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Artikel

Criminaliteit en traditionele Chinese medicijnen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden traditional Chinese medicine, wildlife trade, CITES, green criminology
Auteurs Drs. Daan van Uhm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is deeply rooted in the Chinese culture. Although thousands of animal and plant species are used for medicines legally, some medications contain more sinister elements; illegal animal or plant ingredients of protected species. What is the origin of this demand for rare species as medicine, who are involved in the trade and why is law enforcement complicated? This article will show that the illicit trade in TCM is a form of crime that transcends the borders of China and manifests itself in Western Europe. Various aspects of the trade are highlighted, including criminalization of the use of endangered species, western anthropocentrism and the cultural use of medicine, to understand this relatively invisible crime.


Drs. Daan van Uhm
Drs. Daan van Uhm is als promovendus en junior docent verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie van het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Verzet. Een inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden Birmingham School, Critical Criminology, commodification, Occupy, hackers
Auteurs Dr. Frank van Gemert en Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the introduction of the special issue of the Journal on Crime & Culture on ‘Resistance’, the editors focus on the theoretical history of the concept of resistance in the field of Criminology. Against the background of the Birmingham School and the themes and ideas of Critical Criminology, the authors argue that new issues are rebelled against, and new styles and rituals become en vogue. The street fighting man on the barricades is no longer the obvious icon, and resistance is not per se intergenerational, interclass or a confrontation between minorities and mainstream culture. Resistance may have epidemic proportions as the Arabic Spring. Movements like Occupy or WikiLeaks operate across borders, but resistance also includes subtle transgressions within organizations.


Dr. Frank van Gemert
Dr. Frank van Gemert werkt als universitair docent bij de sectie Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: f.h.m.van.gemert@vu.nl

Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl
Artikel

To resist = to create? Some thoughts on the concept of resistance in cultural criminology

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden resistance, create, revolution, cultural criminology, transformation
Auteurs Dr. Keith Hayward en Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides a theoretical analysis of the label ‘resistance’. It sets out from the premise that the notion of resistance, although it has been current in criminology for some time, is still vaguely defined. We argue that resistance is not just a negative term, but can also be seen as a positive and creative force in society. As such, the primary function of resistance is to serve as a solvent of doxa, to continuously question obviousness and common sense. In the process of resistance we distinguish three processes: invention, imitation and transformation. The third stage warrants deeper investigation within cultural criminology.


Dr. Keith Hayward
Dr. Keith Hayward is hoogleraar criminologie aan de School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, University of Kent (UK). E-mail: k.j.hayward@kent.ac.uk

Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl
Artikel

Access_open Skeptical Legal Education

How to Develop a Critical Attitude?

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2013
Trefwoorden academic learning, skepticism, Oakeshott, judgment, Critique
Auteurs Bart van Klink en Bald de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Law teachers at the university want students to develop a critical attitude. But what exactly does it mean to be critical and why is it important to be critical? How can a critical attitude be promoted? In this article we intend to elucidate the role that critical thinking may play in legal education. We will introduce the idea of skeptical legal education, which is to a large extent based on Michael Oakeshott’s understanding of liberal learning but which relativizes its insistence on the non-instrumentality of learning and reinforces its critical potential. Subsequently, the article presents a teaching experiment, where students, based on self-organization, study and discuss basic texts in order to encourage critical thinking.


Bart van Klink
Bart van Klink is professor of Legal Methodology at VU University Amsterdam and head of the Department of Legal Theory and Legal History at VU University Amsterdam.

