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Artikel

De rol van Europol in de strijd tegen voedselcriminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden food crime, counterfeit, Europol, counterfeit wine, international police cooperation
Auteurs Ch. Vansteenkiste en T. Schotte
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Food fraud can be seen as a form of counterfeit, which has increased globally because of technological developments. The authors, both working for the European Union police agency Europol, give several examples of the involvement of organized crime groups in food fraud. They describe the cooperation between Europol in its coordinating role with various national police forces in tracing food crime and arresting the perpetrators. Also the involvement of the European Union agencies Eurojust and Frontex in special operations like OPSON to unmask illegal trade in counterfeit foodstuff are described.


Ch. Vansteenkiste
Chris Vansteenkiste is werkzaam als projectmanager bij de Dienst Namaak van het Serious and Organised Crime Department Europol. Europol (European Police Agency) is een EU-agentschap gevestigd in Den Haag.

T. Schotte
Tamara Schotte is projectmanager van het SOCTA 2013 en leidt de strategische-analyseafdeling van het Serious and Organised Crime Department, Europol.
Artikel

Access_open Wat is juridisch interactionisme?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden interactionism, Lon Fuller, interactional law, legal pluralism, concept of law
Auteurs Wibren van der Burg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Two phenomena that challenge theories of law in the beginning of the twenty-first century are the regulatory explosion and the emergence of horizontal and interactional forms of law. In this paper, I develop a theory that can address these two phenomena, namely legal interactionism, a theory inspired by the work of Fuller and Selznick. In a pluralist approach, legal interactionism recognizes both interactional law and enacted law, as well as other sources such as contract. We should aim for a pluralistic and gradual concept of law. Because of this pluralist and gradual character, legal interactionism can also do justice to global legal pluralism and to the dynamic intertwinement of health law and bioethics.


Wibren van der Burg
Wibren van der Burg is Professor of Legal Philosophy and Jurisprudence, Erasmus School of Law at the Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Artikel

Beate Sirota en de gelijkstelling van mannen en vrouwen in artikel 24 van de Japanse Grondwet in 1947

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Japanese Constitution, Japanese Civil code, Women's rights, Beate Sirota
Auteurs Peter van den Berg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Beate Sirota has been described as the ‘heroine of Japanese women’s rights’, because she contributed considerably to the inclusion of a forceful provision on the rights of women in the new Constitution of Japan as a member of the Government Section of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP), headed by General Douglas MacArthur. Her role was serendipitous, because at first the Americans were not planning such a thorough revision of the Meiji Constitution (1890). Sirota was not a constitutional scholar, let alone an expert on the rights of women. She was hired only because she had spent her youth in Japan and spoke Japanese fluently. But once she got involved in the drafting of a new Constitution, her intimate knowledge of the position of women in Japanese society proved very useful. She proposed elaborate and detailed provisions on women’s rights in order to counter the expected resistance. This strategy turned out to be successful. Although Sirota was not substantially involved in the implementation of article 24, she returned to the United States in 1947. Since its introduction the provision has been a firm anchor for proponents of the emancipation of women in Japan.


Peter van den Berg
Peter A.J. van den Berg is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de juridische faculteit van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Vakgroep Algemene Rechtswetenschap en Rechtsgeschiedenis). Hij publiceert onder meer over constitutionele geschiedenis, geschiedenis van het staatsburgerschap en codificatiegeschiedenis. In 2007 verscheen van zijn hand The politics of European codification. A history of the unification of law in France, Prussia, the Austrian Monarchy and the Netherlands. Hij is een van de leiders van het door NWO als onderdeel van het programma ‘Omstreden Democratie’ gefinancierde project ‘Contested Constitutions’.
Artikel

Access_open Private law and ethical life

Honneth on legal freedom and its pathologies

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Honneth, Hegel, social freedom, legal freedom, law, pathologies
Auteurs Jan Ph. Broekhuizen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Das Recht der Freiheit Axel Honneth develops his concept of social freedom. In this article I discuss Honneth’s project and critique one of its crucial aspects: Honneth’s views on the disruptive role of legal freedom in our society and its dependent relation to the sphere of social freedom. I argue that in his attempt in Das Recht der Freiheit to reactualize Hegel’s discourse on the realization of freedom for our time, Honneth risks mistranslating Hegel’s discourse of ‘right’ by denying the sphere of legal relations a constitutive role for true freedom, and that because of this Honneth’s own theory of social freedom suffers: it becomes less clear whether it can still offer helpful insights into the proper place of legal freedom in our society.


