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Access_open What Makes Age Discrimination Special? A Philosophical Look at the ECJ Case Law

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden age discrimination, intergenerational justice, complete-life view, statistical discrimination, anti-discrimination law
Auteurs Axel Gosseries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper provides an account of what makes age discrimination special, going through a set of possible justifications. In the end, it turns out that a full understanding of the specialness of age-based differential treatment requires that we consider together the ‘reliable proxy,’ the ‘complete-life neutrality,’ the ‘sequence efficiency’ and the ‘affirmative egalitarian’ accounts. Depending on the specific age criteria, all four accounts may apply or only some of them. This is the first key message of this paper. The second message of the paper has to do with the age group/birth cohort distinction. All measures that have a differential impact on different cohorts also tend to have a differential impact on various age groups during the transition. The paper points at the practical implications of anti-age-discrimination law for differential treatment between birth cohorts. The whole argument is confronted all along with ECJ cases.


Axel Gosseries
Axel Gosseries is a permanent research fellow at the Belgian FRS-FNRS and a Professor at the University of Louvain (UCL, Belgium) where he is based at the Hoover Chair in Economic and Social Ethics.
Artikel

Access_open The Right to Have Rights as the Right to Asylum

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden Arendt, asylum, refugeeship, right to have rights, statelessness de facto and de jure
Auteurs Nanda Oudejans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article argues that the right to have rights, as launched by Hannah Arendt, is relative to refugee displacement and hence translates as a right to asylum. It takes issue with the dominant view that the public/private divide is the locus classicus of the meaning of this primordial right. A different direction of thought is proposed, proceeding from Arendt’s recovery of the spatiality of law. The unencompassibility of place in matters of rights, freedom and equality brings this right into view as a claim at the behest of those who have lost a legal place of their own. This also helps us to gain better understanding of Arendt’s rebuttal of the sharp-edged distinction between refugees and stateless persons and to discover the defiant potential of the right to have rights to illuminate the refugee’s claim to asylum as a claim to an own place where protection can be enjoyed again.


Nanda Oudejans
Nanda Oudejans is an independent researcher in philosophy of law and political philosophy.

    This paper explores the roles that the presumption of innocence (PoI) can play beyond the criminal trial, in other dealings that citizens may have with the criminal law and its officials. It grounds the PoI in a wider notion of the civic trust that citizens owe each other, and that the state owes its citizens: by attending to the roles that citizens may find themselves playing in relation to the criminal law (such roles as suspect, defendant, convicted offender and ‘ex-offender’), we can see both how a PoI protects us, beyond the confines of the trial, against various kinds of coercion, and how that PoI is modified or qualified as we acquire certain roles. To develop and illustrate this argument, I pay particular attention to the roles of defendant (both during the trial and while awaiting trial) and of ‘ex-offender,’ and to the duties that such roles bring with them.


Antony Duff
Antony Duff holds the Russell M and Elizabeth M Bennett Chair in the University of Minnesota Law School, and is a Professor Emeritus of the Department of Philosophy, University of Stirling.
Artikel

Access_open Chicago, Jazz en Marihuana. Howard Becker over Outsiders

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Becker, Outsiders, biography, methodology
Auteurs Thaddeus Müller
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article on the social production of the book Outsiders, I will situate its production in the daily practice of the social worlds in which Becker was involved. Therefore I focus on the relations, interactions and situations which were relevant for the form, content and success of Outsiders. For data, I use fragments from my email communication with Howard Becker, the collected interviews and other publications which show that Becker seeks to demystify Outsiders. My main contribution is that I use Becker’s own words to demystify the ethnographic practice of Outsiders and describe its mundane backstage reality, which is described by Fine as ‘the underside’ of ethnography (1993).


Thaddeus Müller
Dr. Thaddeus Müller is verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: Muller@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

Access_open Through the Looking Glass of Global Constitutionalism and Global Administrative Law

Different Stories About the Crisis in Global Water Governance?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden global water governance, global constitutionalism, global administrative law, water crisis, integrated water resources management
Auteurs Mónika Ambrus
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In addition to (or sometimes rather than primarily) attributing it to water scarcity, water crisis has been described as a ‘crisis of governance’; with the word ‘crisis’ also indicating that water governance lacks (full) legitimacy. The article undertakes the task to analyse the current status of global water governance (GWG) from the perspective of two competing theories relating to the legitimacy of global governance, namely global constitutionalism (GC) and global administrative law (GAL). Having mapped the current legal framework of GWG from these two perspectives, it is discussed how these theories might shape GWG and how this shaping could contribute to solving the water crisis. In addition, it is also explored whether reading one of the most accepted proposals for legitimising global water governance, the concept of ‘integrated water resources management’ (IWRM), through the lenses of either GC or GAL would have an impact on how this concept is interpreted, and whether it can be a useful mechanism to address the water crisis. The use of two theories analysing the same subject matter provides interesting insights into global water governance and the nature of the water crisis as well as the relationship between these two theories.


