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Artikel

De staat van de criminologie van internationale misdrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden criminology of international crimes, genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity
Auteurs Mr. dr. Roelof Haveman, Prof. dr. Alette Smeulers, Prof. dr. Stephan Parmentier e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What do we know about the criminological aspects of international crimes? What do they entail and what are facilitating factors which can help us understand their causes and how should we respond to these crimes? Are international crimes merely a more extreme form of ordinary crimes or are they a different kind of criminality? In the past few years a growing number of scholars both at a national and at an international level have devoted their scholarly attention to this important and urgent research theme. In this special issue we aim to present a number of articles in which different perspectives on this topic are presented. By doing so we hope to enhance our knowledge of this phenomenon and to provide an impulse to further criminological research within this area in both the Netherlands and Belgium. This introductory article gives an overview of the state of the art of international crime criminology in the Netherlands and Belgium, and the rest of the world.


Mr. dr. Roelof Haveman
Mr. dr. R.H. Haveman is freelance Rule of Law-consultant en momenteel gestationeerd in Côte d’Ivoire, roelof.haveman@gmail.com.

Prof. dr. Alette Smeulers
Prof. dr. A.L. Smeulers heeft de onderzoekslijn criminologie van de internationale misdrijven aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam opgezet en is sinds 1 september 2011 tevens hoogleraar internationale criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg, a.l.smeulers@tilburguniversity.edu.

Prof. dr. Stephan Parmentier
Prof. dr. S. Parmentier is hoogleraar Sociologie van de criminaliteit, het recht en de mensenrechten aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), Rechtsfaculteit, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, stephan.parmentier@law.kuleuven.be.

Dr. Christianne de Poot
Dr. C.J. de Poot is senior onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC), Den Haag, en Lector Forensisch Onderzoek bij de Hogeschool van Amsterdam en de Politieacademie, c.j.de.poot@minvenj.nl.
Artikel

Grensvervaging tussen interne en externe veiligheid

Achtergronden en gevolgen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden internal security, external security, blurring boundaries
Auteurs Tom Vander Beken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Internal and external security are traditionally considered to be distinct concepts that allow police organizations and tasks to be differentiated from those of the military. Internal security is then viewed as oriented towards the maintenance of the order within a state and to be exercised against fellow citizens with a limited use of violence. External security deals with the protection of the territory and is exercised against foreign enemies, may include the use of excessive violence. In practice, however, the boundaries between these concepts and between police and military aims and tasks have become blurred. The extension of the security concept, a change in the nature of interventions on foreign territory and a shifting image of the enemy create an overlap between internal and external security issues and actors. This evolution seriously challenges the existing legal and normative frameworks that rely heavily on assumptions based on the distinction between internal and external security.


Tom Vander Beken
Prof. dr. T. (Tom) Vander Beken is hoogleraar aan de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent en directeur van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP). Correspondentieadres: Universiteitstraat 4, 9000 Gent, België. E-mail: tom.vanderbeken@ugent.be
Artikel

Jazzy structures

Een slotbeschouwing over de toekomst van veiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Auteurs Hans Boutellier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author provides a discussion of the articles in this issue of the Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid (Journal on Security) on the occasion of its tenth anniversary. He notes that there is an increasing hybridising, subjectification and fragmentation in the security area. The increasing interweaving of security politics seems to apply least to a common approach in ‘social security and physical safety issues’ (crime control and disaster and crisis management), while exactly this was aimed for in so-called integral security politics. According to the author that is the case because of ‘the moral pin’, which plays a dominant role in crime, but not in safety issues. The entanglement of forms of security identified by the author has a normative basis – it comes from the social order of an increasingly complex society. For the future an ever greater responsibilisation can be expected, in which the perception of security becomes even more important than it is now already. Not a big orchestrated security policy, but jazzy structures will then determine the prospects.