Jan Ph. Broekhuizen
Jan Broekhuizen is an attorney (advocaat) in Amsterdam and a deputy judge at the Court of Appeals in Den Bosch (the Netherlands). He holds degrees in both law and philosophy.
Artikel

Access_open De liberale canon: argumenten voor vrijheid

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden enforcement of morals, liberalism, liberty, political liberalism, Rawls
Auteurs Alex Bood
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines how a liberal public morality can be most successfully defended against perfectionism. First of all the five most important liberal arguments for freedom are taken from what is called the liberal canon: a number of characteristic works of John Locke, Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, Isaiah Berlin, Joseph Raz, Ronald Dworkin, and John Rawls. These five arguments are identified as: social and political realism, respect for autonomy, fallibility of ideas, pluralism, and respect for reasonableness. Next, the persuasiveness of these arguments is assessed, starting with the argument of respect for reasonableness, which is at the heart of Rawls’s political liberalism. It is concluded that in itself this argument is not strong enough to persuade perfectionists. A powerful defence of a liberal public morality needs the other arguments for freedom as well. Finally, the paper outlines how these other arguments can strengthen the argument of respect for reasonableness in a coherent manner.


Alex Bood
Alex Bood is Research Manager at the Dutch Public Prosecution’s Office for Criminal Law Studies (WBOM).
Artikel

Access_open Globalization as a Factor in General Jurisprudence

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden general jurisprudence, globalization, global legal pluralism, legal positivism, analytical jurisprudence
Auteurs Sidney Richards
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Globalization is commonly cited as an important factor in theorising legal phenomena in the contemporary world. Although many legal disciplines have sought to adapt their theories to globalization, progress has been comparatively modest within contemporary analytical jurisprudence. This paper aims to offer a survey of recent scholarship on legal theory and globalization and suggests various ways in which these writings are relevant to the project of jurisprudence. This paper argues, more specifically, that the dominant interpretation of globalization frames it as a particular form of legal pluralism. The resulting concept – global legal pluralism – comes in two broad varieties, depending on whether it emphasizes normative or institutional pluralism. This paper goes on to argue that these concepts coincide with two central themes of jurisprudence, namely its concern with normativity and institutionality. Finally, this paper reflects on the feasibility of constructing a ‘general’ and ‘descriptive’ jurisprudence in light of globalization.


Sidney Richards
Sidney Richards is Doctoral candidate in Law at Pembroke College at the University of Cambridge.
Artikel

De Anti-Piraterij Verordening: grenzen aan de maatregelen bij de grens

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden intellectuele Eigendom, anti-Piraterij Verordening, ontwikkelingen, recent arrest, commissievoorstel
Auteurs Mr. M.W. Wiegerinck
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Bespreking van het recente arrest van het Hof van Justitie1x HvJ EU 1 december 2011, gevoegde zaken C-446/09, Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V./Lucheng Meijing Industrial Company c.s. en C-495/09 Nokia Corporations/Her Majesty’s Commissioners of Revenue and Customs, <B9 10487>. Hierna: ‘arrest in de gevoegde zaken Philips en Nokia’,<B9 10487>. met betrekking tot de vervaardigingsfictie in de Anti-Piraterij Verordening en het voorstel van de Commissie voor een gewijzigde Anti-Piraterij Verordening.2x Europese Commissie, Brussel 24 mei 2011, Voorstel voor een Verordening van het Europees Parlement en de Raad inzake de handhaving van intellectuele eigendomsrechten, COM (2011) 285 definitief.
    * Mr. M.W. Wiegerinck
    Met dit arrest komt een einde aan het gebruik van dit slagvaardige instrument in de strijd tegen namaak transitogoederen. Bezien wordt wat de laatste stand van zaken is en of het voorstel een alternatief biedt.

Noten

  • 1 HvJ EU 1 december 2011, gevoegde zaken C-446/09, Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V./Lucheng Meijing Industrial Company c.s. en C-495/09 Nokia Corporations/Her Majesty’s Commissioners of Revenue and Customs, <B9 10487>. Hierna: ‘arrest in de gevoegde zaken Philips en Nokia’,<B9 10487>.