Bald de Vries
Ulbaldus de Vries is lecturer of Legal Theory at the Department of administrative and constitutional law and jurisprudence at the Faculty of law, Utrecht University. He is a founding-member of the Working Group on Reflexive Modernisation and Law.
Artikel

Beate Sirota en de gelijkstelling van mannen en vrouwen in artikel 24 van de Japanse Grondwet in 1947

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Japanese Constitution, Japanese Civil code, Women's rights, Beate Sirota
Auteurs Peter van den Berg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Beate Sirota has been described as the ‘heroine of Japanese women’s rights’, because she contributed considerably to the inclusion of a forceful provision on the rights of women in the new Constitution of Japan as a member of the Government Section of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP), headed by General Douglas MacArthur. Her role was serendipitous, because at first the Americans were not planning such a thorough revision of the Meiji Constitution (1890). Sirota was not a constitutional scholar, let alone an expert on the rights of women. She was hired only because she had spent her youth in Japan and spoke Japanese fluently. But once she got involved in the drafting of a new Constitution, her intimate knowledge of the position of women in Japanese society proved very useful. She proposed elaborate and detailed provisions on women’s rights in order to counter the expected resistance. This strategy turned out to be successful. Although Sirota was not substantially involved in the implementation of article 24, she returned to the United States in 1947. Since its introduction the provision has been a firm anchor for proponents of the emancipation of women in Japan.


Peter van den Berg
Peter A.J. van den Berg is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de juridische faculteit van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Vakgroep Algemene Rechtswetenschap en Rechtsgeschiedenis). Hij publiceert onder meer over constitutionele geschiedenis, geschiedenis van het staatsburgerschap en codificatiegeschiedenis. In 2007 verscheen van zijn hand The politics of European codification. A history of the unification of law in France, Prussia, the Austrian Monarchy and the Netherlands. Hij is een van de leiders van het door NWO als onderdeel van het programma ‘Omstreden Democratie’ gefinancierde project ‘Contested Constitutions’.
Artikel

De straat praat? De performance van ‘street credibility’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Performance, street credibility, (gangsta) rap, identity
Auteurs Robby A. Roks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article deals with the performance of ‘street credibility’. A dramaturgical analysis of the lyrics and videos of 15 rap artist from The Hague sheds light on the various ways they try to achieve a credible street reputation as rappers. In their frontstage presentation they highlight their street knowledge, strike violent poses, and claim affiliation to certain infamous local gangs or neighborhoods. Backstage, however, these performances are being deconstructed by other actors who participate in the local street culture and who form a critical, metaphysical audience of the presentations of the rappers.


Robby A. Roks
Drs. Robby A. Roks is als promovendus verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: Roks@law.eur.nl

    In this article I will explore the concept of transgression within the realm of rock music using the biography of Lou Reed, known for such songs as ‘Walk on the Wild Side’ and ’I’m Waiting for the Man’. I discuss Lou Reed’s social transgressions as a reaction to and resistance toward institutions of social control such as family, media and the music industry, which stigmatized him as an outsider. This study, which is based on secondary material, such as biographies, interviews and songs, shows how Lou Reed transgressed social norms with respect to drugs, sex, and gender.


Thaddeus Müller
Dr. Thaddeus Müller is verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: Muller@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

Actieve rechtvaardigheid

Herstelrecht als vruchtbare bodem voor de uitoefening van burgerschap

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2013
Auteurs Brunilda Pali
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article reflects on the conceptual work undertaken during the first year of ALTERNATIVE, a project coordinated by KU Leuven. The overall objective of the project is to provide an alternative and deepened understanding of justice and security based on empirical evidence of how to handle conflicts within intercultural contexts, mainly through the active participation of citizens. The paper focuses mainly on the relation of the concept of citizenship with restorative justice, especially as viewed and enacted in the four intercultural settings of the ALTERNATIVE project. Several issues are discussed: the concept of participatory citizenship in relation to crime and conflict; the claim of the discourse of restorative justice to the concept of participatory citizenship and democracy and the challenges in the restorative justice discourse that complicate its relationship to participatory citizenship. Next, insight is provided in the ways the ALTERNATIVE project tries to tackle some of these challenges, by exploring and strengthening the relationship between the concept of active citizenship and justice in Europe. By targeting the intercultural field the ALTERNATIVE aims to explore the potential of mediation services and restorative justice models to engage with macro societal conflicts that are not referred to these services by the criminal justice system, and on the other hand expand the way some of the crimes referred by the criminal justice system are handled by the mediation services alternatively by fostering alliances with various civil society organisations. Employing ‘action research’ methodology, it is argued that the concept and framework of ‘nodal governance’ (Shearing and Wood, 2003) can serve to support participatory modes of conflict regulation. Interactive settings are created, which allow for spaces between informal and formal justice, and between justice mechanisms at the individual and at the societal level (Aertsen, 2001, 2008). Arguments are provided in support of the need to promote broader models of restorative justice which are able to address social and systemic crimes and conflicts, and which will help the theory and practice of RJ to move beyond the individualisation of crime and its remedies.


