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Access_open Transnational Fundamental Rights: Horizontal Effect?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden fundamental rights, societal constitutionalism, inclusionary and exclusionary effects, anonymous matrix
Auteurs Gunther Teubner
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Violations of human rights by transnational corporations and by other ‘private’ global actors raise problems that signal the limits of the traditional doctrine of ‘horizontal effects’. To overcome them, constitutional law doctrine needs to be complemented by perspectives from legal theory and sociology of law. This allows new answers to the following questions: What is the validity basis of human rights in transnational ‘private’ regimes – extraterritorial effect, colère public or external pressures on autonomous law making in global regimes? Do they result in protective duties of the states or in direct human rights obligations of private transnational actors? What does it mean to generalise state-directed human rights and to respecify them for different social spheres? Are societal human rights limited to ‘negative’ rights or is institutional imagination capable of developing ‘positive’ rights – rights of inclusion and participation in various social fields? Are societal human rights directed exclusively against corporate actors or can they be extended to counteract structural violence of anonymous social processes? Can such broadened perspectives of human rights be re-translated into the practice of public interest litigation?


Gunther Teubner
Gunther Teubner is Professor of Private Law and Legal Sociology and Principal Investigator of the Excellence Cluster ‘The Formation of Normative Orders’ at the Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main. He is also Professor at the International University College, Torino, Italy.
Artikel

Meervoudig gebruik binnen de gesubsidieerde rechtsbijstand: clusters en triggers

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden legal aid, trigger, cluster, justiciable problem
Auteurs Susanne Peters, Lia Combrink en Mirjam van Gammeren-Zoeteweij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The use and expenditure of the Legal Aid System is ever increasing. In addition, some people make use of the Legal Aid System more often than others. In fact, a small percentage of clients (2,6%) uses a substantial part (11,2%) of the legal aid. This paper sheds light on the occurrence of multiple use of legal aid and gives insight into the frequency and characteristics of multiple use.
    In the research described in this article, we have made use of the data from 2000 until 2009 concerning legal aid that was provided by the Legal Aid Board. This dataset contains over 3 million cases (so-called certificates that are issued by the Board). The main difference between this research and other (paths to justice) studies is that the dataset contains actually provided legal aid and not self-reported problems by clients. Therefore, the representativeness is guaranteed and no false recollections can occur. At the same time, this means that the research is limited to people who are entitled to legal aid (approximately 39% of the Dutch population) and have actually received a certificate.
    The results show that the provision of legal aid leads to new cases for which legal aid is again provided. Also, certain certificates coincide with and act as a trigger for certain other certificates. In the discussion we clarify the significance and implications of the results that are presented. Furthermore, we discuss the recently ordered budget cut in legal aid in the Netherlands. We describe ways to decrease the use and expenditure of the Legal Aid System, some of which are already implemented in the system. Finally, we discuss possible other (non-legal) problems that can be experienced by multiple users of the Legal Aid System.


Susanne Peters
Susanne Peters promoveerde in de sociale wetenschappen aan de Universiteit van Utrecht (2005) op een proefschrift over rechtvaardigheid. Momenteel is zij werkzaam bij de Raad voor Rechtsbijstand, waar zij onderzoek uitvoert ten behoeve van de Monitor Gesubsidieerde Rechtsbijstand.

Lia Combrink
Lia Combrink-Kuiters studeerde rechten aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en promoveerde aan de juridische faculteit van deze universiteit op een jurimetrisch proefschrift betreffende de voorspelbaarheid van rechterlijke beslissingen (1998). Daarna werkte zij bij het WODC aan de evaluatie van twee landelijke mediationprojecten. Momenteel is zij werkzaam als onderzoeker bij de Raad voor Rechtsbijstand, waar zij onderzoek doet op het gebied van de gesubsidieerde rechtsbijstand.

Mirjam van Gammeren-Zoeteweij
Mirjam van Gammeren-Zoeteweij is aan de Universiteit Leiden afgestudeerd als psycholoog. Momenteel is zij werkzaam als onderzoeker bij de Raad voor Rechtsbijstand, waar zij onderzoek uitvoert ten behoeve van de Monitor Gesubsidieerde Rechtsbijstand.
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