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    Victims of violent crime who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can request financial compensation from the Dutch Violent Offences Compensation Fund (VOCF). Problematic with this is that PTSD is amenable for malingering. Malingering involves the invention or exaggeration of psychological symptoms or the attribution of such symptoms to wrong causes. If malingered PTSD remains undetected, the VOCF will run the risk of compensating damages which do not exist. The literature suggests that malingering can be detected by focusing on extreme scores on symptom screeners. The results of the current study, however, seem to suggest that this may not be an adequate strategy.


Dr. Maarten Kunst
Dr. Maarten Kunst is universitair docent Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open Skeptical Legal Education

How to Develop a Critical Attitude?

Tijdschrift Law and Method, februari 2013
Trefwoorden academic learning, skepticism, Oakeshott, judgment, Critique
Auteurs Bart van Klink en Bald de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Law teachers at the university want students to develop a critical attitude. But what exactly does it mean to be critical and why is it important to be critical? How can a critical attitude be promoted? In this article we intend to elucidate the role that critical thinking may play in legal education. We will introduce the idea of skeptical legal education, which is to a large extent based on Michael Oakeshott’s understanding of liberal learning but which relativizes its insistence on the non-instrumentality of learning and reinforces its critical potential. Subsequently, the article presents a teaching experiment, where students, based on self-organization, study and discuss basic texts in order to encourage critical thinking.


Bart van Klink
Bart van Klink is professor of Legal Methodology at VU University Amsterdam and head of the Department of Legal Theory and Legal History at VU University Amsterdam.

Bald de Vries
Ulbaldus de Vries is lecturer of Legal Theory at the Department of administrative and constitutional law and jurisprudence at the Faculty of law, Utrecht University. He is a founding-member of the Working Group on Reflexive Modernisation and Law.
Artikel

Access_open Empirical Facts: A Rationale for Expanding Lawyers’ Methodological Expertise

Tijdschrift Law and Method, februari 2013
Trefwoorden empirical facts, research methods, legal education, social facts
Auteurs Terry Hutchinson
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines the importance of the social evidence base in relation to the development of the law. It argues that there is a need for those lawyers who play a part in law reform (legislators and those involved in the law reform process) and for those who play a part in formulating policy-based common law rules (judges and practitioners) to know more about how facts are established in the social sciences. It argues that lawyers need sufficient knowledge and skills in order to be able to critically assess the facts and evidence base when examining new legislation and also when preparing, arguing and determining the outcomes of legal disputes. For this reason the article argues that lawyers need enhanced training in empirical methodologies in order to function effectively in modern legal contexts.


Terry Hutchinson
Terry Hutchinson is Associate Professor, Law School at QUT Faculty of Law.
Artikel

Access_open Alternative Methodologies: Learning Critique as a Skill

Tijdschrift Law and Method, februari 2013
Trefwoorden governmentality, methodology, method, skill
Auteurs Bal Sokhi-Bulley
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How can we teach critical legal education? The article tackles this key question by focusing on the role of methodology in legal education and research. I argue that critical legal education requires marketing methodology as a ‘skill’, thereby freeing it from what students and researchers in Law often view as the negative connotations of ‘theory’. This skill requires exploring ‘alternative methodologies’ – those critical perspectives that depart from legal positivism and which Law traditionally regards as ‘peripheral’. As an example, the article explores the Foucauldian concept of governmentality as a useful methodological tool. The article also discusses the difference between theory, methodology and method, and reviews current academic contributions on law and method(ology). Ultimately, it suggests a need for a ‘revolt of conduct’ in legal education. Perhaps then we might hope for students that are not docile and disengaged (despite being successful lawyers) but, rather, able to nurture an attitude that allows for ‘thinking’ (law) critically.