Brunilda Pali
Brunilda Pali is onderzoekster aan het Criminologisch Instituut, KU Leuven (LINC). Daar werkt zij aan een proefschrift over ethiek en herstelrecht, als onderdeel van het onderzoek verricht binnen het ALTERNATIVE-project.
Artikel

Verkorten van de tbs-verblijfsduur: een weg uit de crisis?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden forensic care budget cuts, TBS order, treatment time, risk society, risk analysis
Auteurs M.H. Nagtegaal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The economic crisis in the Netherlands forces the Ministry of Security and Justice to cut expenses. In the forensic psychiatric sector, the main savings are expected from reducing the length of stay of forensic psychiatric patients (TBS-patients) in high security hospitals. Currently, over 70% of all TBS-patients do not reach the now set goal of successfully terminating their treatment program within eight years. The present article questions whether it is plausible that this goal will be reached. Research has shown that there are several possible measures that can be undertaken to reduce the length of stay. Examples of these are identifying subgroups of patients who take particularly long to complete their treatment and setting up interventions for those patients, reducing the focus on risks in society and in forensic practice, and the inclusion of protective factors in risk assessment. These factors may help in finding a way out of the crisis.


M.H. Nagtegaal
Dr. Marleen Nagtegaal is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Kiezen voor stadsrepublieken? Over administratieve afhandeling van overlast in de steden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden social disorder, incivility, governance, communal sanctions, Mayor
Auteurs Elke Devroe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The theme of governing anti-social behaviour and incivilities in the public space became more important on the policy and research agenda over the last twenty years. This article describes the law on incivilities in Belgium, namely the ‘administrative communal sanctions’ (GAS). This law is studied in a broader context of contemporary crime control and its organizing patterns. The development of the politics of behaviour can be explained by different characteristics of the period referred to as the late modernity. In the dissertation ‘A culture of control?’ (Devroe 2012) we studied the application and the concrete strategies behind the governance of incivilities on a national and on a city level. The incivility law broadened the competences of the Mayor and the city council especially in the completion of anti social behaviour and public disorder problems in his/her municipality. Instead of being dealt with on a traditional judicial way by the police magistrate, the Mayor can, by this law; himself lay on fines until maximum 250 euro. We mention ‘city republics’ as this punitive sanction became a locally assigned matter, which means that one municipality differs from another in their ‘incivility policy’. Due to the split up of competences of the Belgian state arrangements of 1988, each municipality finds itself framed in different political and organisational executive realities. In this view, Mayors can be called ‘presidents’ of their own municipality, keeping and controlling the process of tackling incivilities as their main responsibility and determining what behaviour had to be controlled and punished and what behaviour can be considered as normal decent behaviour in the public space. Problems of creating a ‘culture of control’, creating inequality for the poor, the beggars and the socially ‘unwanted’ can arise, especially in big cities.


Elke Devroe
Dr. Elke Devroe is Universitair Hoofddocent Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: e.devroe@law.leidenuniv.nl
Artikel

