Zoekresultaat: 23 artikelen

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Artikel

Access_open Scheiding van kerk en staat als oorzaak van kerkvernieuwing

Een verrassende transformatie van de rooms-katholieke kerk in de negentiende en twintigste eeuw

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2012
Auteurs Maurice van Stiphout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The introduction of the separation of Church and State had far-reaching consequences for the Roman Catholic Church. Important changes were: the development of an own Ius Publicum Ecclesiasticum, a more central position of the Pope in the Church and a greater uniformity in the Church community than ever before. In the same time in most Western countries Roman Catholics started an emancipatory process both individually and as a group, participating in political life, (re-)establishing religious communities and catholic associations. All these juridical developments really transformed the Church making also new theological reflection possible resulting in the Second Vatican Council.


Maurice van Stiphout
Mr. dr. M. van Stiphout studeerde rechten, kerkelijk recht en theologie in Leiden, Leuven en Groningen. Hij is stafjurist aan de Interdiocesane Dienst voor het Katholiek Godsdienstonderwijs en lid van het Instituut voor Bedrijfsjuristen, beide in Brussel. Hij publiceert over (historische) kerk-staatverhoudingen, rechtsgeschiedenis, canoniek recht en Vlaams onderwijsrecht. maurice.van.stiphout@telenet.be.
Artikel

Collectieve afwikkeling van massaschade in faillissement

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 11 2012
Trefwoorden DSB, collectieve afwikkeling van massaschade, faillissement, verificatieprocedure, WCAM-procedure
Auteurs Mr. drs. J.W.A. Biemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Naar aanleiding van het DSB-faillissement beoogt wetsvoorstel 33 126 (onder meer) de collectieve afwikkeling van massaschade in faillissement te vergemakkelijken door kort gezegd de verificatieprocedure in faillissement te vervangen door de WCAM-procedure. Naast een bespreking van de voorgestelde regeling bevat de bijdrage enkele aanbevelingen voor de wetgever.


Mr. drs. J.W.A. Biemans
Mr. drs. J.W.A. Biemans is advocaat bij De Brauw Blackstone Westbroek te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Exciting Times for Legal Scholarship

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2012
Trefwoorden legal methodology, law as an academic discipline, ‘law and …’-movements, legal theory, innovative and multiform legal scholarship
Auteurs Jan Vranken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Until recently, legal-dogmatic research stood at the undisputed pinnacle of legal scientific research. The last few years saw increasing criticism, both nationally and internationally, levelled at this type of research or at its dominant role. Some see this as a crisis in legal scholarship, but a closer look reveals a great need for facts, common sense, and nuance. Critics usually base their calls for innovation on a one-dimensional and flawed image of legal-dogmatic research. In this article, the author subsequently addresses the various critical opinions themselves and provide an overview of the innovations that are proposed. He concludes that there are a lot of efforts to innovate legal scholarship, and that the field is more multiform than ever, which is a wonderful and unprecedented state of affairs. This multiformity should be cherished and given plenty of room to develop and grow, because most innovative movements are still fledgling and need time, sometimes a lot of time, to increase in quality. It would be a shame to nip them in the bud now, merely because they are still finding their way. In turn, none of these innovative movements have cause to disqualify legal-dogmatic research, as sometimes happens (implicitly), by first creating a straw-man version of the field and then dismissing it as uninteresting or worse. That only polarises the discussion and gains us nothing. Progress can only be achieved through cooperation, with an open mind towards different types of legal research and a willingness to accept a critical approach towards their development. In the end, the only criterion that matters is quality. All types of research are principally subject to the same quality standards. The author provides some clarification regarding these standards as well.


Jan Vranken
Jan Vranken is hoogleraar Methodologie van het privaatrecht aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Access_open The Collapse of the Rule of Law

The Messina Earthquake and the State of Exception

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Messina, earthquake, state of exception, rule of law, progress
Auteurs Massimo La Torre
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Messina, a Sicilian town, was devasteted by an earthquake in1908. It was an hecatomb. Stricken through this unfathomable disgrace Messina’s institutions and civil society collapsed and a sort of wild natural state replaced the rule of law. In this situation there was a first intervention of the Russian Czarist navy who came to help but immediately enforced cruel emergency measures. The Italian army followed and there was a formal declaration of an ‘emergency situation.’ Around this event and the several exceptional measures taken by the government a debate took place about the legality of those exceptional measures. The article tries to reconstruct the historical context and the content of that debate and in a broader perspective thematizes how law (and morality) could be brought to meet the breaking of normality and ordinary life by an unexpected and catastrophic event.