Bal Sokhi-Bulley
Bal Sokhi-Bulley is Lecturer in Law atQueen’s University in Belfast.
Artikel

Regionale risicoprofielen ter versterking van veiligheidscapaciteiten

Overzicht en evaluatie tegen de achtergrond van het externe-veiligheidsbeleid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Regional Risk Assessment, all-hazards approach, multi-criteria evaluation, likelihood estimation, risk diagram.
Auteurs Charles Vlek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A regional risk profile (RRP) is a systematic ordering – by likelihood and impact seriousness – of identified hazards and threats in one of the Netherlands’ 25 safety regions. Since 2010, RRPs follow the Dutch National Risk Assessment (NRA) as a basis for prioritising regional safety capacities. In Europe, RRPs are proliferating, and the corresponding risk-assessment approach is further spreading internationally. The methodology comprises risk identification, scenario development, multi-criteria impact evaluation, expert likelihood estimation, a two-dimensional risk diagram and an analysis and prioritisation of safety capabilities. A compact overview and discussion is provided of the 25 published RRPs for the Netherlands, each covering between 9 and 40 hazards and threats, along with their most and least worrying risk scenarios. It appears that for many regions pandemic disease, electricity black-out and major flooding are most worrying, while transport accident, industry fire and disturbance of water supply are (relatively) least worrying. Also, in different regions similar risk scenarios (e.g., pandemic disease and electricity black-out) are assessed rather differently, both by likelihood and by impact seriousness. Apparent weaknesses of the RRP (and the NRA) approach so far are, among other: lack of stakeholder involvement, rigid multi-criteria impact evaluation, hybrid methods for likelihood estimation, forced comparison of disparate risk scenarios, and unclear decision rules for risk acceptance. Independent review and validation of major RRP components is recommended for strengthening overall results as a reliable basis for regional safety policies. The ‘new risk thinking’ is considered in view of the long-problematic standard-setting approach about Individual Risk and Group Risk in the framework of Dutch external-safety policies. The RRP approach may be called ambitious and much-demanding. External validation and closer cooperation between safety policy-makers and scientists seem desirable.


Charles Vlek
Prof. dr. Charles Vlek is emeritus hoogleraar omgevingspsychologie en besliskunde aan de Faculteit Gedrags- en Maatschappijwetenschappen, Grote Kruisstraat 2/I, 9712 TS Groningen E-mail: c.a.j.vlek@rug.nl.
Artikel

Access_open Private law and ethical life

Honneth on legal freedom and its pathologies

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Honneth, Hegel, social freedom, legal freedom, law, pathologies
Auteurs Jan Ph. Broekhuizen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Das Recht der Freiheit Axel Honneth develops his concept of social freedom. In this article I discuss Honneth’s project and critique one of its crucial aspects: Honneth’s views on the disruptive role of legal freedom in our society and its dependent relation to the sphere of social freedom. I argue that in his attempt in Das Recht der Freiheit to reactualize Hegel’s discourse on the realization of freedom for our time, Honneth risks mistranslating Hegel’s discourse of ‘right’ by denying the sphere of legal relations a constitutive role for true freedom, and that because of this Honneth’s own theory of social freedom suffers: it becomes less clear whether it can still offer helpful insights into the proper place of legal freedom in our society.


Jan Ph. Broekhuizen
Jan Broekhuizen is an attorney (advocaat) in Amsterdam and a deputy judge at the Court of Appeals in Den Bosch (the Netherlands). He holds degrees in both law and philosophy.
Artikel

Access_open Absolute Positivism

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden jurisprudence, legal positivism, Hans Kelsen, pure theory of law
Auteurs Christoph Kletzer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The paper argues that we miss the point and strength of Kelsen’s Pure Theory of Law if we take it to drive a middle way between reductionism and moralism. Rather conversely, the Pure Theory is a radical theory. It tries to overcome the opposition between reductionism and moralism by making clear that both opponents rest on the same ill-conceived convictions about legal validity. Both take it that the law cannot be normative by itself. In contrast, the Pure Theory tries to find a new approach to the understanding of law that takes seriously the constitutive functions of law. It tries to understand the validity of law as resting in law itself. As such it is an attempt to find a philosophically satisfactory formulation of what can be called absolute positivism.