Legitimiteit via procedurele rechtvaardigheid: kunnen herstelrechtelijke praktijken de maatschappelijke legitimiteit van het strafrecht verhogen?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden procedural justice, legitimacy,, restorative justice, mediation,, perceptions of fairness
Auteurs Vicky De Mesmaecker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Contemporary scholarly literature is full of references to the crisis of the criminal justice system. The general public seems to increasingly lose confidence in the criminal justice system and its actors. In this article we look into the potential manners in which restorative justice practices can enhance the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. Our analysis is based on the observation that by actively engaging victims and defendants in the resolution of their conflict, restorative practices seem to accommodate a necessary condition of procedural fairness. Since research on procedural justice and legitimacy in turn suggests that the legitimacy of the criminal justice system is based largely upon its perceived procedural fairness, we investigate whether participation in restorative practices improves perceptions of the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. To that end we describe the results of a qualitative study on the experiences of victims and defendants who participated in victim-offender mediation in Belgium. Relating their experiences to the antecedents of procedural justice as described in the literature, we find that restorative practices in different ways enhance perceptions of procedural fairness. Yet these perceptions do not necessarily reflect on the criminal justice system. Our analysis suggests that the degree to which the perceptions of procedural fairness resulting from participation in a restorative practice influence an individual’s perceptions of the legitimacy of the criminal justice system depends on whether the restorative practice is seen as an integral part of the criminal proceedings. We found, for example, that this is more likely to be the case if the judge at trial formally acknowledges the parties’ participation in mediation. We conclude that more research on the degree to which people perceive the restorative practice to be a part of the criminal proceedings is needed in order to further flesh out this issue.


Vicky De Mesmaecker
Dr. Vicky De Mesmaecker is vrijwillig wetenschappelijk medewerker aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC, KULeuven) en Visiting Researcher aan Yale Law School. Email: vicky.demesmaecker@law.kuleuven.be

    The article deals with an unknown chapter of the history of Muslims in the Netherlands in the interwar period. It follows the public debate about the construction of the first mosque in The Hague before the Second World War. The first initiative was made in 1929 by the Dutch convert to Islam Mohammed Ali van Beetem, who played a leading role among the Indonesian Muslim community in the Netherlands. After more than two decennia of debate and negotiations with the municipal authorities in The Hague, the first mosque was finally built by the Ahmadiyya-mission in 1955.


Umar Ryad
Dr. U. Ryad is universitair docent Islam in de moderne tijd aan het Instituut der Godsdienstwetenschappen van de Universiteit Leiden. u.ryad@hum.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

De Nederlandse veiligheidscultuur als katalysator voor etnisch profileren?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden ethnic profiling, policing, culture of control, stereotyping
Auteurs Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude en Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the past couple of decades, the Netherlands unmistakably has developed into a Garlandian style culture of control. A distinct feature of this Dutch culture of control is the increasing interconnectedness between crime and migration in both public and political discourse. As a result of the growing urge to control potential dangerous others, various stop & search powers have been implemented. Besides by their proactive nature, these powers are defined by the fact that they give a fair amount of discretion to individual police officers in deciding who to stop. In this article, while drawing on criminological, sociological and social psychological literature on stereotyping and the rise of a crime complex, the authors will argue that the structural and cultural changes fuelling the emergence of a the typical Dutch culture of control might also affect the individual choices made by police officers in such a way that it fosters ethnic profiling.


Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude is universitair docent criminologie en verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Email: m.a.h.vanderwoude@law.leidenuniv.nl

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar criminologie en verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Email: j.p.vanderleun@law.leidenuniv.nl
Artikel

De securitisering voorbij?

Een beschouwing over de toekomstige ontwikkeling van het Nederlandse veiligheidsbeleid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden securitization, policymaking, network society, trust and control
Auteurs Hans Boutellier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    It seems common knowledge among criminologists that our societies have to be understood in terms of securitization. This means that security is the defining and organizing concept in (social) policy making. In the Netherlands the process of securitization can be characterized as rather contingent. According to the author, it can be typified as ‘pragmatic securitization’. It is driven by the desire to show decisiveness and being in control of complexity of social order, rather than by ideology. Under the pressure of the economic crisis there is a growing interest in self-organization, civic power and civil society. These themes emerge along the issues of security and control. Is it possible then that security is exchanged by another big social theme?