Mónika Ambrus
Assistant professor of public international law at the Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Revisiting the Humanisation of International Law: Limits and Potential

Obligations Erga Omnes, Hierarchy of Rules and the Principle of Due Diligence as the Basis for Further Humanisation

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden humanisation, constitutionalism, legal positivism, human rights, erga omnes, due diligence, positive obligations, normative hierarchy, proportionality
Auteurs Dr. Vassilis P. Tzevelekos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article critically evaluates the theory of the humanisation of international law. First, it argues that despite human rights having impact on (other areas of) international law, this trend has in the past been somewhat inflated. A number of examples are given where human rights have been tested against other objectives pursued by international law, with humanisation revealing its limits and actual dimensions. The second argument consists in identifying and highlighting obligations erga omnes (partes) and the principle of due diligence as two ‘systemic’ tools, that are central to the humanisation of international law. Both these tools form part of modern positive law, but may also make a positive contribution towards the direction of deeper humanisation in international law, having the potential, inter alia, to limit state will, establish occasional material normative hierarchy consisting in conditional priority in the fulfilment of human rights, give a communitarian tone to international law and invite states to be pro-active in the collective protection of their common interests and values. In its conclusions, the article offers a plausible explanation about the paradox it identifies of the limits of the humanisation on the one hand, and its potential for further development on the other. For, it is inherent in international law that the line separating the law from deontology is thin. The process of humanisation needs to be balanced with the other objectives of international law as well as reconciled with the decentralised and sovereignist origins of the pluralistic international legal system.


Dr. Vassilis P. Tzevelekos
Lecturer in Public International Law, University of Hull Law School; Attorney, Athens’ Bar. PhD and M.Res, European University Institute; MA, European Political and Administrative Studies, College of Europe; DEA Droit international public et organisations internationales, Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne; LLB, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.
Artikel

Access_open A Plea for Rigorous Conceptual Analysis as a Central Method in Transnational Law Design

Offer and Acceptance as Juridical Acts in the Draft Common Frame of Reference as a Case in Point

Tijdschrift Law and Method, januari 2013
Trefwoorden DCFR, Conceptual Analysis, Juridical Acts, Transnational Law Design
Auteurs Rudolf Rijgersberg en Hester van der Kaaij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Although shared legal problems are generally easily identified in transnational law design, it is considerably more difficult to design frameworks that transcend the peculiarities of local law univocally. The following exposition is a plea for giving more prominence to rigorous conceptual analysis in transnational law design in order to disambiguate the terms used in such frameworks. It does this by taking the formation of contracts in the model rules of the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) as a case in point. A conceptual analysis of the basic legal notion ‘juridical act’ in its model rules for contract law shows that the DCFR allows for two mutually conflicting interpretations of contract formation that are by no means fictional. A rigorous conceptual analysis of basic legal notions in the formative stages of transnational law design would have prevented a conflation of two legal traditions resulting in an ambiguous legal framework. As such it is an indispensable method for achieving a univocal interpretation of the legal end product.


Rudolf Rijgersberg
Rudolf Rijgersberg is assistant professor Methods and Foundations of Law at Maastricht University.

Hester van der Kaaij
Hester van der Kaaij is promovendus PhD candidate in Legal Theory at Maastricht University.
Artikel

Tweeluik – Diptych: Juggling a red hot potato: Italy, the EU, and mandatory mediation

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden Italy, mandatory mediation, Italian Constitutional Court, European law
Auteurs Elisabetta Silvestri en Rob Jagtenberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This diptych consists of two articles: the first, The Rise and Fall of Mediation in Italy, by Elisabetta Silvestri, analyzes the way in which the Italian Constitutional Court has recently (October-December 2012) struck down a Decree that had introduced mandatory mediation in a wide range of civil procedure areas in Italy. The second article, The EU’s Italian Job, by Rob Jagtenberg, discusses the way in which the Advocate-General with the Court of Justice of the European Union has dealt with the request for a preliminary ruling on the compatibility of the same Decree with European law (Opinion of 19 April 2013). It appears that at both Court levels, the subject was perceived as too risky to judge on the merits: mandatory mediation thus ends as a potato too hot to hold in a court’s hand.