Hans Boutellier
Prof. dr. J.C.J. (Hans) Boutellier is algemeen directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en hoogleraar Veiligheid & Burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam. E-mail: j.c.j.boutellier@vu.nl
Artikel

Slachtofferbewegingen en herstelrecht

Over het belang van de realiteit achter de stereotypes

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden victimology, victim movements, social movements, restorative justice
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The position of victims of crime has shown marked improvement over the past 30 years. The rise of the victim has been associated with the growth of a unified ‘victim movement’; a social movement that strives to improve the position of victims of crime. However, it is questionable whether the victim movement should be viewed as a unitary phenomenon. Instead of one movement, there appear to be a number of victim movements. There are differences between the victim advocates in the United States, Victim Support in Europe, the violence against women movement and proponents of restorative justice.. In this article, reasons for these differences are sought in victim-endogenous factors: differences in victims’ characteristics and the idealtypes employed by the different movements are an important explanation for the divergent development in organisations representing victims interests, which in turn influences their policy preferences. It is argued that advocates of restorative justice would benefit from understanding both the reality and the distortion involved in the idealtypes, including their own. This would allow proponents of restorative justice to adapt their practices in a manner that is both suitable and convincing to the representative and target group of the different victim movements.


Antony Pemberton
Dr. Antony Pemberton is sociaalwetenschapper en universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Access_open Islam en gedrag: naar een serieuze onderzoeksagenda voor een serieus vraagstuk?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Islam, female circumcision, terrorism, academic research
Auteurs Marnix Croes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    If one listens to what the authorities say about matters such as female circumcision and terrorism, Islam has nothing to do with it. These authorities are supported in this opinion by the work of many scientists. A cross section of the Dutch scientific literature on female circumcision and terrorism is discussed here. The upshot is that, regarding female circumcision, the literature is plagued with factual inaccuracies while the question of Islamic terrorism is dealt with in a one-sided and over-simplified way. The article concludes with an alternative research agenda that would help fill the gaps in our knowledge about the role of Islam in the behaviour of Islamic terrorists.


Marnix Croes
Dr. M.T. Croes werkt als onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het Minsterie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Artikel

Zijn Nederlandse burgers écht enthousiast over de nieuwe antiterrorismemaatregelen?

Een vergelijking van attitudes en willingness to pay

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden counterterrorism policy, public opinion, willingness to pay, legitimacy
Auteurs Johan van Wilsem en Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2001, the Netherlands have broadened their array of antiterrorism legislation and policies. However, there is hardly any insight into the level of public support for them. This article assesses the Dutch public opinion on four measures that were recently made effective: enhanced possibilities for stop-and-search, broadening of possibilities for special investigative resources, increased obligations for identification, and body scans in airports. Two randomly selected, comparable groups were asked different questions about these issues: attitudes or willingness to pay. The results show that respondents have positive attitudes towards newly introduced antiterrorism measures, yet simultaneously, they have low willingness to pay. Both groups were also asked how they would allocate an imaginary fixed budget to various criminal justice policies and tax rebate. These results show similar relations for both attitudes and willingness to pay, suggesting they both measure the relative importance assigned to antiterrorism policies. A right political orientation predicts both positive attitudes and high willingness to pay. Furthermore, people with high income have higher willingness to pay. The results underline the necessity to pay attention to the subtleties underlying public opinion on crime control.


Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J.A. (Johan) van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: J.A.van.Wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. M.A.H. (Maartje) van der Woude is universitair docent criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: m.a.h.vanderwoude@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

De problematiek van sfeervervaging bij de bestuurlijk-strafrechtelijke aanpak van mensenhandel in de legale prostitutiesector

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden human trafficking, prostitution control, adminstrative measures, prevention, criminal justice
Auteurs Nina Holvast en Patrick van der Meij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the legalization of the prostitution sector, not only has the combating of human trafficking through criminal law been substantially fortified, but also the administrative approach to human trafficking in that sector. This integral approach of human trafficking, in which administrative and criminal law measures complement each other, is necessary to combat this harrowing type of crime. The criminal law-administrative approach offers good footholds for a more forceful reaction to human trafficking. Besides the preventive effect administrative measures can have as a complement to criminal law, administrative supervision can also be useful to obtain criminal law information. However, that brings several new dilemmas with it that are connected to the phenomenon of the blurring of spheres. Under certain circumstances, the blurring of spheres between a criminal law and an administrative approach can lead to an improper use of competencies. We conclude that in the manner in which the prostitution sector is currently supervised, the legal protection of the citizen against actions of the supervisor is inadequately guaranteed. That does not mean that information that is obtained through administrative supervision may no longer be used in criminal cases. It is to be recommended however that several changes be made to current practice, which may prevent the improper use of supervisory competencies in prostitution controls.


