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Artikel

Straffen omvat meer dan gevangenisstraf

De effecten van daderkenmerken op de straftoemeting voor het gehele sanctiepakket

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden judicial decision-making, sentencing disparity, Imprisonment, concomitant sentencing, sentence severity scale
Auteurs Mr. drs. Sigrid van Wingerden en Dr. Johan van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Sentencing research focusing solely on unsuspended imprisonment does no justice to the practice of sentencing, where many other punishment types are imposed – often conjunctly. To investigate to what extent this imprisonment bias might have caused incomplete and thereby biased findings, we compare the effects of offender characteristics for imprisonment to those for other sanction types, as well as to a model combining sanction types. Findings suggest that the effects of offender characteristics differ per sanction type. When combinations of sanction types are taken into account, some offender characteristics do no longer have mitigating or aggravating effects, or the effects even inverted. Hence, future sentencing research should aim to include all sentences imposed.


Mr. drs. Sigrid van Wingerden
Mr. drs. S.G.C. van Wingerden is universitair docent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J. van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan het instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De criminaliteitsdaling in New York

Over de zin en onzin van veiligheidsbeleid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2013
Auteurs M.B. Schuilenburg en M.B. Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the long decline of crime rates in New York, as analysed by Franklin Zimring in his book The city that became safe (2012). The author discusses and analyses the processes involved in ‘lesson drawing’ and the ‘policy transfer’ from New York to the Netherlands. Issues that are further addressed include the opportunities of prevention and the enforcement of ‘hot crimes’.


M.B. Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is verbonden aan de afdeling Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

M.B. Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is verbonden aan de afdeling Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Retributivist Arguments against Presuming Innocence

Answering to Duff

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden broad presumption of innocence, retributivism, punishment of innocents, vicarious liability of car owners, drink-driving tests of non-suspects
Auteurs Alwin A. van Dijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Factors justifying not presuming innocence are generally incorporated into the Presumption of Innocence (PoI). A confusing discourse has resulted: numerous guilt-presuming acts are deemed consistent with the PoI. I argue for an unusually broad PoI: any act that might convey to a reasonable actor that he is not presumed innocent of a punishable offence constitutes a PoI interference. Thus, academic debate need only be about the question what PoI interferences are justifiable or unjustifiable. This question must be answered using pro- and anti-PoI values. I analyse three PoI interferences in relation to Duff’s retributivist punishment theory: presumptions of guilt, vicarious liability of car owners and coercing non-suspects into proving their sobriety. Retributivists tend to castigate such procedures based on their (supposed) consequentialist rationale. I argue, however, that they might also be justified on retributivist grounds. The retributivist anti-PoI duty to punish the guilty may be the worst enemy of innocents.


Alwin A. van Dijk
Alwin A. van Dijk is Assistant Professor of Criminal Law at the University of Groningen.
Artikel

Dead or alive?

De invloed van incidentkenmerken en gedragingen van actoren op fatale versus niet-fatale uitkomsten van geweld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden violence, homicide, event characteristics, actors’ behaviour
Auteurs Soenita Ganpat MSc, Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun en Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Some serious events end lethally while others do not. This study examined to what extent a selected number of event characteristics and actors’ behaviour contributed to the escalation of an event into a lethal outcome. We examined Dutch court files of 267 serious events in which offenders were convicted for either lethal violence (homicide, N=126) or non-lethal violence (attempted homicide, N=141). Pronounced differences were found between lethal versus non-lethal events with respect to event characteristics and to actors’ behaviour during the incident in particular. In particular, the likelihood of a lethal outcome increased in events involving alcohol use by victims, firearm use by offenders, victim precipitation and the absence of third parties.


Soenita Ganpat MSc
S.M. Ganpat, MSc is promovendus bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie aan de Universiteit van Leiden.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. J.P. van der Leun is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. P. Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en bijzonder hoogleraar Sociologie aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Als iemand wordt vermoord

De gevolgen en hulp voor de nabestaanden

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Survivors, co-victims, Casemanagement, victim assistance
Auteurs Dr. mr. Anton van Wijk en Drs. Ilse van Leiden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, not only victims of serious crimes, but also their relatives received increased attention in criminal justice procedures. Victim Support Netherlands started a project in which paid professionals support surviving relatives of murdered victims. Through interviews and questionnaires, a group of 62 surviving relatives was followed for two to three years, to map out what their problems and needs are, how the case manager helped them and how they appreciated the help. Problems and needs include psychological, practical, social and legal matters. The appointment of a case manager appeared to be very valuable for the surviving relatives. Partly because of the case manager, they managed to get back to everyday life.


Dr. mr. Anton van Wijk
Dr. mr. Anton van Wijk is criminoloog en directeur van Bureau Beke.