Elisabetta Silvestri
Elisabetti Silvestri is associate professor of law at the University of Pavia, Italy.

Rob Jagtenberg
Rob Jagtenberg is a senior researcher at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, Departement of Law, and editor of TMD.
Artikel

Medical liability: do doctors care?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Auteurs Ben C.J. van Velthoven en Peter W. van Wijck
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Van Velthoven and Van Wijck review empirical studies on the effects of tort law in the medical sector. The data they present comes mainly from the US, because from the 1970’s US states have enacted a variety of reforms in their tort systems. This variation has provided very useful data to study preventive effects. The empirical evidence analysed shows that medical malpractice risk affects the behaviour of health care providers. It has a negative impact on the supply of services and it encourages extra diagnostic testing;yet if the additional tests and procedures have any value, it is only a marginal one. Furthermore it has been found that changes in the supply of services do not affect health adversely. This suggests that the physicians who are driven out of business have a below average quality of performance. The authors conclude that, at the margin, medical liability law may have some social benefits after all.


Ben C.J. van Velthoven
Ben van Velthoven is associate professor of law and economics at Leiden University. His research interests are: liability issues, civil litigation, and criminal law enforcement.

Peter W. van Wijck
Peter van Wijck is associate professor of law and economics at Leiden University and coordinator strategy development at the Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice. His research interests concern tort law, contract law, civil litigation, and crime.
Artikel

Non-pecuniary damages: financial incentive or symbol?

Comparing an economic and a sociological account of tort law

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Auteurs Rob Schwitters
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Schwitters focuses on the differences between economic and a sociological perspectives on non-pecuniary damages. By exposing the alternative perspectives on this issue, he illuminates some methodological differences between both disciplines. Although law and economics has had a positive influence on empirical research, he questions the merits of this perspective when analysing non-pecuniary damages. Law and economics regards non-pecuniary damages exclusively as a financial incentive to realise optimal deterrence and maximisation of welfare. Alternatively, in sociology of law there is also attention for the symbolic dimension of law in which rules are seen as normative standards of behaviour. Compensation is a way to bring the wrongdoer to recognise that he has done wrong and has to compensate the victim, and to show the victim that his rights are taken seriously. Through a sociological lens, the adoption of an exclusively economic model of human behaviour has to be questioned. To what extent human behaviour is really influenced by either financial incentives or by normative standards of behaviour is an open empirical question. Finally, he argues that the decision to base our institutions (such as law) on economic underpinnings is a decision which itself cannot be based on an economic procedure of aggregating individual preferences and maximising welfare.


Rob Schwitters
Rob Schwitters is associate professor (sociology of law) and member of the Paul Scholten Centre (University of Amsterdam). He publishes on tort law, responsibility and liability, the welfare state, compliance and methodological issues.
Artikel

Access_open ‘Down Freedom’s Main Line’

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden democracy, radical freedom, free market economy, consumerism, collective action
Auteurs Steven L. Winter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Two waves of democratization define the post-Cold War era of globalization. The first one saw democracies emerge in post-communist countries and post-Apartheid South Africa. The current wave began with the uprisings in the Middle East. The first focused on the formal institutions of the market and the liberal state, the second is participatory and rooted in collective action. The individualistic conception of freedom and democracy that underlies the first wave is false and fetishistic. The second wave shows democracy’s moral appeal is the commitment to equal participation in determining the terms and conditions of social life. Freedom, thus, requires collective action under conditions of equality, mutual recognition, and respect.


Steven L. Winter
Steven L. Winter is Walter S. Gibbs Professor of Constitutional Law at Wayne State University Law School, Detroit, Michigan.
Artikel

Statutory Adjudication in the UK: Past, Present and Future

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden adjudication, adjudicator, jurisdiction, enforcement
Auteurs John Wright en Alexandra Bodnar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the system of adjudication as a speedy method of resolving disputes in the construction sector in England, Wales and Scotland. Having been first introduced in 1998 adjudication has grown significantly; the article describes the statutory framework behind adjudication, its principal features and the areas where the adjudication regime does not apply. It goes on to deal with the process adopted when adjudication is invoked, how challenges to the adjudicator’s jurisdictions are handled and also the robust attitude taken by the courts towards enforcement of adjudicators’ decisions.The article also explores the recent legislation introducing modifications to the statutory framework and discusses the impact which these changes are likely to have on this dispute resolution mechanism.


