the relation of the concept of citizenship with restorative justice, especially as viewed and enacted in the four intercultural settings of the ALTERNATIVE project. Several issues are discussed: the concept of participatory citizenship in relation to crime and conflict; the claim of the discourse of restorative justice to the concept of participatory citizenship and democracy and the challenges in the restorative justice discourse that complicate its relationship to participatory citizenship. Next, insight is provided in the ways the ALTERNATIVE project tries to tackle some of these challenges, by exploring and strengthening the relationship between the concept of active citizenship and justice in Europe. By targeting the intercultural field the ALTERNATIVE aims to explore the potential of mediation services and restorative justice models to engage with macro societal conflicts that are not referred to these services by the criminal justice system, and on the other hand expand the way some of the crimes referred by the criminal justice system are handled by the mediation services alternatively by fostering alliances with various civil society organisations. Employing ‘action research’ methodology, it is argued that the concept and framework of ‘nodal governance’ (Shearing and Wood, 2003) can serve to support participatory modes of conflict regulation. Interactive settings are created, which allow for spaces between informal and formal justice, and between justice mechanisms at the individual and at the societal level (Aertsen, 2001, 2008). Arguments are provided in support of the need to promote broader models of restorative justice which are able to address social and systemic crimes and conflicts, and which will help the theory and practice of RJ to move beyond the individualisation of crime and its remedies.


Brunilda Pali
Brunilda Pali is onderzoekster aan het Criminologisch Instituut, KU Leuven (LINC). Daar werkt zij aan een proefschrift over ethiek en herstelrecht, als onderdeel van het onderzoek verricht binnen het ALTERNATIVE-project.
Artikel

Herstelbemiddeling in Vlaanderen onderzocht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden restorative justice, juvenile delinquents, evaluation research, victims, Flanders
Auteurs Henk Ferwerda en Ilse van Leiden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On a yearly basis between 4.000 and 4.500 underage suspects in Flanders accept the offer of Restorative Justice. A many cited definition of Restorative Justice has been developed by Lode Walgrave: ‘Restorative Justice is every action that is primarily oriented toward doing justice by repairing the harm that has been caused by the crime’.
    Commissioned by the Flemish Minister of Welfare, Public Health and Family an evaluation of Restorative Justice for minors was conducted by Bureau Beke. In the article the authors reflect on Restorative Justice in Flanders and describe the most important findings of their research. The process of Restorative Justice, the satisfaction of the parties involved and its results are considered. The authors offer organizations several suggestions related to developing established procedures and practices. Furthermore results show that suspects and victims are satisfied with Restorative Justice, which yields several benefits for the parties involved: Reparation for victims and learning effects and reduced contacts with counseling agencies for suspects. An important overall conclusion is that face-to-face contact between victim and suspects is beneficial for the mediation process and subsequently repairing the harm.


Henk Ferwerda
Dr. Henk Ferwerda is criminoloog, politieonderzoeker en directeur van Bureau Beke in Arnhem. E-mail: h.ferwerda@beke.nl

Ilse van Leiden
Drs. Ilse van Leiden is psycholoog en als senior onderzoekster werkzaam bij Bureau Beke in Arnhem. E-mail: i.van.leiden@beke.nl
Artikel

Kiezen voor stadsrepublieken? Over administratieve afhandeling van overlast in de steden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden social disorder, incivility, governance, communal sanctions, Mayor
Auteurs Elke Devroe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The theme of governing anti-social behaviour and incivilities in the public space became more important on the policy and research agenda over the last twenty years. This article describes the law on incivilities in Belgium, namely the ‘administrative communal sanctions’ (GAS). This law is studied in a broader context of contemporary crime control and its organizing patterns. The development of the politics of behaviour can be explained by different characteristics of the period referred to as the late modernity. In the dissertation ‘A culture of control?’ (Devroe 2012) we studied the application and the concrete strategies behind the governance of incivilities on a national and on a city level. The incivility law broadened the competences of the Mayor and the city council especially in the completion of anti social behaviour and public disorder problems in his/her municipality. Instead of being dealt with on a traditional judicial way by the police magistrate, the Mayor can, by this law; himself lay on fines until maximum 250 euro. We mention ‘city republics’ as this punitive sanction became a locally assigned matter, which means that one municipality differs from another in their ‘incivility policy’. Due to the split up of competences of the Belgian state arrangements of 1988, each municipality finds itself framed in different political and organisational executive realities. In this view, Mayors can be called ‘presidents’ of their own municipality, keeping and controlling the process of tackling incivilities as their main responsibility and determining what behaviour had to be controlled and punished and what behaviour can be considered as normal decent behaviour in the public space. Problems of creating a ‘culture of control’, creating inequality for the poor, the beggars and the socially ‘unwanted’ can arise, especially in big cities.