  • 2 Europese Commissie, Brussel 24 mei 2011, Voorstel voor een Verordening van het Europees Parlement en de Raad inzake de handhaving van intellectuele eigendomsrechten, COM (2011) 285 definitief.
    * Mr. M.W. Wiegerinck


Mr. M.W. Wiegerinck
Mr. M.W. Wiegerinck is advocaat te Amsterdam bij Arnold + Siedsma.
Artikel

Transnational Divorce in Dutch-Moroccan Families

The Semi-Autonomous Social Field of Legal Aid

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Iris Sportel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In transnational Dutch-Moroccan divorce cases, spouses can come into contact with two different legal systems. Many different kinds of organisations are involved, offering social and legal advice and aid in these transnational divorces: advising and referring clients, educating spouses and professionals, and influencing policy. In this article these organisations are analysed as participants in a transnational field of legal aid, using Moore’s concept of the semi-autonomous social field. It becomes clear that these organisations share norms on transnational divorce: they frame transnational divorce as a women’s problem, and one of complex, interacting rules and regulations. These norms form the source of rules on how to handle law in transnational Dutch-Moroccan divorce cases.


Iris Sportel
Iris Sportel is a PhD candidate at the Radboud University Nijmegen. She has a BSc in Cultural Anthropology and a BA and MA in Arabic Language and Culture. Since 2008 she has been working on her PhD project ‘Transnational Divorce: between Dutch, Egyptian and Moroccan Law’. She has also done research on a pilot project on tailor-made conflict resolution at the court of Den Bosch and on Islamic saint veneration in Egypt.

    The gold industry in the (former) Soviet Union has always been vulnerable to criminality, such as large-scale smuggling from the gold mines in the north of the country, to the sale of fake gold by Russian migrants in Western Europe. Gold and golden jewels are smuggled and counterfeited; corrupt customs and police officials participate directly or indirectly in gold-related criminal activities. Customers in Russia and other former Soviet republics are constantly being warned about the risk of buying counterfeit gold jewellery, which is sold even in legal shops. This article describes the ‘criminal gold market’ in Russia and analyses the motives and modus operandi of the offenders.


D. Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is als hoogleraar criminologie verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

‘Lookin’ for a little green bag…’ en de werkingssfeer van het Unierecht

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden werkingssfeer Unierecht, Josemans, softdrugsbeleid, beginsel van non-discriminatie
Auteurs Mr. H. van Eijken en Mr. H. J. van Harten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In de zaak Josemans staat in de kern de beperking van de toegang tot Maastrichtse coffeeshops voor bezoekers die woonachtig zijn in andere EU-lidstaten ter discussie. Mogen met een beroep op een publiek belang Unieburgers uit andere lidstaten geweigerd worden in coffeeshops? Of forceert het vrijegoederenverkeer dan wel het vrijedienstenverkeer een recht op toegang tot coffeeshops? En is het bijzondere karakter van de verkoop van softdrugs van belang voor de toepasselijkheid van het Unierecht?


Mr. H. van Eijken
Mr. H. van Eijken is promovenda bij het Europa Instituut, Universiteit Utrecht.

Mr. H. J. van Harten
Mr. H. van Harten is werkzaam als universitair docent bij het Europa Instituut, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

The UK Bribery Act 2010 and its Relevance for Dutch Corporates

Tijdschrift Vennootschap & Onderneming, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden bribery, corruption, FCPA, omkoping
Auteurs E.F. Barker LL.B BPPM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An overview of the UK Bribery Act 2010, which is expected to come into effect in April 2011, and its impact for Dutch companies and partnerships, including the new corporate offence of failing to prevent bribery and the importance of procedures for both prevention and defence of bribery charges.


E.F. Barker LL.B BPPM
E.F. Barker LL.B BPPM (Hons) is a lawyer at Allen & Overy in Amsterdam.
Artikel

De D&A-code van corruptie

Lessen uit een anticorruptietraining bij Douane en Accijnzen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden corruption, aetiology, anti-corruption policy, customs
Auteurs Arne Dormaels en Gudrun Vande Walle
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Belgian Customs Administration has taken the lead on the federal level to elaborate an anti-corruption policy. Up till now the initiatives of the administration D&A consisted of: anti-corruption training for the complete staff, a distribution of the relevant regulation concerning corruption and the setting up of an internal complaints desk. These measures suggest that mainly the individual employee has to take responsibility to prevent corruption. Based on three related research stages we conclude that the social-economic context and the organisational characteristics also contribute to the explanation of corruption which implies to go beyond the micro-level when developing an anti-corruption policy. The structure of our analysis is based on the five key variables of Gobert and Punch: the social, economic and cultural characteristics, the nature and structure of the organisation, rationality, neutralisation techniques and moral disengagement and crime facilitative characteristics. This contribution is the first section of a research project on the responsibilities of the public sector and the private companies for public corruption.