Hans Boutellier
Prof. dr. Hans Boutellier is algemeen directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en bijzonder hoogleraar veiligheid & burgerschap aan de VU Amsterdam. Email: hboutellier@verwey-jonker.nl
Artikel

Het temmen van de toekomst

Van een veiligheids- naar een risicocultuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden timescape, risk governance, Dutch security culture, historicization
Auteurs Prof. dr. Beatrice de Graaf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    By introducing the historical concept of timescapes, we will investigate the transformation of a security to a risk culture in Dutch post war history. We will test Ulrich Beck’s paradigm of the risk society with respect to the Dutch policy arena, and we will analyze what drove this postulated transformation in the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, not the 1970s/1980s, but the 1990s saw the onset of this change. Concrete trigger moments and the rise of a new populist movement around 1999 signalled the beginning of this new mode of risk governance that was consolidated after 2001. With this description, an attempt to historicize the development of an all encompassing national security culture is provided.


Prof. dr. Beatrice de Graaf
Prof. dr. Beatrice de Graaf is hoogleraar conflict en veiligheid in historisch perspectief aan de Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: b.a.de.graaf@cdh.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

Veiligheid in een laatmoderne cultuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden security culture, neoliberalism, neoconservatism, liquid policy
Auteurs Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg en Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This introduction aims to position the present-day ‘liquid’ security culture in the context of cultural and political developments. Key-words in the cultural patterns in which the new ‘liquid policy’ and ‘new toughness’ is embedded are fear, precaution, late modern anomie and a social hypochondria towards everything that deviates from one’s ‘own’ culture and identity. These cultural phenomena have been translated in political terms, that are divided into neoliberal and neoconservative tendencies. The neoliberal turn in safety politics have resulted in a depoliticisation of democratic decision making, a desolidarisation of ideas on community safety and a deregulation of safety policies. Neoconservative tendencies are reflected in a resentment towards ‘the elites’, ‘the underclass’ and foreigners and a punitive populism, in which claims for stiffer sentences are continuously swept up, regardless of the effect they may have.


Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de sectie Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Website: www.marcschuilenburg.nl. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl.

Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar internationale en comparatieve criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, wetenschappelijk directeur van de Erasmus Graduate School of Law en voorzitter van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Criminologie. E-mail: vanswaaningen@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

Access_open On Fragments and Geometry

The International Legal Order as Metaphor and How It Matters

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden international law, fragmentation, archaeology, Foucault, geometry
Auteurs Nikolas M. Rajkovic
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article engages the narrative of fragmentation in international law by asserting that legal academics and professionals have failed to probe more deeply into ‘fragmentation’ as a concept and, more specifically, as a spatial metaphor. The contention here is that however central fragmentation has been to analyses of contemporary international law, this notion has been conceptually assumed, ahistorically accepted and philosophically under-examined. The ‘fragment’ metaphor is tied historically to a cartographic rationality – and thus ‘reality’ – of all social space being reducible to a geometric object and, correspondingly, a planimetric map. The purpose of this article is to generate an appreciation among international lawyers that the problem of ‘fragmentation’ is more deeply rooted in epistemology and conceptual history. This requires an explanation of how the conflation of social space with planimetric reduction came to be constructed historically and used politically, and how that model informs representations of legal practices and perceptions of ‘international legal order’ as an inherently absolute and geometric. This implies the need to dig up and expose background assumptions that have been working to precondition a ‘fragmented’ characterization of worldly space. With the metaphor of ‘digging’ in mind, I draw upon Michel Foucault’s ‘archaeology of knowledge’ and, specifically, his assertion that epochal ideas are grounded by layers of ‘obscure knowledge’ that initially seem unrelated to a discourse. In the case of the fragmentation narrative, I argue obscure but key layers can be found in the Cartesian paradigm of space as a geometric object and the modern States’ imperative to assert (geographic) jurisdiction. To support this claim, I attempt to excavate the fragment metaphor by discussing key developments that led to the production and projection of geometric and planimetric reality since the 16th century.