John Wright
John Wright is a solicitor and partner at Goodman Derrick, London.

Alexandra Bodnar
Alexandra Bodnar is a barrister in London.
Artikel

Transnationalism, Legal Pluralism and Types of Conflicts

Contractual Norms Concerning Domestic Workers

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Antoinette Vlieger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Transnationalism and migration are recognised contributors to legal pluralism. Scholars of legal pluralism state that in conflicts, social actors sustain their claims with arguments from coexisting legal systems. They manoeuvre between different legal systems, or contradicting norms within one system, to achieve the most satisfactory decision in a conflict. In doing so, they use norms as discursive tools. Indeed, according to data on domestic workers in Saudi Arabia and the Emirates, this manoeuvring with norms as discursive tools is often recognisable in conflicts between workers and their employers. However, transnational contractual norms and the legal pluralism they create are not merely discursive tools in existing conflicts; they are also regularly the cause of conflicts. Domestic workers conclude agreements with agents in their countries of origin, while employers conclude agreements with different agents in the destination countries. Both parties believe the other party has signed the same contract, while in reality that is not the case. Because of the differences between the two sets of contractual norms, these norms cause conflicts; they are not merely discursive tools. This finding calls for a division between different types of conflicts, which is proposed here for the purpose of socio-legal analysis of conflicts in general and particularly in situations of transnationalism and legal pluralism.


Antoinette Vlieger
Antoinette Vlieger is a researcher and lecturer at the Law School of the University of Amsterdam. For the last five years she has been researching conflicts between domestic workers and their employers in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Her PhD thesis on this topic is to be published in fall 2011. Thereafter she hopes to do research on the question of why there is little labour protection on the Arabian Peninsula, combining this with hands-on human rights work in the Middle East.
Artikel

Access_open The Theory and Practice of Teaching and Guiding Legal Research Skills

Tijdschrift Law and Method, januari 2011
Trefwoorden legal education, legal research skills, legal research methods, Utrecht School of Law
Auteurs Ian Curry-Sumner en Marieke van der Schaaf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of this article is to present a case study of the development process and its underlying theoretical fundaments of a research skills line in the law degree programme. Broader educational purposes of the article are to give managers and lecturers of law schools suggestions for implementing research skills in their curriculum. Accordingly, the article is aimed at stimulating students’ research skills. This article will discuss the background to the decisions that were made in the Utrecht School of Law, then discuss the ultimate end result, namely the implementation of a new research skills line and the publication of a standard research skills instruction. Furthermore, each section will commence with a brief outline of the theoretical framework, followed by an explanation of how this theory has been practically implemented in the Bachelor of Law in Utrecht.


Ian Curry-Sumner
Dr. Ian Curry-Sumner is als senior universitair docent verbonden aan het Molengraaff instituut voor privaatrecht (Universiteit Utrecht). Ook is hij coördinator van het research skills-project in Utrecht. Recentelijk publiceerde hij Research Skills: Instruction for Lawyers samen met F. Kristen, T. van der Linden-Smith en H. Tigchelaar.

Marieke van der Schaaf
Dr. Marieke van der Schaaf is universitair docent aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Access_open Law in the twilight of environmental Armageddon

A response to Han Somsen

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden environmental catastrophe, legitimacy, geo-engineering, phenomenology
Auteurs Luigi Corrias
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper argues that Somsen’s article, though brave in approach and daring in ideas, suffers from some fundamental flaws. First of all, it remains unclear how Somsen conceptualises the relationship between legitimacy and effectiveness, and what this means for his position towards the argument of a state of exception. Secondly, a plea for regulation by code has serious consequences for the claim to attain justice. Finally, geo-engineering poses some profound difficulties, both because of its consequences and because of its presuppositions.


Luigi Corrias
Luigi Corrias is Assistant Professor of Legal Philosophy at VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Karin Nijenhuis
Karin Nijenhuis (nijenhuis@ascleiden.nl) is a human geographer and environmental jurist. She is doing her PhD on the mobility of farmers and conflicts over access to land in Mali at the African Studies Centre, Leiden. In addition she is working as a senior project manager at the Center for International Legal Cooperation (CILC) in The Hague.

