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Artikel

De bestrijding van voedselfraude in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden NVWA-IOD, food fraud, food industry, food laundering, criminal cases
Auteurs K.E. Gussow en L.H. Kuiper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Food fraud has recently been recognized as a blind spot among regulators. In Europe, few organizations have experience with large cases of food fraud; also scientific knowledge into this type of crime is limited. This article aims to contribute experience to this gap. The NVWA-IOD is a specialist crime unit in the Netherlands, carrying out criminal investigations into, among other things, food fraud. This article gives insight into numbers of cases dealt with by the NVWA-IOD in the past fifteen years, for different types of food fraud. Nine criminal cases, concentrating on suspects within trade and industry, are analyzed in more detail from a basic criminological perspective. There is looked into, among other things, the motive, the opportunity and the product. The cases discussed relate to products such as meat, eggs, fish and dairy products. The main motive for committing food fraud is making money; the gain makes fraudulent activities attractive and financially beneficial. Opportunities refer mainly to ambiguous laws and regulations and little supervision. Also, evasive behavior was found. To combat food crime, specialist knowledge of tempting opportunities is essential.


K.E. Gussow
Dr. Karen Gussow is als senior inspecteur verbonden aan de Inlichtingen- en Opsporingsdienst (IOD) van de Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit (NVWA).

L.H. Kuiper
Loes Kuiper studeerde af aan de Hogeschool Van Hall Larenstein te Leeuwarden en loopt stage bij de Inlichtingen- en Opsporingsdienst (IOD) van de Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit (NVWA).
Artikel

Artikel 8 EVRM: proportionaliteit en verwerking van persoonsgegevens

Tijdschrift RegelMaat, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden bescherming persoonsgegevens, proportionaliteit, EHRM, dataprotectierichtlijn, wetgevingsproces
Auteurs Prof. mr. L.F.M. Verhey en Mr. M.W. Raijmakers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Indien ontwerpwetgeving leidt tot de verwerking van persoonsgegevens, moet de wetgever in veel gevallen een toets uitvoeren aan artikel 8 EVRM en het relevante EU-recht. Bij die toets draait het vaak om de vraag of de beperkende maatregel voldoet aan het proportionaliteitsvereiste. In de Straatsburgse rechtspraak is de proportionaliteit een paraplu waaronder uiteenlopende waarborgen worden geschaard. De complexiteit en veelomvattendheid van de proportionaliteitstoets werken door op nationaal niveau. De wijze waarop de proportionaliteitstoets door de Nederlandse wetgever wordt verricht, is wisselvallig. Soms vindt een expliciete toetsing plaats in het kader van artikel 8 EVRM, vaak is dat ook niet het geval.


Prof. mr. L.F.M. Verhey
Prof. mr. L.F.M. Verhey is hoogleraar Kirchheiner leerstoel aan de Universiteit Leiden en Staatsraad bij de Afdeling advisering van de Raad van State. l.f.m.verheij@law.leidenuniv.nl

Mr. M.W. Raijmakers
Mr. M.W. Raijmakers is sectorhoofd directie Advisering bij de Raad van State. m.raijmakers@raadvanstate.nl
Artikel

Surveilleren en opsporen in een internetomgeving

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2012
Trefwoorden Policing, Internet, open-source intelligence, iColumbo, police power
Auteurs J.J. Oerlemans en B.J. Koops
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Publicly available information on the Internet about people or criminal acts can be relevant to criminal investigations. This article analyses to what extent Dutch criminal procedure law allows open source intelligence for law-enforcement purposes. When more than ‘minor’ privacy interferences arise, an explicit investigatory power in the criminal procedure code is required. Minor infringements are allowed under the general task description in the Police Act 1993. It is unclear however when ‘substantial’ privacy infringements arise. On the basis of ECHR jurisprudence on foreseeability and the Dutch criteria for ‘systematic observation’, the authors conclude that Internet data-gathering will often require an explicit investigatory power and can only be used for criminal investigation with an order from the public prosecutor, but not, except for small-scale and ad hoc searches, for general police practice purposes. Because the Internet is much different in its nature from a decade ago and the investigatory powers are not in all respects easily applicable to Internet surveillance, the authors argue that the Dutch legislator must take action and make clear under which conditions information on the Internet can be gathered by law enforcement.


J.J. Oerlemans
Mr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans is promovendus bij eLaw@Leiden, Centrum voor Recht in de Informatiemaatschappij van de Universiteit Leiden. Daarnaast is hij juridisch adviseur bij Fox-IT.