Drs. Ilse van Leiden
Drs. Ilse van Leiden is psycholoog en senior onderzoekster bij Bureau Beke.
Artikel

Deuren op slot

Naar een verklaring voor de internationale daling van criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2012
Trefwoorden Crime Victim Survey, Crime levels, Marxist criminology, Crime opportunity theory, Crime prevention
Auteurs J.J.M. van Dijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the opening section the author refers to the classical book of Dutch criminologist Willem Bonger on the links between poverty/social injustice and levels of crime. He then introduces his own work on the International Crime Victim Survey (ICVS) since 1989. The ICVS trend data on crime in Western countries during 1989 up to 2010 show a curvilinear movement peaking around 2000. The upward trend seems to track economic growth and to have mainly been caused by increased opportunities of crime. His analytical results concerning car theft and household burglary suggest that the international falls in crime since 2000 are largely caused by improved security. A comparative analysis shows for example that burglary rates have fallen in countries with high levels of home security such as Great Britain and the Netherlands and have continued to rise in low security countries such as Denmark and Switzerland. The author concludes that criminology has evolved both methodologically and theoretically since the publication of Bonger’s book in 1905. Some fundamental principles of the discipline, however, appear to have remained unchanged. Van Dijk’s own work is, just like that of Bonger, policy- oriented. It is driven by the motivation to assist governments in finding better ways to reduce suffering of human beings from crime, either as victims or as offenders.


J.J.M. van Dijk
Prof. dr. mr. Jan van Dijk is als hoogleraar verbonden aan Intervict, het International Victimology Institute van de Universiteit van Tilburg. De oorspronkelijke Engelse titel van deze lezing luidt Closing the doors, een verwijzing naar een boek over suïcidepreventie van Ron Clarke, getiteld Suicide: Closing the exits. In dit boek en in een daarna verschenen artikel van Ron Clarke en Pat Mayhew werd empirisch bewijs gepresenteerd van het feit dat een verandering in de samenstelling van het aardgas in huishoudens in Groot-Brittannië en Nederland halverwege de jaren tachtig leidde tot een abrupte daling van het aantal mensen dat zelfmoord pleegde met behulp van gas, zonder dat er een duidelijke verschuiving naar andere manieren van zelfdoding optrad (Clarke & Mayhew 1989). Als een zeer gemotiveerde daad zoals zelfmoord kan worden teruggedrongen door eenvoudige situationele maatregelen, waarom, vroegen de auteurs zich af, zou dat dan niet kunnen met diverse vormen van opportunistische diefstal, zoals joyriding of inbraken in de wijk? Inderdaad, waarom niet?
Artikel

Verpest in het nest

Een casestudie van een criminele familie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden family ties, fission and fusion, stigmatization, criminal family
Auteurs Borris van der Swaan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyses a criminal family. It is not the individual, but the family as a social entity that is central to this approach. The Van D.’s are a family of eleven brothers with a collective history of crime. Raised with anti-authoritarian norms, violence, alcohol and a strong sense of loyalty, they were known as an ‘army of brothers’ dominating the streets of H-town. The criminal family as object of study proves valuable in understanding the influence of contextual factors, subculture, and stigmatization. In the case of the Van D.’s, blood ties create cohesion and conflict at the same time.


Borris van der Swaan
Borris van der Swaan Msc is afgestudeerd als criminoloog aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: bvanderswaan@gmail.com.
Artikel

Access_open The Collapse of the Rule of Law

The Messina Earthquake and the State of Exception

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Messina, earthquake, state of exception, rule of law, progress
Auteurs Massimo La Torre
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Messina, a Sicilian town, was devasteted by an earthquake in1908. It was an hecatomb. Stricken through this unfathomable disgrace Messina’s institutions and civil society collapsed and a sort of wild natural state replaced the rule of law. In this situation there was a first intervention of the Russian Czarist navy who came to help but immediately enforced cruel emergency measures. The Italian army followed and there was a formal declaration of an ‘emergency situation.’ Around this event and the several exceptional measures taken by the government a debate took place about the legality of those exceptional measures. The article tries to reconstruct the historical context and the content of that debate and in a broader perspective thematizes how law (and morality) could be brought to meet the breaking of normality and ordinary life by an unexpected and catastrophic event.


Massimo La Torre
Massimo La Torre is Professor of Legal Philosophy at the University of Catanzaro in Italy and visiting Professor of Law at the University of Hull in England.
Artikel

Lood en criminaliteit

Een overzicht van recente studies naar de effecten van een neurotoxisch metaal

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden lead, criminal behaviour, ADHD, IQ
Auteurs Drs. Ap Zaalberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Research demonstrates moderate detrimental effects of lead and human health. Interesting from a criminological point of view is the association between lead and delinquent, criminal and aggressive behaviour. In this paper the possible causality of this association will be discussed.