Nina Holvast
Mr. drs. N.L. (Nina) Holvast is junior onderzoeker bij de sectie Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: holvast@frg.eur.nl.

Patrick van der Meij
Mr. dr. P.P.J. (Patrick) van der Meij is strafrechtadvocaat bij Cleerdin & Hamer Advocaten in Amsterdam en tevens research fellow bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: p.p.j.vandermeij@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

Access_open Religie, criminaliteit en geweld: ambivalente bevindingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden religious commitment, fundamentalism, muslim-radicalism, crime, violence, prevention
Auteurs Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution the author discusses the broad question whether religious commitment does – or does not – stimulate violent types of criminal behaviour. Based on a review of relevant literature (criminology and religious studies), it is first specified that religious commitment in many respects functions as a protective factor to prevent people from criminal behaviour. By contrast, many orthodox and fundamentalist groups consider defensive violence (self-defense) and punitive violence (retaliation) to be legitimate options. In the final section the author discusses some of the assumed relationships between crime, violence and muslim-radicalism in the Netherlands.


Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is werkzaam aan de sectie Strafrecht en criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, en is tevens verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Religieuze orthodoxie als bedreiging

Verschuivingen in het publieke debat

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden public debate, religious orthodoxy, religion and violence
Auteurs Sipco Vellenga
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the 1990s, in the Dutch public debate on the societal meaning of religion a discourse has emerged which does not only relate extremist forms of Islam to terrorism, but more broadly, religious orthodoxy in general to coercion and violence. In this contribution this emergency is described and analyzed. It is related – among other things – to two switches in the perception on orthodox religious groups of prominent opinion leaders, namely: firstly from groups which become less powerful towards groups which become more powerful, and secondly from groups which adapt to their secular and liberal environment towards groups which are characterized by revitalization and radicalization. The upshot of these changes is that religious orthodoxy is framed as a threat that has to be limited and sometimes fought.


Sipco Vellenga
Dr. Sipco Vellenga is als godsdienstsocioloog verbonden aan de opleiding Religiestudies van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Religion bites: religieuze orthodoxie op de nationale veiligheidsagenda

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden securitization, terrorism, securitization-framework, salafism
Auteurs Beatrice de Graaf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article states how in the Netherlands since the 1990s religious orthodoxy became the reference object for threat analysis within the security domain. Political Islam and Salafism are increasingly framed as security threats to the Dutch democratic order and social cohesion. The article uses the securitization-framework, developed by the Copenhagen School, to analyze how religion was put on the security agenda and how countervailing forces tried to desecuritize and countersecuritize this process. The article ends with the conclusion that orthodoxy as such is still framed predominantly in terms of violence and coercion, due to a culturalization of security politics as a whole. This narrows the perspective on religious orthodoxy and leaves little room for alternative sources of civil engagement in society.


Beatrice de Graaf
Dr. Beatrice de Graaf is universitair hoofddocent aan het Centre for Terrorism and Counterterrorism (CTC) aan de Universiteit Leiden – Campus Den Haag.
Artikel

Het actuele veiligheidsdebat in Frankrijk

Een toneelstuk in meerdere bedrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden security policy, security discourse, Sarkozysm, battle of criminologists
Auteurs Marc Cools
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution the current security debate in France is dissected as if it were a play in different acts. President Sarkozy, the political producer, has launched a public ‘schizophrenic’ discussion in which criminologists/sociologists act and quarrel on the edge of a knife. This debate can only be understood in reference to French criminological history, politics, structures and scientific particularities. The contents of this criminological theatre of war can enrich criminological discussion in the Netherlands and Belgium.


Marc Cools
Prof. Marc Cools is professor in de vakgroep criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel en in de vakgroep strafrecht en criminologie aan de Universiteit Gent. E-mail: Marc.Cools@vub.ac.be, Marc.Cools@UGent.be.