Elke Devroe
Dr. Elke Devroe is Universitair Hoofddocent Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: e.devroe@law.leidenuniv.nl
Artikel

Legitimiteit via procedurele rechtvaardigheid: kunnen herstelrechtelijke praktijken de maatschappelijke legitimiteit van het strafrecht verhogen?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden procedural justice, legitimacy,, restorative justice, mediation,, perceptions of fairness
Auteurs Vicky De Mesmaecker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Contemporary scholarly literature is full of references to the crisis of the criminal justice system. The general public seems to increasingly lose confidence in the criminal justice system and its actors. In this article we look into the potential manners in which restorative justice practices can enhance the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. Our analysis is based on the observation that by actively engaging victims and defendants in the resolution of their conflict, restorative practices seem to accommodate a necessary condition of procedural fairness. Since research on procedural justice and legitimacy in turn suggests that the legitimacy of the criminal justice system is based largely upon its perceived procedural fairness, we investigate whether participation in restorative practices improves perceptions of the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. To that end we describe the results of a qualitative study on the experiences of victims and defendants who participated in victim-offender mediation in Belgium. Relating their experiences to the antecedents of procedural justice as described in the literature, we find that restorative practices in different ways enhance perceptions of procedural fairness. Yet these perceptions do not necessarily reflect on the criminal justice system. Our analysis suggests that the degree to which the perceptions of procedural fairness resulting from participation in a restorative practice influence an individual’s perceptions of the legitimacy of the criminal justice system depends on whether the restorative practice is seen as an integral part of the criminal proceedings. We found, for example, that this is more likely to be the case if the judge at trial formally acknowledges the parties’ participation in mediation. We conclude that more research on the degree to which people perceive the restorative practice to be a part of the criminal proceedings is needed in order to further flesh out this issue.


Vicky De Mesmaecker
Dr. Vicky De Mesmaecker is vrijwillig wetenschappelijk medewerker aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC, KULeuven) en Visiting Researcher aan Yale Law School. Email: vicky.demesmaecker@law.kuleuven.be
Artikel

Vergelding en herstel: de behoeften van het slachtoffer

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden slachtoffers, intentie, strafdoelen, herstel, excuses
Auteurs Marijke Malsch, Robin P. Kranendonk en Vicky De Mesmaecker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Victims of crime entertain various wishes regarding the criminal justice system. This paper present the results of a study that made use of vignettes. Victim wishes regarding the goals of punishment were examined, and the relation with degree offender intent (intent, negligence) has been established. The results show that when the perpetrator acted intentionally, victims have a greater wish for retribution and the other punishment goals, but they have a smaller need for restoration. Victims wish to be compensated and to receive apologies from the offender, but generally are reluctant to meet with the perpetrator in person.


Marijke Malsch
Marijke Malsch is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en rechter-plaatsvervanger.

Robin P. Kranendonk
Robin P. Kranendonk is als junior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Vicky De Mesmaecker
Vicky De Mesmaecker is vrijwillig medewerker bij het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC) van de KU Leuven en visiting researcher aan Yale University.
Artikel

Ruimtelijke criminologie

Van woonbuurt tot cyberspace en van politiestatistiek tot space-time budgets

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden environmental influences, social ecology, environmental criminology, studies in the Netherlands and Belgium
Auteurs Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels, Dr. Frank Weerman, Dr. Wim Bernasco e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the publication of a special issue in TvC (the Dutch Journal of Criminology) on the spatial distribution of crime, about fifteen years ago, a vast number of developments have been observed in the field of social ecology and environmental criminology. During this period many studies have been undertaken in the Netherlands and Belgium. However, there still is room for progress, e.g. through the study of new contexts beyond the traditional boundaries of residential neighbourhoods and through the use of promising new methodologies and technological developments. This special issue provides some examples of such innovative research on environmental influences on crime. In this introductory article the authors provide an overview of the background of the theme, and discuss recent theoretical and methodological developments. They move on to discuss contemporary studies that have been carried out in the Netherlands and Belgium, and outline some desirable and necessary future developments. Finally, the authors provide the reader with an overview of the other contributions to this special issue.


Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L.J.R. Pauwels is directeur van de Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent.

Dr. Frank Weerman
Dr. F.M. Weerman is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Wim Bernasco
Dr. W. Bernasco is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Beate Volker
Prof. dr. B.G.M. Volker is hoogleraar ‘Sociologie van het Sociaal Kapitaal’ en als zodanig verbonden aan de afdeling Sociologie van de Universiteit van Utrecht.
Artikel

Wraak, recht en slachtofferbehoeften

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden revenge, retributive emotions, victim impact statements, victim needs, penal populism
Auteurs Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Considerable political pressure is currently being brought to impose severe punishments, and it is frequently suggested that these punishments would enhance the wellbeing of victims and achieve ‘closure’. Populist images, such as ‘victims have a right to revenge’ have gained great influence. To what extent would therapeutic professionals have to support victim needs that are shaped within such punitive contexts? In this paper it is first argued that revenge embraces ambivalent meanings. Although avengers are lauded in the popular imagination, feelings of revenge are still viewed as ethically unacceptable. In recent decades, however, a penal populism has been gaining ground as a result of which revenge was stripped of its pejorative associations. In a punitive climate it is believed that victims would demand harsher penalties and that such penalties would promote closure and peace. Research findings show however that revenge may bring temporary relief, but anger rumination precludes healing. Subsequently the question is discussed whether two different forms of victim participation, victim impact statements and restorative justice conferences, might temper revenge feelings. Because VIS-participants (dealing with high levels of anger and fear) believe that their statements will culminate in longer sentences, they are generally frustrated that the imposed sentence is not tough enough. After the procedure they keep on viewing the offender as a malign person. Restorative procedures generally show an opposite picture. Finally this paper is criticizing the tendency of victim-oriented therapeutization within criminal justice and restorative justice. It is argued that the voice of the victim and the process of emotional healing should be separated strictly.


Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan de afdeling bestuurswetenschappen van de faculteit der sociale wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Daarnaast is hij verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut (Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen). Hij verricht onderzoek op het grensvlak van ethiek, criminologie en de sociale wetenschappen. Tot de thema’s die in zijn onderzoek aan bod komen behoren politie, burgerschap en lokale veiligheidszorg, sanctietheorieën en herstelrecht. www.basvanstokkom.nl.
Artikel

De publieke emoties na een misdrijf en het beschavingsproces

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden public emotions, civilisation process, punishment, inclusion, exclusion
Auteurs Lode Walgrave
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The tendency to revalorise emotions in the response to offending, seems to face a dilemma. On the one hand, experiencing crime and reacting to it inevitably are imbued by emotion. On the other hand, giving way to emotions in responding to crime entails the risks of disproportionate and unequal justice. This article argues that there is a fundamental difference between the emotions promoted to be included in the response to crime and the emotions feared as a risk to overwhelm good and proportionate jurisprudence. The first ones focus on the needs of the immediate stakeholders of the offence and seek their (re-)inclusion. The second type of emotions focuses on the criminal act and seeks to keep the threat it represents under control through punishment and incapacitation. It is a socio-ethical choice to promote the inclusionary approach. Whereas the rehabilitative approach has addressed the needs of the offenders only, the restorative tendency addresses the needs of both the victim and the offenders in a more balanced way. This balance also helps to avoid that respectful responses to crime degrade into norm erosion. The option for revalorising inclusionary emotions in the response to crime through restorative justice is located as a next phase in the civilisation process, described originally by Elias.


Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie aan de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
Artikel