Arne Dormaels
Drs. A.P.K. Dormaels is doctoraal onderzoeker binnen de onderzoeksgroep Governing and Policing Security (GaPS) aan de Hogeschool Gent – Departement Handelswetenschappen en Bestuurskunde. Hij is tevens geaffilieerd lid van de Associatie Universiteit Gent binnen de associatieonderzoeksgroep Governance of Security, arne.dormaels@hogent.be.

Gudrun Vande Walle
Dr. G.C.M. Vande Walle is postdoctoraal onderzoeker binnen de onderzoeksgroep Governing and Policing Security (GaPS) aan de Hogeschool Gent – Departement Handelswetenschappen en Bestuurskunde. Ze is tevens geaffilieerd lid van de Associatie Universiteit Gent binnen de associatieonderzoeksgroep Governance of Security, gudrun.vandewalle@hogent.be.
Artikel

Asset tracing

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 12 2010
Trefwoorden asset tracing, fraude, beslag, art. 843a Rv, Engels recht
Auteurs Mr. V.C.J. Brugge en Mr. H.J.Th. Biemond
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Asset tracing is het proces van het achterhalen van gestolen of verduisterde vermogensbestanddelen of de financiële opbrengst daarvan. In deze bijdrage wordt ingegaan op de bestaande juridische middelen die een benadeelde in Nederland daarvoor tot zijn beschikking heeft en tegen welke problemen een benadeelde daarbij in de praktijk aanloopt. In dat verband zal tevens worden gekeken naar de meer ontwikkelde praktijk van asset tracing in Engeland, en welke mogelijke lessen daaruit getrokken kunnen worden. Tot slot zal worden stilgestaan bij de rol van de politie en het Openbaar Ministerie in het proces van asset tracing.


Mr. V.C.J. Brugge
Mr. V.C.J. Brugge is werkzaam als advocaat bij Allen & Overy LLP.

Mr. H.J.Th. Biemond
Mr. H.J.Th. Biemond is werkzaam als advocaat bij Allen & Overy LLP.
Artikel

Access_open Constitutionalism and the Incompleteness of Democracy: An Iterative Relationship

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden constitutionalism, globalization, democracy, modernity, postnational
Auteurs Neil Walker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The complexity of the relationship between democracy and modern constitutionalism is revealed by treating democracy as an incomplete ideal. This refers both to the empirical incompleteness of democracy as unable to supply its own terms of application – the internal dimension – and to the normative incompleteness of democracy as guide to good government – the external dimension. Constitutionalism is a necessary response to democratic incompleteness – seeking to realize (the internal dimension) and to supplement and qualify democracy (the external dimension). How democratic incompleteness manifests itself, and how constitutionalism responds to incompleteness evolves and alters, revealing the relationship between constitutionalism and democracy as iterative. The paper concentrates on the iteration emerging from the current globalizing wave. The fact that states are no longer the exclusive sites of democratic authority compounds democratic incompleteness and complicates how constitutionalism responds. Nevertheless, the key role of constitutionalism in addressing the double incompleteness of democracy persists under globalization. This continuity reflects how the deep moral order of political modernity, in particular the emphasis on individualism, equality, collective agency and progress, remains constant while its institutional architecture, including the forms of its commitment to democracy, evolves. Constitutionalism, itself both a basic orientation and a set of design principles for that architecture, remains a necessary support for and supplement to democracy. Yet post-national constitutionalism, even more than its state-centred predecessor, remains contingent upon non-democratic considerations, so reinforcing constitutionalism’s normative and sociological vulnerability. This conclusion challenges two opposing understandings of the constitutionalism of the global age – that which indicts global constitutionalism because of its weakened democratic credentials and that which assumes that these weakened democratic credentials pose no problem for post-national constitutionalism, which may instead thrive through a heightened emphasis on non-democratic values.


Neil Walker
Neil Walker is Regius Professor of Public Law and the Law of Nature and Nations at the University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
Artikel

Wet bevolkingsonderzoek op gespannen voet met EU-recht

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 7 2010
Trefwoorden vrijverkeersregime, gezondheidsdienst, e-commerce, genoomanalyse, Wet op het bevolkingsonderzoek
Auteurs Mr. R.E. van Hellemondt, Prof. mr. A.C. Hendriks en Prof. dr. M.H. Breuning
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De Nederlandse overheid ziet met lede ogen aan dat consumenten via internet en zonder tussenkomst van medisch specialisten of andere deskundigen hun genenkaart laten ontcijferen. Dit onderzoek gebeurt door bedrijven die in andere landen zijn gevestigd, dan wel gebruik maken van de diensten van elders gevestigden. De consument krijgt aldus informatie over de kans op het krijgen van erfelijke aandoeningen. Deze onlineverkoop staat op gespannen voet met de Nederlandse wetgeving. Vandaar ook deze ‘buitenlandroute’,waarmee consumenten én bedrijven de Nederlandse regels betrekkelijk eenvoudig kunnen omzeilen. Deze bijdrage onderzoekt de ruimte van Nederland als EU-lidstaat om het aanbod van commerciële genoomanalyse te reguleren. De Nederlandse wetgeving wordt tegelijkertijd langs de Europese meetlat gelegd en blijkt niet EU-proof te zijn.