    The central question of this article is how situational crime prevention (SCP) might be of help in preventing terrorism. Newman and Clarke's Policing Terrorism is confronted with investigations by the Dutch National Crime Squad, leading to the conclusion that Newman and Clarke have too narrow a scope on policing and preventing terrorism, in particular where it comes to the role of criminal investigation, which they narrow down to the phases immediately before and after a terrorist attack. Case files show that offender-oriented criminal investigation has a central role in the prevention of terrorism in several respects. First, criminal investigators intervene in earlier phases of terrorist preparation. Second, counter-terrorism targets a wide range of terrorist offences (e.g. terrorist financing and jihad travel) which often have no direct link to a terrorist assault plan. ‘Proactive repression’ seems an adequate term to characterise the preventive work of criminal investigators in this field. In turn, this work offers insights that might be of help in developing an SCP-approach to terrorism. Such an approach should start with recognizing that there is a diversity of terrorist offences and that each offence demands a crime specific script.


A.W. Weenink
Dr. Anton Weenink is als senior onderzoeker werkzaam bij het Korps landelijke politiediensten (KLPD). Hij schreef deze bijdrage op persoonlijke titel.
Artikel

Is het Nederlandse terrorismebeleid écht zo degelijk vormgegeven?

Een bespreking van recent uitgevoerd evaluatieonderzoek

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden legislation evaluation, counterterrorism legislation, evaluative research, security culture
Auteurs Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Almost ten years after the catastrophic attacks in New York and Washington, Dutch counterterrorism legislation has been evaluated. Since (the drafting of) this body of legislation has been highly criticized over the past years, there was a great need for a thorough and objective evaluation, covering the questions that were risen over years concerning the legitimacy, necessity and effectiveness of the counterterrorism legislation. This article aims to show that the political nature of counterterrorism seems to impede on such an evaluation by systematically discussing the flaws and weaknesses of the evaluative study carried out by the Ministry of Security and Justice.


Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. M.A.H. van der Woude is universitair docent bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden en tevens redactielid van PROCES.
Artikel

Access_open De dubbele nationaliteit van christenen in een postchristelijke cultuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden politics, christian responsibility, power, religion
Auteurs Gert-Jan Segers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How can a Christian be devoted to Jesus Christ and his kingdom, while being a good citizin of an earthly kingdom at the same time? Theologians like Bernhard Reitsma and John Howard Yoder argue that this is only possible when a Christian restrains from politics and power. Together with thinkers as Douglas J. Schuurman and John Calvin, this article has a more positive evaluation of the Christian impact on Western culture and encourages Christian responsibility. God does not leave his world alone, therefore Christians should also commit themselves to politics that wants to work on a peaceful society. It is the narrow way between apathy and lust for power.


Gert-Jan Segers
Drs. G.-J.M. Segers MIPP studeerde in Leiden en Washington DC en is directeur van het Wetenschappelijk Instituut van de ChristenUnie.

    Op 1 januari 2011 is de Wet giraal effectenverkeer gewijzigd. Uitlevering van effecten is in beginsel niet langer mogelijk. De auteur betoogt dat de wetgever onvoldoende argumenten aanvoert om een verbod op uitlevering van effecten op naam te rechtvaardigen.


Mr. P.H. Tieskens
Mr. P.H. Tieskens is werkzaam als kandidaat-notaris bij Allen & Overy.
Artikel

Integrale veiligheidszorg en de burgemeester

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden integraal, burgemeester, veiligheidsbeleid, religie
Auteurs Ruth Prins en Lex Cachet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Changing public safety problems as well as an increasing societal demand for public safety made way for new policy approaches. During the 1990s, the so called ‘integral safety approach’ was introduced in the Netherlands. This approach manifested itself mainly on the municipal level where the mayor is being held responsible for managing public safety and order. The central question raised in this article is: what are the consequences of an integral approach to public safety problems for the mayor when managing local order and public safety? We will demonstrate that ‘integrality’ is no clear cut concept. Careful inspection of the concept learns that it has multiple meanings. Of these various meanings, especially the ambition to address public safety problems by means of ‘new alliances’ characterized the actual implementation of integral policies. However, working together within these new alliances uniting various more or less independent actors from both the public and private sector, seemed to be hampered by a lack of coordination and control. In that sense, the introduction of the integral approach had consequences for steering and control of public safety policies. These consequences have to be addressed, especially by the mayor who is accountable for local order and safety. The mayor had attributed to him – first in practice, soon by law as well – the role of director of public safety policy on the municipal level. However, as we will demonstrate in this article, the mayor lacks an important trait needed for effective directorship: decisive powers. Therefore the mayor is not able to realize effective cooperation between partners within the new alliances of the integral approach to public safety problems. As a potential solution, we will describe the characteristics of a ‘model of anticipation’ granting the mayor a certain level of decisive powers to be used as an ultimum remedium.