Drs. Ap Zaalberg
Drs. A. Zaalberg is psycholoog en onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum, Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie, a.zaalberg@minvenj.nl.
Artikel

De daling van moord en doodslag in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden homicide, trend, the Netherlands, murder, decline
Auteurs Dr. Marieke Liem, Dr. Johan van Wilsem, Drs. Paul Smit e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The number of homicides in the Netherlands has been stable for some time but decreased over the last few years. The aim of this study is first, to describe the recent trends in homicide in the Netherlands. Second, we aim to explain the reasons for this recent drop in homicide by using data from the Dutch Homicide Monitor that includes all homicides in the period 1992-2009. Findings suggest that the drop in homicide could be explained by a combination of factors, including change in situational characteristics, change in social cohesion and change in the degree of economic deprivation.


Dr. Marieke Liem
Dr. M.C.A. Liem is universitair docent criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden, m.c.a.liem@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Dr. Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J.A. van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden, j.a.van.wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Drs. Paul Smit
Drs. P.R. Smit is onderzoeker bij het WODC, Ministerie van Justitie, p.r.smit@minjus.nl.

Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. P. Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden, p.nieuwbeerta@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

Slachtofferbewegingen en herstelrecht

Over het belang van de realiteit achter de stereotypes

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden victimology, victim movements, social movements, restorative justice
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The position of victims of crime has shown marked improvement over the past 30 years. The rise of the victim has been associated with the growth of a unified ‘victim movement’; a social movement that strives to improve the position of victims of crime. However, it is questionable whether the victim movement should be viewed as a unitary phenomenon. Instead of one movement, there appear to be a number of victim movements. There are differences between the victim advocates in the United States, Victim Support in Europe, the violence against women movement and proponents of restorative justice.. In this article, reasons for these differences are sought in victim-endogenous factors: differences in victims’ characteristics and the idealtypes employed by the different movements are an important explanation for the divergent development in organisations representing victims interests, which in turn influences their policy preferences. It is argued that advocates of restorative justice would benefit from understanding both the reality and the distortion involved in the idealtypes, including their own. This would allow proponents of restorative justice to adapt their practices in a manner that is both suitable and convincing to the representative and target group of the different victim movements.


Antony Pemberton
Dr. Antony Pemberton is sociaalwetenschapper en universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Symmetrie in homicide

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden social rank, honour, conflict, close social bonds, small communities
Auteurs Anton Blok
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An analysis of about 2,200 cases of homicides in the Netherlands committed between 1992 and 2006 shows that lethal violence typically results from conflict in symmetric relations in which social rank is ambiguous. The settings of homicides are mostly well-integrated, small communities, including families, rural villages in tribal and agrarian societies, modern urban neighbourhoods, gettos, criminal organisations, and ethnic enclaves. The mechanism that drives antagonism between people in such places is their attachment, close-knit structure, and common features. Earlier, Simmel developed this insight in lethal conflict when saying ‘the more we have in common with another as whole persons, the more easily will our totality be involved in every single relationship to that person, hence the disproportionate violence to which normally well-controlled people can be moved within their relations to those closest to them.’ Contemporary sociologists, ethnographers, and historians amply corroborated this view of lethal violence. In his comparative work Gould shows a compelling connection between ambiguity of social rank and lethal conflict. Knauft investigated the high homicide rates in a New Guinea community and found that lethal violence resulting from sorcery attributions is not the anti-thesis of the ideal of ‘good company’ but its ultimate culmination.


Anton Blok
Prof. dr. Anton Blok is emeritus hoogleraar Culturele antropologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. E-mail: anton.blok@xs4all.nl.
Artikel

Access_open Religie, criminaliteit en geweld: ambivalente bevindingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden religious commitment, fundamentalism, muslim-radicalism, crime, violence, prevention
Auteurs Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution the author discusses the broad question whether religious commitment does – or does not – stimulate violent types of criminal behaviour. Based on a review of relevant literature (criminology and religious studies), it is first specified that religious commitment in many respects functions as a protective factor to prevent people from criminal behaviour. By contrast, many orthodox and fundamentalist groups consider defensive violence (self-defense) and punitive violence (retaliation) to be legitimate options. In the final section the author discusses some of the assumed relationships between crime, violence and muslim-radicalism in the Netherlands.


Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is werkzaam aan de sectie Strafrecht en criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, en is tevens verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Fataal huiselijk geweld

Doding van eigen kind, partner of ouder

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs F. Koenraadt en M. Liem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Homicides that take place in the family generally lead to shock and incomprehension in society at large. Even though in recent years the number of homicides in the Netherlands has decreased, domestic homicides still claim approximately sixty victims per year. This article aims to describe the nature and incidence of domestic homicide in the Netherlands by making use of both epidemiological data as well as detailed analyses of case reports of domestic homicides. In doing so, several types of domestic homicides are distinguished: intimate partner homicide, child homicide, parent and sibling homicide, multiple family homicide and finally, domestic homicide followed by suicide. The findings are discussed and put into perspective.