Christoph Kletzer
Christoph Kletzer is a Senior Lecturer at the Dickson Poon School of Law at King’s College in London.
Artikel

Access_open The Role of Hierarchy, Example, and Language in Learning

A Confrontation between a Liberal and a ‘Critical’ Understanding of Legal Education

Tijdschrift Law and Method, januari 2013
Trefwoorden skeptical legal education, academic learning, Critique, Knowledge, CLS, liberalism, power
Auteurs Bart van Klink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In The Voice of Liberal Learning, Michael Oakeshott characterizes learning as a strictly non-instrumental activity. In schools and universities, knowledge is acquired for its own sake. Obviously, this liberal understanding of education differs fundamentally from a ‘critical’ notion of education as advocated by Duncan Kennedy and other members of the CLS movement. From a ‘critical’ perspective, Oakeshott’s conception may be seen as yet another attempt – typical for liberalism and conservatism alike – to depoliticize the process of knowledge production and reproduction and to conceal (and thereby to strengthen and legitimize) its effects on the distribution of power, wealth, status and so forth in society. In this paper, the author will confront both views with each other, especially within the context of legal education. The general purpose is to develop a notion of skeptical legal education, which is to a large extent based on Oakeshott’s understanding of liberal learning but which relativizes its insistence on the non-instrumentality of learning and reinforces its critical potential.


Bart van Klink
Bart van Klink is professor of Legal Methodology at VU University Amsterdam and head of the Department of Legal Theory and Legal History at VU University Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Kuhn and Legal Research

A Reflexive Paradigmatic View on Legal Research

Tijdschrift Law and Method, januari 2013
Trefwoorden legal paradigm, scientific revolution, social theory, reflexivity, responsibility, risk society, cosmopolitanism
Auteurs Ubaldus de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article seeks to describe a paradigmatic view on legal research, based on the thought processes underlining Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, in particular as how revolutionary change is coming about through a reflexive attitude towards developments that do not fit in the prevailing assumptions in an existing paradigm or research methodology. It allows for a description of ‘normal legal research’ and the assumptions upon which normal legal research is based. It also allows for an explanation as to how these assumptions are no longer exclusively valid but carry with them limitations in the face of structural developments at the level of society. An important feature of the paradigmatic view, then, is that it is able to take issue with these developments by incorporating social theory in our understanding of law.


Ubaldus de Vries
Ulbaldus de Vries is lecturer of Legal Theory at the Department of administrative and constitutional law and jurisprudence at the Faculty of law, Utrecht University. He is a founding-member of the Working Group on Reflexive Modernisation and Law.
Artikel

Access_open The Collapse of the Rule of Law

The Messina Earthquake and the State of Exception

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Messina, earthquake, state of exception, rule of law, progress
Auteurs Massimo La Torre
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Messina, a Sicilian town, was devasteted by an earthquake in1908. It was an hecatomb. Stricken through this unfathomable disgrace Messina’s institutions and civil society collapsed and a sort of wild natural state replaced the rule of law. In this situation there was a first intervention of the Russian Czarist navy who came to help but immediately enforced cruel emergency measures. The Italian army followed and there was a formal declaration of an ‘emergency situation.’ Around this event and the several exceptional measures taken by the government a debate took place about the legality of those exceptional measures. The article tries to reconstruct the historical context and the content of that debate and in a broader perspective thematizes how law (and morality) could be brought to meet the breaking of normality and ordinary life by an unexpected and catastrophic event.