Over het denken en voelen achter straf- en herstel(recht)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden cognitive emotion theory, punishment, interconnectedness, (ir)rationality, mysticism
Auteurs Jacques Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article attention is paid to the thoughts and feelings which underlie criminal law and restorative justice, as well as the question whether those thoughts and feelings have to be regarded as rational or irrational. For this purpose, the author has firstly examined the relationship between thinking and feeling from the perspective of the so-called cognitive emotion theory as put forth by the American philosopher Martha Nussbaum and the Dutch philosopher Mirjam van Reijen. In addition, this contribution also addresses the ideas of the Stoics, Spinoza and Schopenhauer, since the aforementioned theory goes back on the ideas of these philosophers. These philosophers depart from the view on man and world in which interconnectedness plays an important role – as the opposite of separateness. This view which reflects the mystic-religious perspective on man and world forms an important connecting thread in this article, as this turns out to have direct consequences for the idea about the (ir)rationality of certain thoughts and feelings, as well as for the (ir)rationality of criminal law and restorative justice. Special attention is paid to emotions that are relevant within the context of criminal law and restorative justice – which include anger, resentment, hatred, fear and compassion. After having explained – on the basis of the cognitive emotion theory – how thinking and feeling relate to each other and which thoughts and feelings – on the basis of the perspective of interconnectedness – have to be considered as (ir)rational, the article examines whether punishment is (ir)rational and whether the regular theories which legitimate punishment (i.e. retribution and prevention theories) are ‘rationalities of something irrational’. Furthermore, it is assessed whether the thoughts and feelings behind restorative justice are (ir)rational. The article concludes with a suggestion in which the main findings of this contribution are summarized, in order to stimulate discussion.


Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen (1980) is universitair docent straf(proces)recht aan de faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht. In 2010 verscheen zijn dissertatie Misdaad en straf. Een herbezinning op het strafrecht vanuit mystiek perspectief (Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers). Zijn interessegebieden zijn sanctierecht, herstelrecht en de strafrechtelijke positie van het slachtoffer. Claessen is redacteur van dit tijdschrift en van de Nieuwsbrief Strafrecht. Voorts is hij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Maastricht. Hij is winnaar van de Bianchi Herstelrechtprijs 2012.
Artikel

Tussen hoop en vrees

Toepassing van herstelrecht in het buitengerechtelijk spoor

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden restorative justice, criminal proceedings, diversion, subsidiarity, sanctions
Auteurs Renée Kool
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Topical developments regarding the use of restorative justice in the Netherlands are discussed. Several initiatives have been taken, showing a genuine interest in the benefits of the use of restorative justice. However, there are underlying risks for a managerial use of restorative justice. Momentarily Dutch criminal justice policy features a shift towards settlement by the Public Prosecution, implying a use of restorative justice in the context of consensual settlement. However, there are no signs directing towards an intrinsic interest for the concept of restorative justice by the criminal justice authorities. Notwithstanding the legislator having started a fundamental revision of the Dutch Code of Penal Procedure, there are no intentions known to acknowledge restorative justice arrangements to be part of the regular penal procedures and sanctions. Nevertheless, incorporating the use of restorative justice arrangements requires a systematic implementation of restorative justice arrangements.


Renée Kool
Renée Kool is hoofddocent straf(proces)recht, verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de juridische faculteit, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Vrijwilligers binnen een gematigde visie op herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden restorative justice, volunteers, citizenship, participation, communicative justice
Auteurs Erik Claes en Emilie Van Daele
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In restorative thinking it is often assumed that the involvement of volunteers, almost naturally, flows from its values and aims. But are there really convincing arguments that account for, justify or even necessitate an active policy on volunteering in restorative justice practices?This contribution focuses on the moderate view on restorative justice as developed in the Belgian context. It is argued that this approach offers a variety of reasons for developing a volunteers-programme. Two central issues in a moderate view on restorative justice are essential to understand the value of volunteering in restorative justice practices. Such a view sees 1) crime as a multi-layered phenomenon, and 2) takes participative and communicative justice as its central aim.


Erik Claes
Erik Claes is docent sociaal werk aan de HUB en onderzoeker op het Centrum Pragodi (HUB). Hij begeleidt een praktijkgericht wetenschappelijk onderzoek rond vrijwilligers en herstelrecht.

Emilie Van Daele
Emilie Van Daele is onderzoekster op het Centrum Pragodi (HUB) en doet onderzoek rond vrijwilligers en herstelrecht.
Artikel

Over objectieve en subjectieve onveiligheid

En de (on)zin van het rationaliteitdebat

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden fear of crime, fear victimization paradox, rationality debate
Auteurs Stefaan Pleysier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution focuses on ‘fear of crime’ research. Departing from the classic distinction between crime and victimization as objective threats, on the one hand, and fear of crime as a subjective and emotional interpretation of that threat, on the other hand, the research tradition is confronted with the so-called fear victimization paradox. This paradox emerges from the observation that fear of crime is greater among women and elderly people, while these groups actually are less at risk of becoming a crime victim. It has immersed the research tradition in a dominant debate on the rationality of the fear of crime, with two opposing paradigms: rationalist and symbolic.Whilst both the paradox and the different paradigms in the debate offer a view at the core of fear of crime research, and illustrate how similar empirical observations can lead to differing explanations, and policy implications for that matter, we argue that the fear victimization paradox and the rationality debate surrounding this paradox, has occupied the bulk of research on fear of crime with what is essentially a nonsensical and redundant debate.