F. Koenraadt
Dr. Frans Koenraadt is als hoogleraar Forensische Psychiatrie en Psychologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Utrecht; hij is tevens wetenschappelijk adviseur bij het Pieter Baan Centrum (NIFP) te Utrecht en bij de Forensisch Psychiatrische Kliniek te Assen.

M. Liem
Dr. Marieke Liem is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De relatie tussen subtypen relationeel geweldplegers en de adviezen van de reclassering

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2010
Trefwoorden Relationeel geweld, Subtypen, B-SAFER, Reclassering
Auteurs Drs. Jill Thijssen en Prof. dr. Corine de Ruiter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the present study, the B-SAFER was coded for 146 files of spousal assault cases from the Dutch probation service. The aim of the study was twofold: (1) identifying subtypes of spousal assaulters and (2) examine the relationship between the subtypes found and the advice the probation officers gave to court. Four subtypes of assaulters were identified: family-only, generally violent/antisocial, low-level antisocial, and psychopathology. There was only a significant relationship between the subtypes and the advice on two of the ten advices. The type of advice showed a strong relationship with the region of the probation offices where the batterer was examined.


Drs. Jill Thijssen
Jill Thijssen is als promovenda verbonden aan de afdeling Clinical Psychological Science van de Universiteit van Maastricht.

Prof. dr. Corine de Ruiter
Corine de Ruiter is als hoogleraar Forensische psychologie verbonden aan de Universiteit van Maastricht.
Artikel

Gekocht, maar niet gekregen

Slachtofferschap van online oplichting nader onderzocht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Online oplichting, Slachtofferschap, Slachtofferenquête, Lage zelfcontrole
Auteurs Johan van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Consumer fraud seems to be widespread, yet little research is devoted to understanding why certain social groups are more vulnerable to this type of victimization than others. The present paper deals with internet consumer fraud victimization, and uses an explanatory model that combines insights from self control theory and routine activity theory. The results from large-scale victimization survey data among the Dutch general population (N=6,201) reveal that people with low self-control run substantially higher victimization risk, as well as people performing ‘risky’ routine activities, such as online shopping and participation in online forums. Though a minority share of the self-control-victimization link is indirect – because people with low self-control are more involved in risk-enhancing routine activities – a large direct effect on internet fraud victimization remains. This suggests that, within similar situations, people with poor impulse control respond differently to deceptive online commercial offers.


Johan van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is werkzaam als universitair docent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie. Contactadres: postbus 9520, 2300 RA Leiden. Tel. 071-5277418. E-mail: J.A.van.Wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Mr. J.H.H.M. Dorscheidt
Artikel

Moord-zelfdoding in Nederland. Een epidemiologisch overzicht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2007
Trefwoorden zelfdoding, moord, slachtoffer, delinquent, doding, kind, levensdelict, databank, vuurwapen, ouders
Auteurs M. Liem, M. Postulart en P. Nieuwbeerta

M. Liem

M. Postulart

P. Nieuwbeerta

    This article examines the historically inverse relationship between the incidence of interpersonal violence and the level of tolerance for the occurrence of violence. The Middle Ages witnessed high homicide rates, but people accepted violent conflicts as belonging to daily life. Homicide rates declined during the early modern period which resulted in a relatively peaceful nineteenth century. Precisely in this century new concerns and fears are visible over youth gangs and street robbery, which in reality were rarely lethal. The inverse relationship persisted until the mid-twentieth century, but then disappeared. While the 1950s and 1960s had low homicide rates and low concern, thereafter both homicide rates and public concern increased. The paper ends with a preliminary explanation for the historical trends observed.


P. Spierenburg
Prof. dr. Pieter Spierenburg is als hoogleraar Historische Criminologie verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit te Rotterdam.
Artikel

The Process of Interlegality in a Situation of Formal Legal

Pluralism: A Case Study from La Cocha, Ecuador

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 03 2009
Auteurs Marc Simon Thomas
Auteursinformatie

Marc Simon Thomas
Marc Simon Thomas (m.a.simonthomas@uu.nl) is a PhD candidate at the Centre for Latin American Research and Education (CEDLA) in Amsterdam and Utrecht University, and affiliated as a tutor at the Department of Cultural Anthropology of Utrecht University. He obtained a Dutch law degree at the University of Leiden in 1992. After a decade of work experience in business services, he continued his academic career in Cultural Anthropology at Utrecht University where he graduated in 2006 (cum laude). Next, he received his masters degree in Latin American Studies at CEDLA in 2008. His current research interest concern indigenous rights and legal consciousness in Ecuador.
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