Massimo La Torre
Massimo La Torre is Professor of Legal Philosophy at the University of Catanzaro in Italy and visiting Professor of Law at the University of Hull in England.
Artikel

Access_open Globalization as a Factor in General Jurisprudence

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden general jurisprudence, globalization, global legal pluralism, legal positivism, analytical jurisprudence
Auteurs Sidney Richards
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Globalization is commonly cited as an important factor in theorising legal phenomena in the contemporary world. Although many legal disciplines have sought to adapt their theories to globalization, progress has been comparatively modest within contemporary analytical jurisprudence. This paper aims to offer a survey of recent scholarship on legal theory and globalization and suggests various ways in which these writings are relevant to the project of jurisprudence. This paper argues, more specifically, that the dominant interpretation of globalization frames it as a particular form of legal pluralism. The resulting concept – global legal pluralism – comes in two broad varieties, depending on whether it emphasizes normative or institutional pluralism. This paper goes on to argue that these concepts coincide with two central themes of jurisprudence, namely its concern with normativity and institutionality. Finally, this paper reflects on the feasibility of constructing a ‘general’ and ‘descriptive’ jurisprudence in light of globalization.


Sidney Richards
Sidney Richards is Doctoral candidate in Law at Pembroke College at the University of Cambridge.
Artikel

Access_open Transnational Fundamental Rights: Horizontal Effect?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden fundamental rights, societal constitutionalism, inclusionary and exclusionary effects, anonymous matrix
Auteurs Gunther Teubner
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Violations of human rights by transnational corporations and by other ‘private’ global actors raise problems that signal the limits of the traditional doctrine of ‘horizontal effects’. To overcome them, constitutional law doctrine needs to be complemented by perspectives from legal theory and sociology of law. This allows new answers to the following questions: What is the validity basis of human rights in transnational ‘private’ regimes – extraterritorial effect, colère public or external pressures on autonomous law making in global regimes? Do they result in protective duties of the states or in direct human rights obligations of private transnational actors? What does it mean to generalise state-directed human rights and to respecify them for different social spheres? Are societal human rights limited to ‘negative’ rights or is institutional imagination capable of developing ‘positive’ rights – rights of inclusion and participation in various social fields? Are societal human rights directed exclusively against corporate actors or can they be extended to counteract structural violence of anonymous social processes? Can such broadened perspectives of human rights be re-translated into the practice of public interest litigation?


Gunther Teubner
Gunther Teubner is Professor of Private Law and Legal Sociology and Principal Investigator of the Excellence Cluster ‘The Formation of Normative Orders’ at the Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main. He is also Professor at the International University College, Torino, Italy.
Artikel

The relationship between arbitrators and the administrative and judicial organs of the EU

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden International Commercial Arbitration, EC Commission, arbitral discretion, third parties
Auteurs Joanna Kolber
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Arbitration cases involving EC competition law may create difficulties for arbitrators with regard to their attitude towards the EU organs. The article discusses aspects of this relationship. The article specifically evaluates the (non-)application in arbitration of the regime for EC Commission’s relationship with member states’ courts as well as the EC Commission’s role as a third party in arbitrations. The article then analyses circumstances of the possible co-operation of arbitrators with the EC Commission and the conditions for its smooth running. The article subsequently looks at the effects of the Commission’s decisions on arbitration as well as the effects of the arbitral awards on the Commission. The article considers the lack of a relationship between arbitrators and the European Court of Justice in light of the Court’s jurisprudence, and the relevance of the Court’s jurisprudence for particular arbitrations.


Joanna Kolber
Joanna Kolber is master in law.
Artikel

Het meten van onderpresteren bij whiplashslachtoffers

Veelbelovend maar juridisch lastig te vertalen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Vergoeding Personenschade, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden whiplash, symptoomvaliditeitstesten, symptoomvaliditeit, onderpresteren
Auteurs Dr. A.A. Vendrig
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In whiplashzaken worden door medisch deskundigen expertiseonderzoeken uitgevoerd bij het slachtoffer om de ongevalsgevolgen in kaart te brengen. Neuropsychologisch onderzoek is een van de verschillende soorten expertiseonderzoek die geregeld bij whiplashslachtoffers worden uitgevoerd. Sinds enkele jaren zien we een gestage opmars van zogenoemde ‘symptoomvaliditeitstesten’ in neuropsychologische expertises van whiplashslachtoffers. Een andere term die in dit verband gebruikt wordt, is ‘onderpresteren’. In deze bijdrage zal nader worden ingegaan op wat nu symptoomvaliditeitstesten inhouden, wat de reikwijdte ervan is, en zal getracht worden een antwoord te vinden op de volgende vragen: kan onderpresteren ook een gevolg zijn van klachten zoals pijn en vermoeidheid? Zegt onderpresteren iets over de betrouwbaarheid van de onderzochte? Hoe wordt onderpresteren eigenlijk vastgesteld? Zegt onderpresteren iets over de neiging om klachten te overdrijven?