Harry Willekens
Harry Willekens teaches jurisprudence and juvenile law at the University of Hildesheim and comparative inheritance law at the University of Hannover. His research focuses on the history and sociology of the legal regulation of the family in a broad sense. His last sociological publication: Child Care and Preschool Institutions in Europe. (Houndmills, Palgrave MacMillan 2008, coedited with Kirsten Scheiwe).
Artikel

Case study: the international CSR conflict and Mediation Supply-chain responsibility – the article revisited one year later

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden corporate social responsibility, international CSR conflicts, supply-chain responsibility, CSR
Auteurs Sjef Stoop, Ineke Zeldenrust, Gerard Oonk e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In TMD 2009-2 the article ‘Case study: the international CSR conflict and mediation. Supply-chain responsibility: western customers and the Indian textile industry’ was published. In this article, Tineke Lambooy describes the ins and outs of the multiparty dispute between G-Star, in origin a Dutch company, the Indian-Italian Fibres & Fabrics, the employees of Fibre & Fabrics International, the governments involved and a number of non-governmental organisations striving for good labour relations and labour conditions. Lambooy’s article resulted in four reactions that are published in this article.


Sjef Stoop
Sjef Stoop is trainer-consultant European Works Councils, FNV Formaat. Van 2003 tot 2007 was hij International Verification Coordinator van de Fairwear Foundation.

Ineke Zeldenrust
Ineke Zeldenrust is werkzaam bij Schone Kleren Campagne.

Gerard Oonk
Gerard Oonk is directeur Landelijke India Werkgroep.

Frans Evers
Frans Evers is voorzitter Nationaal Contactpunt voor de toepassing van de OESO-richtlijnen multinationale ondernemingen.

Lawrence Susskind
Lawrence Susskind is Ford Professor of Urban Studies and Planning aan het Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Ook is hij vice chair, Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School.

Tineke Lambooy
Tineke Lambooy is a Senior Researcher at Nyenrode Business University (Nyenrode) in the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and she lectures in Legal Aspects of Globalisation-CSR, and Mergers & Acquisitions at Utrecht University, the Netherlands. She is completing a PhD on the Legal Aspects of CSR. Ms Lambooy assisted Mr Lubbers as a mediator in the conflict discussed in this contribution. E-mail: T.Lambooy@nyenrode.nl or T.E.Lambooy@uu.nl

Ruud Lubbers
Ruud Lubbers is mediator and inter alia former Prime Minister of The Netherlands.
Artikel

ADR and the English courts

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 01 2004
Trefwoorden Mediation, Contract, Mediator, Leasing, Claim, Geschilbeslechting, Settlement, Alternatieve geschillenbeslechting, Elektronisch geld, Service
Auteurs Marsh, W.

Marsh, W.
Artikel

Case study: the international CSR conflict and mediation

Supply-chain responsibility: western customers and the Indian textile industry

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden corporate social responsibility, international CSR conflicts, supply-chain responsibility, CSR
Auteurs Tineke Lambooy
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2008, Ruud Lubbers led a mediation process to resolve the conflicts which had arisen between two Dutch campaigning organisations, various Indian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and labour unions, two Dutch internet providers, an Indian clothing producer and a Dutch jeans brand. The mediation took place at the request of the disagreeing parties and the Dutch and Indian governments. The conflict related to corporate social responsibility (CSR) standards followed by the textile companies.In this contribution the effects of campaigning and litigating in issues concerning CSR will be examined. Limiting the analysis to CSR conflicts in the textile industry, the author will reflect on these new types of international conflicts in a globalising world and will share her view on appropriate ways to avoid them or, ultimately, to (re)mediate them if necessary.This contribution informs the reader about the events in India and the Netherlands which led to the escalation of the conflict. It provides an overview of the conflict resolution procedures and elaborates on the outcome of the ‘Lubbers Mediation’. The applicable legal and soft law labour standards are compared as well as the parties’ communication strategies. Lastly, this case is contrasted with other CSR conflicts in the textile industry, revealing a hidden conflict.


Tineke Lambooy
Tineke Lambooy is a Senior Researcher at Nyenrode Business University (Nyenrode) in the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and she lectures in Legal Aspects of Globalisation-CSR, and Mergers & Acquisitions at Utrecht University, the Netherlands. She is completing a PhD on the Legal Aspects of CSR. Ms Lambooy assisted Mr Lubbers as a mediator in the conflict discussed in this contribution. E-mail: T.Lambooy@nyenrode.nl or T.E.Lambooy@uu.nl.
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