Stefaan Pleysier
Prof. dr. S. (Stefaan) Pleysier is docent Jeugdcriminologie en Methoden van onderzoek aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de K.U.Leuven, en verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC) waar hij co-coördinator is van de onderzoekslijn Jeugdcriminologie. E-mail: stefaan.pleysier@law.kuleuven.be
Artikel

Slachtofferbewegingen en herstelrecht

Over het belang van de realiteit achter de stereotypes

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden victimology, victim movements, social movements, restorative justice
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The position of victims of crime has shown marked improvement over the past 30 years. The rise of the victim has been associated with the growth of a unified ‘victim movement’; a social movement that strives to improve the position of victims of crime. However, it is questionable whether the victim movement should be viewed as a unitary phenomenon. Instead of one movement, there appear to be a number of victim movements. There are differences between the victim advocates in the United States, Victim Support in Europe, the violence against women movement and proponents of restorative justice.. In this article, reasons for these differences are sought in victim-endogenous factors: differences in victims’ characteristics and the idealtypes employed by the different movements are an important explanation for the divergent development in organisations representing victims interests, which in turn influences their policy preferences. It is argued that advocates of restorative justice would benefit from understanding both the reality and the distortion involved in the idealtypes, including their own. This would allow proponents of restorative justice to adapt their practices in a manner that is both suitable and convincing to the representative and target group of the different victim movements.


Antony Pemberton
Dr. Antony Pemberton is sociaalwetenschapper en universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Actief burgerschap binnen herstelrecht

Een inventarisatie van participatievormen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Citizenship, Participation, Mediators, Activism
Auteurs Brunilda Pali
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Seemingly a difficult concept, participation in restorative justice can be understood better once the notion is broadened and operationalized. Therefore a proposal will be made here to first broaden the meaning of participation beyond participation of stakeholders and ‘community’ in the process as it is generally understood in restorative justice literature, and second break down the concept of participation into five different levels: (1) involvement of the stakeholders and the ‘community’ in the restorative process; (2) participation of citizens as volunteer mediators/facilitators in the process; (3) self-referrals from citizens; (4) voluntary participation of experts in restorative justice organisations; (5) promotion from ex-victims of crime and ex-offenders. Based on this approach, in the end, the author opens up the discussion on the meaning of active citizenship for restorative justice in continental Europe. Before discussing how the broadening of the concept of participation is concretely envisioned, the author argues on the importance of prioritizing the notion of citizenship instead of ‘community’ in the continental European restorative justice discourse.


Brunilda Pali
Brunilda Pali verricht promotieonderzoek aan het Instituut voor Criminologie van de Katholieke Universiteit van Leuven.
Artikel

Vrijwilligers binnen een maximalistische visie op herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Volunteers, Participation, restorative justice, Autonomy
Auteurs Erik Claes en Emilie Van Daele
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article aims at grounding and defining the role of volunteers in restorative justice practices. It starts from the observation that processes of institutionalization tend to make the role of volunteering citizens in restorative justice programmes doubtful and superfluous. These doubts are strengthened by the fact that the link between restorative justice values and the importance of working with volunteers is too easily assumed. Can we offer some well-founded arguments to back up this assumption and to outline what key roles volunteers can play? Several conceptions of restorative justice might be explored. This contribution examines the maximalist view, as developed by Lode Walgrave in his latest book Restorative Justice, Self-interest and Responsible Citizenship. The article critically asks if and how his conception demands an active role for volunteers within restorative justice practices. The paper develops its arguments on the basis of three key concepts in Walgraves model: (1) his definition of restorative justice; (2) his notion of crime; and (3) his socio-ethical intuition of common self-interest.


Erik Claes
Erik Claes is rechtsfilosoof en verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Emilie Van Daele
Emilie van Daele is verbonden aan de Hogeschool Universiteit Brussel (HUB) en voert een onderzoeksproject uit rond herstelrecht.
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