Massimo La Torre
Massimo La Torre is Professor of Legal Philosophy at the University of Catanzaro in Italy and visiting Professor of Law at the University of Hull in England.

Dr. P.C.J. De Tavernier
Dr. P.C.J. De Tavernier is verbonden aan het Instituut voor Privaatrecht van de Universiteit Leiden. Hij is tevens lid van het bijzonder academisch personeel van de Universiteit Antwerpen.

dr. T. Heremans
Dr. T. Heremans is Parlementair Assistente bij het Europees Parlement. De visie weergegeven in deze bijdrage is die van de auteur en weerspiegelt niet noodzakelijk de opinie van het Europees Parlement.
Artikel

Kaderwetgeving en de verstrooiing van de wetgevende macht

Tijdschrift RegelMaat, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden kaderwetgeving, delegatie, snelheid en slagvaardigheid, primaat van de wetgever
Auteurs Prof. dr. R.A.J. van Gestel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De laatste jaren heeft zowel de Raad van State als de Eerste Kamer zich herhaaldelijk met klem verzet tegen het vermeendelijk toegenomen gebruik van kaderwetgeving vanwege de inbreuk die kaderwetten al snel zouden maken op het primaat van de wetgever. Het belangrijkste bezwaar tegen kaderwetten lijkt het gevaar dat het parlement als medewetgever buiten spel wordt gezet door te kiezen voor open normen in wetgeving en veelvuldige delegatie van regelgevende bevoegdheid naar het bestuur of het overlaten van nadere normstelling aan private regelgevers. Een vaak genoemd motief voor het gebruik van kaderwetten is het streven naar meer snelheid en slagvaardigheid in het wetgevingsproces. De vraag is echter of snelheid wel het daadwerkelijke motief is achter de inzet van kaderwetgeving, aangezien de tijdwinst die ermee wordt geboekt, vaak twijfelachtig lijkt. Denkbaar is ook dat veeleer sprake is van een verstrooiing van de wetgevende macht mede als gevolg van het tanende gezag van het parlement als medewetgever. Daarnaast lijkt de invloed van Europa belangrijke gevolgen te hebben voor het gebruik van kaderwetgeving en valt op dat het fenomeen kaderwet zeker geen nieuw of louter nationaal verschijnsel is. Het gebruik van kaderwetgeving lijkt populair in tijden van crisis en komt zowel op Europees niveau (kaderrichtlijnen) als in de ons omringende landen (lois-cadres, Rahmengesetze, skeleton bills, enzovoort) regelmatig voor.


Prof. dr. R.A.J. van Gestel
Prof. dr. R.A.J. van Gestel is hoogleraar Theorie en Methode aan de Universiteit van Tilburg en redacteur van RegelMaat. r.a.j.vangestel@uvt.nl
Artikel

Geheimen van jongeren

De Antwerpse jeugd en haar nachtleven in de vroege twintigste eeuw

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden youth, nightlife, urban, early twentieth century
Auteurs Margo De Koster en Herbert Reinke
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Approaching the night as a particular time and space for secret transgressions, this article examines the nightlife of Antwerp youth in the early twentieth century. Although this period saw increased official attempts to legally regulate ‘immoral’ nocturnal juvenile amusements, the police allowed most young people to move around unbothered at night, intervening only in major public order disturbances and handling most juveniles informally. Parents were more ‘efficient’, filing complaints with the juvenile judge on charges of ‘misconduct’, seeking to end familial financial troubles caused by heavy spending on nightlife. Working-class youth increasingly turned to the movies and dancing, in search for a secret ‘second life’ of pleasures away from conventional social and sexual codes, where they could belong and feel special.