Dr. A.A. Vendrig
Dr. A.A. Vendrig is klinisch psycholoog en werkzaam in Gezondheidscentrum Vledder en Gezondheidscentrum ‘De Wissel’ in Noordwolde en als hoofddocent diagnostiek verbonden aan RINO Noord-Holland (postdoctoraal opleidingsinstituut voor beroepen in de GGZ).
Artikel

Alcohol en agressie: een complexe relatie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2011
Auteurs N. van Hasselt, N. van Bunningen en R. Bovens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Not everyone using alcohol turns aggressive. The effect of a substance like alcohol works differently for different individuals. This is not only due to the substance itself, but also to the drinker's attitude, state of mind and personality, as well as the physical, social and cultural settings in which drinking occurs. The relation between alcohol consumption and aggression is therefore a complex one. Moreover alcohol consumption often takes place in settings and situations where other aggression stimulating factors are present. This article explores the relation between alcohol and aggression on the basis of existing literature. Attention goes to the effects of the substance itself, the drinker and the context in which the drinking takes place.


N. van Hasselt
Drs. Ninette van Hasselt is werkzaam bij het Trimbos-instituut.

N. van Bunningen
Drs. N. van Bunningen is werkzaam bij het Trimbos-instituut.

R. Bovens
Dr. René Bovens is werkzaam bij het Trimbos-instituut.
Artikel

Temperament en antisociaal gedrag in de kindertijd

De rol van empathie, etniciteit en gender

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden zelfregulatie, agressie, jeugdigen, antisociaal gedrag
Auteurs Barbara Zwirs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Previous research in mainly white Western samples has shown that temperament and conscience are important explanations for antisocial behaviour. In the current cross-sectional study among 2,185 children of the four largest ethnic groups in the Netherlands, namely, 684 Dutch, 702 Moroccan, 434 Turkish, and 365 Surinamese children, it was examined how these factors together explain antisocial behaviour and to what extent these relationships are valid regardless of ethnicity and gender. Teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for children from grades three to five of elementary school. The temperament dimension self-regulation was negatively related to antisocial behaviour for boys and girls of all ethnic groups with the exception of Turkish boys. Temperamental fearfulness was negatively associated with antisocial behaviour only for Dutch girls. Irrespective of gender and ethnicity, empathy, an important aspect of conscience, was negatively related to antisocial behaviour. Self-regulation moderated the effect of fear on antisocial behaviour only for Dutch girls and Moroccan boys.


Barbara Zwirs
Dr. B.W.C. Zwirs is universitair docent, sectie Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, zwirs@frg.eur.nl.
Artikel

The Process of Interlegality in a Situation of Formal Legal

Pluralism: A Case Study from La Cocha, Ecuador

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 03 2009
Auteurs Marc Simon Thomas
Auteursinformatie

Marc Simon Thomas
Marc Simon Thomas (m.a.simonthomas@uu.nl) is a PhD candidate at the Centre for Latin American Research and Education (CEDLA) in Amsterdam and Utrecht University, and affiliated as a tutor at the Department of Cultural Anthropology of Utrecht University. He obtained a Dutch law degree at the University of Leiden in 1992. After a decade of work experience in business services, he continued his academic career in Cultural Anthropology at Utrecht University where he graduated in 2006 (cum laude). Next, he received his masters degree in Latin American Studies at CEDLA in 2008. His current research interest concern indigenous rights and legal consciousness in Ecuador.
Artikel

The Dynamics of Legitimacy

A Critical Reconstruction of Max Weber’s Concept

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 03 2008
Auteurs Oliver Lembcke
Auteursinformatie