Nikolas M. Rajkovic
Lecturer in International Law at the University of Kent Law School. Contact: n.rajkovic@kent.ac.uk. The research for this article was supported by a Jean Monnet Fellowship from the Global Governance Programme of the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute. Further support was given for the presentation and discussion of earlier drafts by COST Action IS1003 “International Law between Constitutionalization and Fragmentation”, the Institute for Global Law and Policy of the Harvard Law School, the Kent Law School and the International Studies Association (San Francisco Annual Convention). I am indebted to the helpful feedback of Tanja Aalberts, Katja Freistein, Alexis Galan, Harry Gould, Outi Korhonen, Philipe Liste, Nicholas Onuf, Kerry Rittich, Harm Schepel, Anna Sobczak, Peter Szigeti, Wouter Werner and the two anonymous reviewers.
Artikel

Stilstaan of meebewegen?

Over de effectiviteit van het opsporingsproces binnen de politie, belicht vanuit de bestrijding van georganiseerde hennepteelt

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Criminele netwerken, Opsporing, Politie, Georganiseerde misdaad
Auteurs Drs. Paul Duijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Various paradigms on the structures of organized crime have shaped the criminal investigational approach within the Dutch police towards criminal networks. The idea of pyramid-shaped mafia structures, as dominant in the 1970s, led to large-scale and long-term criminal investigations, trying to get to the ‘top’ of the network. In the 1990s, the image of separate criminal groups, working independently from each other, led to isolated criminal investigations on distinct criminal networks. Today, new insights that have arisen from scientific studies and police practices call again for a renewal of investigational strategies. As shown in this article, criminal networks are not limited by social, cultural or physical boundaries and show a rapid recovery after interventions by state actors. For these reasons, the efficiency of police practices depends on the extent to which the police is able to move along with these networks.


Drs. Paul Duijn
Drs. Paul Duijn is criminoloog, recherchekundige en als strategisch analist werkzaam bij de Nederlandse Politie Eenheid Den Haag.
Artikel

Access_open The Role of Hierarchy, Example, and Language in Learning

A Confrontation between a Liberal and a ‘Critical’ Understanding of Legal Education

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2013
Trefwoorden skeptical legal education, academic learning, Critique, Knowledge, CLS, liberalism, power
Auteurs Bart van Klink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In The Voice of Liberal Learning, Michael Oakeshott characterizes learning as a strictly non-instrumental activity. In schools and universities, knowledge is acquired for its own sake. Obviously, this liberal understanding of education differs fundamentally from a ‘critical’ notion of education as advocated by Duncan Kennedy and other members of the CLS movement. From a ‘critical’ perspective, Oakeshott’s conception may be seen as yet another attempt – typical for liberalism and conservatism alike – to depoliticize the process of knowledge production and reproduction and to conceal (and thereby to strengthen and legitimize) its effects on the distribution of power, wealth, status and so forth in society. In this paper, the author will confront both views with each other, especially within the context of legal education. The general purpose is to develop a notion of skeptical legal education, which is to a large extent based on Oakeshott’s understanding of liberal learning but which relativizes its insistence on the non-instrumentality of learning and reinforces its critical potential.


Bart van Klink
Bart van Klink is professor of Legal Methodology at VU University Amsterdam and head of the Department of Legal Theory and Legal History at VU University Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Kuhn and Legal Research

A Reflexive Paradigmatic View on Legal Research

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2013
Trefwoorden legal paradigm, scientific revolution, social theory, reflexivity, responsibility, risk society, cosmopolitanism
Auteurs Ubaldus de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article seeks to describe a paradigmatic view on legal research, based on the thought processes underlining Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, in particular as how revolutionary change is coming about through a reflexive attitude towards developments that do not fit in the prevailing assumptions in an existing paradigm or research methodology. It allows for a description of ‘normal legal research’ and the assumptions upon which normal legal research is based. It also allows for an explanation as to how these assumptions are no longer exclusively valid but carry with them limitations in the face of structural developments at the level of society. An important feature of the paradigmatic view, then, is that it is able to take issue with these developments by incorporating social theory in our understanding of law.


Ubaldus de Vries
Ulbaldus de Vries is lecturer of Legal Theory at the Department of administrative and constitutional law and jurisprudence at the Faculty of law, Utrecht University. He is a founding-member of the Working Group on Reflexive Modernisation and Law.
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