Margo De Koster
Dr. Margo De Koster is universitair docent historische criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en post-doctoraal onderzoeker aan de Université catholique de Louvain (België). E-mail: margo.dekoster@uclouvain.be

Herbert Reinke
Dr. Herbert Reinke is professor en senior onderzoeker aan de Bergische Universität Wuppertal en Technische Universität Berlin. E-mail: reinke@uni-wuppertal.de
Artikel

Vrijmetselarij en criminalisering tijdens het Vichy-regime

Een criminologische benadering van de ‘forces occultes’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden freemasonry, secrets, anti-masonry, criminalization
Auteurs Marc Cools
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The political far right French Vichy-regime or French State (1940-1944) criminalized freemasonry as a dangerous secret society using several state owned measures. In the tradition of the secret Jewish-Masonic conspiracy theory a legal framework was established to criminalize and ban freemasonry, to dissolve the lodges and to remove individual freemasons from command positions. Intellectuals, former freemasons, public and private police and intelligence agencies helped the regime to establish an anti-Masonic documentation, exhibition and movie (Forces occultes) in order to show the French population the danger of freemasonry. A specialized police force (Service des sociétés secrètes) identified 60.000 freemasons, the names of 18.000 were published and 3.000 lost their jobs. 989 were brought to the extermination camps and 545 were shot immediately by private militias.


Marc Cools
Prof. dr. Marc Cools is professor in de vakgroep strafrecht en criminologie aan de Universiteit Gent en in de vakgroep criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Hij is daar ook lid van de interdisciplinaire onderzoeksgroep Vrijmetselarij. E-mail: Marc.Cools@UGent.be
Artikel

Mediation options for resolving commercial disputes in China: A guide for foreign enterprises

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Civiele Rechtspleging, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Chinese law, Chinese civil procedure, Chinese commercial dispute resolution, mediation, ADR
Auteurs P.C.H. Chan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Consistent with the state’s policy of promoting mediation, commercial disputes in China are frequently settled through mediation. As a foreign enterprise doing business in China, it is important to understand the nature and practice of commercial mediation.
    The article introduces foreign enterprises to the Chinese court system and arbitration regime and the position of mediation within the country’s commercial dispute resolution context. It highlights the practical aspects and potential pitfalls of commercial mediation in China.
    Mediation of commercial disputes may occur during a lawsuit (court mediation) or arbitration proceedings (med-arb). It may also occur as private mediation through independent institutions


P.C.H. Chan
P.C.H. Chan is Teaching Fellow at the School of Law of the City University of Hong Kong, solicitor, HKSAR, and solicitor, England & Wales.
Artikel

Undercoveroperaties: een noodzakelijk kwaad?

Heden, verleden en toekomst van een omstreden opsporingsmiddel

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2012
Auteurs E.W. Kruisbergen en D. de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An important part of the scientific literature looks upon undercover policing from a normative, critical point of view. These studies frequently problematize undercover operations as a necessary evil. Yet what do we actually know about the practice of the execution of undercover operations and about the results they yield for criminal investigations? Not much. Little empirical research has been done on this subject. This article analyses the implementation and results of undercover operations in the Netherlands. The empirical data consist of all covert policing operations in the Netherlands in 2004. The authors address the following questions: how often is this method of investigation deployed; what different types of undercover operations exist; and what results have these operations produced? Furthermore, they examine the history of undercover policing and look into the legislative debate. Finally, they explore some possible future developments in the use of undercover operations.


E.W. Kruisbergen
Drs. Edwin Kruisbergen werkt als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het WODC.

D. de Jong
Deborah de Jong, MSc werkt als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het WODC.
Artikel

De exfiltratie van verdachte en veroordeelde criminelen

Over de onmisbaarheid van een effectieve regeling voor coöperatieve criminele getuigen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2012
Auteurs C. Fijnaut
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure and the related guidelines of the College of Procurators-General are for all sorts of historical and ideological reasons heavily restrictive when it comes to the use of cooperative witnesses in criminal proceedings. What strikes most is that even in very serious cases it is not possible to grant a witness complete or partial immunity in exchange for his important cooperation. This contribution describes the problems arising sometimes in criminal cases wherein prosecutors, despite the existing narrow framework, make a deal with such a witness. The article outlines not only the historical and international background of the use of cooperative witnesses, but also its contemporary legal framework in the United States, Italy, the United Kingdom and Germany. The outcome of this comparative exercise is that at least the current legal provisions should be evaluated and that this evaluation should take into account the system and experiences in other countries as well as the problems of serious crime in the Netherlands and the leniency policies that govern the efforts to contain serious white collar crime like e.g. cartels.