B.J. Koops
Prof. dr. Bert-Jaap Koops is hoogleraar regulering van technologie bij TILT – Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology and Society van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Terrorismebestrijding en securitisering

Een rechtssociologische verkenning van de neveneffecten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2011
Auteurs B.A. de Graaf en Q. Eijkman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article offers an analysis of the side effects caused by the increased counterterrorism measures adapted in Dutch law and public policy after 9/11. Taking clues from Foucault's thinking on securitisation and Beck's risk society, it is argued that focus, referent subject and object of security measures and deployment of counterterrorism laws have shifted from the concrete individual to society and risk prevention as a whole (1), that this shift induces function creep (2) and a much quicker deployment of measures, resulting in an increasing suspect population (3). Rather than arguing against the legality and legitimacy of these measures, the authors analyse the epistemological shift in reasoning and unpack the various probabilistic arguments (as opposed to evidence-based arguments) behind the wave of securitisation after 9/11 - resulting in a lack of knowledge about, transparency and accountability of the generated side effects.


B.A. de Graaf
Dr. Beatrice de Graaf (universitair hoofddocent) is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Terrorisme en Contraterrorisme van de Universiteit Leiden (Campus Den Haag).

Q. Eijkman
Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman (senioronderzoeker) is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Terrorisme en Contraterrorisme van de Universiteit Leiden (Campus Den Haag).

    It is now well established that both the ‘war on terror’ and its descendents have been heavily constituted through highly urban discourses, materialities and practices. This article - deliberately transdisciplinary, synthetical and polemical in scope - seeks to demonstrate that new ideologies of permanent and boundless war are radically intensifying the militarization of urban life in the contemporary period. By engaging with Michel Foucault's concept of the ‘boomerang effect’, this paper delineates the ways in which contemporary processes of militarisation - which surround what I label the ‘new military urbanism’ - raise fundamental questions for critical urban and political scholarship because of the ways in which they work to normalise the permanent targeting of everyday urban sites, circulations, and populations. Focusing primarily on US military security and military doctrine, culture and technology, this paper explores four of the new military urbanism's inter-related foundations in detail. These are: the deep Foucauldian boomerangs linking experimentation with new architectures and technologies of control in war-zone and domestic cities; the emerging urban political economies of the ‘security’ industries; the ways in which practices and discourses of political violence and securitisation permeate the everyday infrastructures of cities; and the cultural performances of militarised media consumption. The paper concludes by identifying emerging counter-political and countergeographic activism as it seeks to challenge the normalization of the new military urbanism.


S. Graham
Prof. Stephen Graham is verbonden aan de School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape van Newcastle University. Hij is auteur van o.a. Splintering urbanism (2001) en Cities under siege (2010).
Artikel

Terroristische netwerken en intelligence: een sociale netwerkanalyse van de Hofstadgroep

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden sociale netwerkanalyse, terrorisme, Hofstadgroep
Auteurs Dr. Renée C. van der Hulst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Radicalization and terrorism remain areas of special interest in terms of security policies. It’s common knowledge that most of the activities related to radicalization and terrorism heavily rely on the involvement of multiple actors. Therefore, an increased understanding of the underlying social structures is considered to offer important leads for the development of effective countermeasures (in particular when related to demographic, cultural, psychological and other social factors). Yet, the number of empirical network studies in this domain (at least those openly available) that incorporate arithmetic tools known as Social Network Analysis (SNA) remain extremely scarce. In this paper the author presents an exploratory Social Network Analysis of the Hofstad network based on publicly available data. Members of the Hofstad network, a radical Islamist network in the Netherlands, were active recruiters for the violent jihad, spreaded radical propaganda, some attended training camps in Pakistan, and the network was suspected of planning several terrorist attacks on strategic objects and prominent people in the Netherlands. One of the members, Mohammed B., was sentenced to life in prison for murdering the Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004. Although the Hofstad network was considered by trial as a terrorist organization in the first instance in 2006, the judgment was reversed on appeal in 2008 when most members were acquitted. As is characteristic of home-grown networks, our analysis indicated that the Hofstad network (N=67) was relatively sparse and decentralized and evolved around a more cohesive core of key players (N=13). The key players were identified based on their central network position and a hierarchical clique analysis. Mohammed B., who had been considered a marginal player by the secret service, turns out to be the most central actor of the network. Although the analysis clearly suggests that quantifying network structures provides actionable intelligence, more research is needed to validate the results.


Dr. Renée C. van der Hulst
Dr. Renée C. van der Hulst was tot voor kort als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie. Zij is thans werkzaam voor Bureau Netwerkanalyse dat onderzoek-, advies- en onderwijswerkzaamheden verzorgt (onder andere op het gebied van sociale netwerkanalyse) binnen het domein van nationale veiligheid en criminaliteitsbestrijding. Contactadres: Bureau Netwerkanalyse, Postbus 938, 1200 AX Hilversum. E-mail: vanderhulst@online.nl.
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