Ruth Prins
Ruth Prins MSc is promovendus Burgemeester en Veiligheid, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Contactadres: Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Burg. Oudlaan 50 (kamer M7-06), Postbus 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam. Tel. 010-4088714, e-mail: prins@fsw.eur.nl

Lex Cachet
Dr. Lex Cachet is Universitair Hoofddocent Bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Opleiding Bestuurskunde. E-mail: cachet@fsw.eur.nl
Artikel

Het spanningsveld tussen een integere bancaire sector en laagdrempelige toegang tot het betalingsverkeer

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden Wft, integriteit, banken, opzeggingsbevoegdheid, duurovereenkomsten
Auteurs Mr. J.W. Achterberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Van banken wordt (op grond van publiekrechtelijke financiële wetgeving) verwacht dat zij het vertrouwen in de bancaire sector waarborgen, door potentiële cliënten te screenen en bestaande cliënten te monitoren (en in bepaalde gevallen de relatie te beëindigen). Aan de andere kant is het besef doorgedrongen dat de beschikking over een bankrekening onontbeerlijk is en worden banken door rechters verplicht bancaire relaties met door hen ongewenste typen cliënten in stand te houden. Dit brengt banken in een lastig parket. Hoe moeten banken hun bevoegdheid tot opzegging toepassen en welke rechterlijke toets is hierop van toepassing?


Mr. J.W. Achterberg
Mr. J.W. Achterberg is advocaat bij Kennedy Van der Laan te Amsterdam (Afdeling Banking & Finance).

    This article focuses on a phenomenon often called ‘function creep’. This is the process whereby new functions are added to systems that are basically intended for other purposes, or when systems or data originally intended for function A are linked to other systems or data having function B. New technical possibilities have definitely paved the way for function creep and a growing number of ICT-applications appear no longer limited to the purpose for which they were originally set up. Function creep is an inherent feature of innovation. But at the same time it poses risks if considered from a privacy perspective. After detailing many examples of function creep, the article elaborates on a potential risk not often discussed: loss of data quality. The analysis concludes in arguing that citizens can act as a crucial countervailing power to limit the expansion of function creep. This however requires that governments are more open and accountable to allow for a transparent and verifiable comparison between the interests at stake.


J.E.J. Prins
Prof.mr. Corien Prins is hoogleraar aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT), Universiteit van Tilburg en Raadslid bij de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid (WRR). Deze bijdrage is voor een belangrijk deel ontleend aan het rapport iOverheid van de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid (maart 2011, zie: www.wrr.nl), dat onder haar verantwoordelijkheid werd opgesteld.
Artikel

Terrorismebestrijding en securitisering

Een rechtssociologische verkenning van de neveneffecten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2011
Auteurs B.A. de Graaf en Q. Eijkman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article offers an analysis of the side effects caused by the increased counterterrorism measures adapted in Dutch law and public policy after 9/11. Taking clues from Foucault's thinking on securitisation and Beck's risk society, it is argued that focus, referent subject and object of security measures and deployment of counterterrorism laws have shifted from the concrete individual to society and risk prevention as a whole (1), that this shift induces function creep (2) and a much quicker deployment of measures, resulting in an increasing suspect population (3). Rather than arguing against the legality and legitimacy of these measures, the authors analyse the epistemological shift in reasoning and unpack the various probabilistic arguments (as opposed to evidence-based arguments) behind the wave of securitisation after 9/11 - resulting in a lack of knowledge about, transparency and accountability of the generated side effects.


B.A. de Graaf
Dr. Beatrice de Graaf (universitair hoofddocent) is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Terrorisme en Contraterrorisme van de Universiteit Leiden (Campus Den Haag).

Q. Eijkman
Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman (senioronderzoeker) is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Terrorisme en Contraterrorisme van de Universiteit Leiden (Campus Den Haag).
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