C. Fijnaut
Prof. dr. em. Cyrille Fijnaut was tot voor kort als hoogleraar internationaal en vergelijkend strafrecht verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Hij is thans voorzitter van de Toegangscommissie van de Commissie Evaluatie Afgesloten Strafzaken (CEAS).
Artikel

Politieonderzoek in open bronnen op internet

Strafvorderlijke aspecten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden criminal investigation, surveillance, OSINT, investigation powers, legal basis
Auteurs Bert-Jaap Koops
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Analysing large amounts of data goes to the heart of the challenges confronting intelligence and law enforcement professionals today. Increasingly, this involves Internet data that are ‘open source’ or ‘publicly available’. Projects such as the European FP7 VIRTUOSO aim at developing platforms for open-source intelligence by law enforcement and public security, which open up opportunities for large-scale, automated data gathering and analysis. However, the mere fact that data are publicly available does not imply an absence of restrictions to researching them. This paper investigates one area of legal constraints, namely Dutch criminal-procedure law in relation to open-source data gathering by the police. Which legal basis is there for this activity? And under what conditions can foreign open sources be investigated?
    After sketching the context of the VIRTUOSO project and legal constraints of open-source intelligence in general, this paper discusses provisions of the Dutch Police Act 1993 and the Code of Criminal Procedure to determine which is the correct legal basis for gathering data from openly accessible and semi-open sources. Next, cross-border gathering of data is discussed on the basis of article 32 of the Cybercrime Convention. The paper draws the conclusion that investigating open sources by the police will often go beyond what is allowed on the basis of the general task description of the police (art. 2 Police Act 1993); hence, an order from the Public Prosecutor for systematic observation or intelligence is required. Moreover, the tools used must meet the non-manipulability and auditing requirements of the Dutch Decree on Technical Devices in Criminal Procedure.


Bert-Jaap Koops
Prof. dr. Bert-Jaap Koops is hoogleraar regulering van technologie bij TILT – Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society, Universiteit van Tilburg. Het onderzoek voor dit artikel werd mede gefinancierd door het Europese KP7-project VIRTUOSO (projectnr. FP7-SEC GA-2009-242352).
Artikel

‘Gestraft’ na de straf

Legitimiteit en proportionaliteit van juridische belemmeringen na afloop van de straf

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Certificate of good conduct, wet justitiële en strafvorderlijke gegevens, collateral sentencing, disqualifications
Auteurs Prof. dr. Miranda Boone
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution the question is addressed how measures that aim to hold ex-convicts from occupying certain jobs and positions can be justified and what their limitations are. In the literature on collateral sentencing in particular four conditions are stressed. First, the vulnerable character of the occupation or activity involved. Second, there should be a strong relation between the conviction and the risk that has to be avoided. Third, collateral consequences should be individualized and only be imposed against those posing specific and demonstrable risks. Finally, a broad proportionality test should be applied on them, harsh civil disqualification should not be applied for relatively minor offences and burdensome restrictions may not be imposed in order to prevent relatively trivial risks. This theoretical model is applied on the regulation and practice of the Dutch conduct certificate.


Prof. dr. Miranda Boone
Prof. dr. Miranda Boone is bijzonder hoogleraar Penologie en Penitentiair recht aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en universitair hoofddocent aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

    As a contribution to literature drawing together green criminology and studies of organized and corporate crime, this paper provides a case study of crimes and public health harms linked to the Naples garbage disposal crisis. The context is the inability of modern consumer society to cope with the problem of mass production of waste. In turn this leads to opportunities for both legal and criminal entrepreneurs to offer services that promise but fail to ‘dispose’ of the problem. The analysis draws upon environmental law and classic studies of organised crime.


V. Ruggiero
Prof. Vincenzo Ruggiero is als hoogleraar sociologie verbonden aan de Middlesex University in Londen.

N. South
Prof. Nigel South is hoogleraar sociologie aan de University of Essex.
Artikel

De levenslange gevangenisstraf, gratie en voorwaardelijke invrijheidstelling in rechtsvergelijkend perspectief

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden mandatory life sentence, parole, European Convention on Human Rights, comparative law
Auteurs Mr. Wesley Welten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, a person sentenced to life imprisonment (lifer) cannot be pardoned or paroled. This has led to debate. I have investigated if this impossibility also exists in other countries (Canada, England, Germany, Belgium). This article shows that in all the other countries studied, lifers can be pardoned after a certain period of time. A law comparative interpretation of article 3 ECHR would therefore lead to the conclusion that the current Dutch policy is contradictory to this article. The results in this article could contribute to the debate that has arisen in the Netherlands.