Oliver Lembcke
Oliver Lembcke is Assistant Professor of political theory at Friedrich- Schiller-University, Jena; secretary general of the Hellmuth Loening Center for Political Science – 1995 MA Political Science, 2002 Mediator, 2004 PhD - Research on political theory and legal theory; history of political ideas; ethics and politics. Recent publications: Hüter der Verfassung. Eine institutionentheoretische Studie zur Autorität des Bundesverfassungs-gerichts. (Tübingen 2007); Des Menschen Würde – entdeckt und erfunden im Humanismus der italienischen Renaissance (Politika, 2008).
Artikel

Case study: the international CSR conflict and Mediation Supply-chain responsibility – the article revisited one year later

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden corporate social responsibility, international CSR conflicts, supply-chain responsibility, CSR
Auteurs Sjef Stoop, Ineke Zeldenrust, Gerard Oonk e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In TMD 2009-2 the article ‘Case study: the international CSR conflict and mediation. Supply-chain responsibility: western customers and the Indian textile industry’ was published. In this article, Tineke Lambooy describes the ins and outs of the multiparty dispute between G-Star, in origin a Dutch company, the Indian-Italian Fibres & Fabrics, the employees of Fibre & Fabrics International, the governments involved and a number of non-governmental organisations striving for good labour relations and labour conditions. Lambooy’s article resulted in four reactions that are published in this article.


Sjef Stoop
Sjef Stoop is trainer-consultant European Works Councils, FNV Formaat. Van 2003 tot 2007 was hij International Verification Coordinator van de Fairwear Foundation.

Ineke Zeldenrust
Ineke Zeldenrust is werkzaam bij Schone Kleren Campagne.

Gerard Oonk
Gerard Oonk is directeur Landelijke India Werkgroep.

Frans Evers
Frans Evers is voorzitter Nationaal Contactpunt voor de toepassing van de OESO-richtlijnen multinationale ondernemingen.

Lawrence Susskind
Lawrence Susskind is Ford Professor of Urban Studies and Planning aan het Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Ook is hij vice chair, Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School.

Tineke Lambooy
Tineke Lambooy is a Senior Researcher at Nyenrode Business University (Nyenrode) in the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and she lectures in Legal Aspects of Globalisation-CSR, and Mergers & Acquisitions at Utrecht University, the Netherlands. She is completing a PhD on the Legal Aspects of CSR. Ms Lambooy assisted Mr Lubbers as a mediator in the conflict discussed in this contribution. E-mail: T.Lambooy@nyenrode.nl or T.E.Lambooy@uu.nl

Ruud Lubbers
Ruud Lubbers is mediator and inter alia former Prime Minister of The Netherlands.
Artikel

Van probleemmeisje naar delinquente vrouw?

Criminele carrières van residentieel behandelde meisjes, van 12 tot 32 jaar

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2009
Trefwoorden vrouwencriminaliteit, meisjescriminaliteit, hoog-risicomeisjes, delinquente vrouwen
Auteurs Thessa Wong, Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld en Dr. Anne-Marie Slotboom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Developmental trajectories are estimated of 147 high-risk girls from 12 to 32, based on conviction data. Four trajectories are identified: adolescence-limited, low frequency desisting, high frequency desisting, late onset. Despite their high delinquency risk, only few girls developed a long-term criminal career. Girls in the trajectories differ with regard to intelligence, self-concept, social skills, aggression, personality disorders, and divorced parents. For each trajectory a profile is given, based on type of offences, personality and background characteristics.


Thessa Wong
Th. M.L. Wong MSc is promovendus, afd. strafrecht en criminologie, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. t.wong@rechten.vu.nl.

Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld is hoogleraar methoden en technieken van criminologisch onderzoek, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam en senior onderzoeker, Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), Amsterdam. CBijleveld@nscr.nl.

Dr. Anne-Marie Slotboom
Dr. M. Slotboom is universitair docent, afd. strafrecht en criminologie, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. a.slotboom@rechten.vu.nl.
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