Mr. R.E. van Hellemondt
Mr. R.E. van Hellemondt is als onderzoeker/docent gezondheidsrecht verbonden aan de afdeling Ethiek & Recht van het LUMC.

Prof. mr. A.C. Hendriks
Prof. mr. A.C. Hendriks is hoogleraar gezondheidsrecht aan de Universiteit Leiden/LUMC.

Prof. dr. M.H. Breuning
Prof. dr. M.H. Breuning is hoofd van de afdeling Klinische Genetica van het LUMC.

Mr dr J. Wöretshofer

Wibo van Rossum
Wibo van Rossum (w.vanrossum@uu.nl) is lecturer in legal theory at Utrecht University. He teaches courses in sociology of law, comparative legal cultures, and (at Erasmus University Rotterdam) anthropology of law. He published on the ritual behaviour of Turkish defendants in court, on the religious law and legal procedure of the alevis, on the influence of minority cultures in family and labour law cases, and on legal pluralistic family law among Moroccan immigrants.

Anita Böcker
Anita Böcker (a.bocker@jur.ru.nl) is associate professor at the Institute for Sociology of Law in Nijmegen. Her PhD thesis (Radboud University Nijmegen 1994) dealt with the impact of the Dutch state system of social security on informal social security arrangements within Turkish migrant families and networks. Her current research topics include the social security strategies of older migrants and ethnic diversity in the judiciary in old and new countries of immigration.
Artikel

The Process of Interlegality in a Situation of Formal Legal

Pluralism: A Case Study from La Cocha, Ecuador

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 03 2009
Auteurs Marc Simon Thomas
Auteursinformatie

Marc Simon Thomas
Marc Simon Thomas (m.a.simonthomas@uu.nl) is a PhD candidate at the Centre for Latin American Research and Education (CEDLA) in Amsterdam and Utrecht University, and affiliated as a tutor at the Department of Cultural Anthropology of Utrecht University. He obtained a Dutch law degree at the University of Leiden in 1992. After a decade of work experience in business services, he continued his academic career in Cultural Anthropology at Utrecht University where he graduated in 2006 (cum laude). Next, he received his masters degree in Latin American Studies at CEDLA in 2008. His current research interest concern indigenous rights and legal consciousness in Ecuador.
Artikel

De stilte rondom Madoff

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden Fraude, Madoff, Oplichting, Verenigde Staten
Auteurs Prof. dr. Henk van de Bunt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the Madoff case which came to light at the end of 2008. Remarkable for this case is that Madoff could go on with his scam for a very long time. Failing supervision was not the only reason for this. Madoff’s qualities – disguising the illegal activities and his social stature – cannot explain the whole puzzle. The social network, a ‘secret society’ and the fact that people involved went on with it, even when knowing that ‘it was too good to be true’ are explained in this article.


Prof. dr. Henk van de Bunt
Henk van de Bunt is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Erasmusuniversiteit te Rotterdam, vandebunt@frg.eur.nl.

    The upsurge in the use of economic sanctions in the post-Cold War era has prompted much scholarly and policy debate over their effectiveness and humanitarian consequences. Remarkably little attention, however, has been devoted to their criminalizing consequences and legacy for the post-sanctions period. In this article, the author develops an analytical framework identifying and categorizing the potential criminalizing effects of sanctions across place (within and around the targeted country) and time (during and after the sanctions period). This framework is applied and evaluated through an in-depth examination of the case of Yugoslavia. For comparative leverage and to assess the applicability of the argument beyond the Yugoslavia case, the analysis is briefly extended to Croatia. The article suggests that sanctions can unintentionally contribute to the criminalization of the state, economy, and civil society of both the targeted country and its immediate neighbors, fostering a symbiosis between political leaders, organized crime, and transnational smuggling networks. This symbiosis, in turn, can persist beyond the lifting of sanctions, contributing to corruption and crime and undermining the rule of law.


Peter Andreas
Prof. Peter Andreas is als assistent-hoogleraar Internationale Betrekkingen verbonden aan de Brown University, Rhode Island, Providence, USA.
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