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    The main question of this article is why the existing diverse populist movements have at least one feature in common: Crime, security and harsher punishments are high on their political agenda. The author points out that the rise of criminality in the last 20 years is a real basis for the growing anxiety among the population about insecurity. This anxiety is reinforced by the blown up media attention for crime issues. The dominance of the security issue is further explained and enhanced by cultural factors like individualisation, migration and the rise of a vitalist culture characterised by a geografical and normative boundlessness. In this context norm violations are always lurking and contributing to an insecure, complex and chaotic society. (In)security has become the common denominator to which all grievances can be reduced. The creation of new structures giving reassurance could provide a democratic alternative for the unevitable authoritarian tendency in state policy caused by the rise of populism. This type of social order should be understood in terms of arrangements of institutions and of tuning stakeholders to one another. Taking this longing for security among the population seriously means also to stop addressing civilians as consumers and start urging them to act like co-responsibles.


J.C.J. Boutellier
Prof. dr. Hans Boutellier is algemeen directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en bijzonder hoogleraar Veiligheid & burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.

    There is a strange contradiction in the history of Dutch criminal justice. On the one hand, until well into the 20th Century, it was peculiarly backward in terms of criminal procedure that remained based on principles deriving essentially from the era of the first Dutch republic (17th and 18th Century) or even earlier. On the other, The Netherlands was one of the first countries in Europe to lastingly abolish capital punishment without the intermediate phase of continuing executions out of public view. In this, Dutch criminal justice was decidedly ahead of its times. This contribution examines this apparent contradiction that cannot be entirely explained by existing theories on (the abolition of) capital punishment. It must also be seen in the light of the historical role of publicity/transparency for the legitimacy of criminal justice in the Netherlands, its link to a legal culture of public confidence in the criminal justice authorities and the relatively late reception of Enlightenment ideals.


C.H. Brants
Prof. dr. Chrisje Brants is als hoogleraar straf- en strafprocesrecht verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.

    This essay charts the changing status of the death penalty in western societies, from a cultural universal three hundred years ago to a prohibited penalty today, and offers a sociological explanation for that great transformation. The ability to impose the penalty of death is an elementary particle of state power. That power was frequently and spectacularly deployed in early modern Europe as states asserted a monopoly on legitimate violence and absolutist rulers deployed force to subdue their enemies. Once states consolidated their infrastructural power, the ostentatious killing of subjects became less necessary. As liberal politics limited the legitimate use of state violence and established legal protections for individuals, and as cultural change softened state power, the death penalty became increasingly problematic. The character of state power, and the balance between liberalism and democracy, civilized refinement and humanitarian sensibility, explains the pace and extent of death penalty change in specific western nations.


D. Garland
Prof. David Garland is als hoogleraar recht en hoogleraar sociologie verbonden aan de New York University School of Law. Dit is de uit het Engels vertaalde en herziene versie van een lezing die hij op 28 oktober 2010 in Maastricht hield ter gelegenheid van de conferentie De doodstraf voorbij. Voor de lezing is gebruikgemaakt van zijn recent verschenen boek Peculiar institution: America's death penalty in an age of abolition (Harvard University Press, 2010). Volledige citaten en steunbewijs voor deze voordracht zijn te vinden in het notenapparaat achter in het boek.
Artikel

Herstelrecht in een populistische context

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden networks, citizen initiatives, democracy, Populism
Auteurs Hans Boutellier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Hans Boutellier is giving a panoramic overview of important changes in society. As worked out in his recent book De improvisatiemaatschappij (The improvisation society) he describes that society has evaluated into a network society in which social ordering is primarily a matter of self-organizing mechanisms. The aim for self-ordering would be a possibility for a further growth of restorative practices, but at the same time we are dealing with a penal-populist culture. In that culture citizenship, dialogue and self-ordering are suspect and – paradoxically – safety is expected to be delivered only by the state.


Hans Boutellier
Hans Boutellier is algemeen directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en bijzonder hoogleraar Veiligheid en Burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open De droom van Beccaria

Over het strafrecht en de nodale veiligheidszorg

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden Beccaria, criminal law, nodal governance, social contract
Auteurs Klaas Rozemond
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Les Johnston and Clifford Shearing argue in their book, Governing Security, that the state has lost its monopoly on the governance of security. Private security arrangements have formed a networked governance of security in which the criminal law of the state is just one of the many knots or ‘nodes’ of the security network. Johnston and Shearing consider On Crimes and Punishment, written by Cesare Beccaria in the 18th century, as the most important statement of the classical security program which has withered away in the networked governance of the risk society. This article critizes the way Johnston and Shearing analyze Beccaria’s social contract theory and it formulates a Beccarian theory of the criminal law and nodal governance which explains the causes of crime and the rise of nodal governance and defends the central role of the state in anchoring security arrangements based on private contracts and property rights.


Klaas Rozemond
Klaas Rozemond is associate professor at the Department of Criminal Law, Faculty of Law, VU University Amsterdam.
Artikel

Winning the hearts and minds in Nederlands-Indië

Koloniale politie als opbouwmissie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2010
Auteurs M. Bloembergen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This essay is a tentative exercise to compare ideals and practices of daily colonial policing, in particular in the late colonial state of the Dutch East-Indies, to those of present-day international peace and police development missions in post-conflict societies. In both cases we see foreign powers, represented by a minority of experts and professionals, aiming to control (or to assist in controlling) local security problems, out of care and fear; they do so by training indigenous recruits for professional (civil and military) police forces, build on western models of policing which they presume superior. But the most import thing the colonial police and international peace and developmental missions share is their actual weak base of power: both institutions have to operate in states that are characterized by fragmentation of power, by fragile authority and by lack of security control. Both institutions have a problem of legitimacy: the mandate they get from the local population is doubtful. This explains why both the police and international peace missions, whether consciously or not, often fail to solve local power struggles, or to grasp the point of local security problems, sometimes with very dramatic effects.


M. Bloembergen
Dr. Marieke Bloembergen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde te Leiden. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op de onlangs van haar hand verschenen studie over de geschiedenis van de politie in Nederlands-Indië (Bloembergen, 2009).
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