Mr. Wesley Welten
Mr. Wesley Welten is werkzaam als buitengriffier bij de Rechtbank Rotterdam, sector strafrecht.
Artikel

Afkicken achter de tralies

Waarom een gevoel van controle over eigen leven belangrijk is

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden detention, addiction, identity, resistance strategies
Auteurs Drs. Marleen Arends en Dr. Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This explorative ethnographic study in a Dutch prison focuses on the way inmates with drug problems experience their incarceration, and how that influences their identity as ‘addict’. Respondents describe incarceration as a loss of control over their lives, while their drug problems are characterised by losing control as well. Therefore regaining control in order to overcome their drug problems renders more difficult during incarceration. It is argued that resistance strategies of detainees can give them a sense of control in a short-term perspective. This sense of control could be important for the possibility of changing identity from addict to non-addict during incarceration.


Drs. Marleen Arends
Drs. M.T. Arends, MA, MD is verslavingsarts en medisch antropoloog bij Parnassia Bavo Groep en Centrum van Verslavingsonderzoek (CVO), marleenarends@yahoo.com.

Dr. Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard
Dr. M.R. Lindegaard, MA is universitair docent aan de faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en postdoc bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), mlindegaard@nscr.nl.
Artikel

Het EVRM en de handhaving in het mededingingsrecht

De zaak Menarini uitgelicht

Tijdschrift Markt & Mededinging, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden artikel 6 EVRM, handhaving, ‘criminal charges’, procedurele waarborgen, rechterlijke toetsing
Auteurs A.E. Beumer, LLM en Dr. C.J. Van de Heyning, LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie


A.E. Beumer, LLM
A.E. Beumer, LLM is als PhD onderzoeker verbonden aan het Europa Instituut van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. C.J. Van de Heyning, LLM
Dr. C.J. Van de Heyning, LLM is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Europa Instituut van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open De Drittwirkung van grondrechten

Retorisch curiosum of vaandel van een paradigmatische omwenteling in ons rechtsbestel?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden Drittwirkung, horizontal effect of human rights, constitutionalisation of private law
Auteurs Stefan Somers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses whether the horizontal effect of human rights marks a new paradigm in legal systems or is merely a new style in legal rhetoric. In doing so, much attention is paid to the differences between direct and indirect horizontal effect. Departing from social contract theory the article explains that the protection of human right values in horizontal relations is an essential feature of modern constitutionalism. It also analyses whether these values in horizontal relations should be protected by private law or by human rights. This question is looked at from a substantial, a methodological and an institutional perspective. In the end, because of institutional power balancing, the article argues in favor of an indirect horizontal effect of human rights.


Stefan Somers
Stefan Somers is a researcher at the Department of Interdisciplinary Studies at the VUB (Free University of Brussels) and prepares a PhD on the relationship between human rights and tort law.
Artikel

Access_open Arbeidsplicht, rechtvaardigheid en de grondslagen van het socialezekerheidsrecht

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden John Rawls, Stuart White, compulsory labor, reciprocity, social law
Auteurs Anja Eleveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author argues that normative questions in social law are in need of a more philosophical approach. This is particularly true for the evaluation of Work-first arrangements. She proposes to evaluate workfare policies from the perspective of the reciprocity principle as it is deployed in the work of the liberal egalitarians John Rawls and Stuart White. While Rawls’ interpretation of the reciprocity principle seems to be at odds with Dutch jurisprudence on workfare policies, which allows for Work-first arrangements within the boundaries that are set by article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights (a prohibition on compulsory labor), White’s approach rather encourages work obligations for welfare recipients, on the condition that citizens acquire individual drawing rights on collective participation funds.


Anja Eleveld
Anja Eleveld is a PhD student at the Social Law Department of Leiden University, where she participates in the research program ‘Reform of social security’.
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