Zoekresultaat: 19 artikelen

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Peter Cohen
Peter Donald Albert Cohen, PhD, was directeur van CEDRO, Centrum voor Drugs Onderzoek, Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Discussie

Fear of drowning by numbers?

Omzetberekeningen van synthetische-drugsproductie in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Drug trafficking, Organized Crime, Turnover Estimates
Auteurs Judith van Valkenhoef en Pieter Tops
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2018 we published a report on the production of synthetic drugs in the Netherlands. We calculated the turnover of synthetic drugs produced in the Netherlands in 2017; we estimated it to be at least 18.9 billion euro (worldwide, street prices). In this article, we will discuss how these calculations were executed and on which assumptions they were based. We describe the responses to these calculations, nationally and internationally. Finally, we describe problems we encountered when performing a repetition of the calculations for the year 2018. Our central message is: drug turnover calculations can be an important addition to scientific and political discussions about illicit drugs, provided they are presented in a transparent way and acknowledging the inherent limitations of these calculations.


Judith van Valkenhoef
J.M. van Valkenhoef MSc is wetenschappelijk onderzoeker aan de Politieacademie.

Pieter Tops
Prof. dr. P.W. Tops is bijzonder hoogleraar ondermijningsstudies aan de Universiteit Leiden, bijzonder hoogleraar Data Science en ondermijning bij JADS in Den Bosch en lector aan de Politieacademie.
Essay

Onderzoeksmethoden in het antropoceen

Uitdagingen voor een groene criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden green criminology, environmental harm, non-anthropocentric perspectives, transspecies research
Auteurs Stephen Snelders en Nick Verouden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This essay discusses green criminology in relation to the development of non-anthropocentric research perspectives in history and cultural anthropology. Green criminological concepts of ‘environmental harm’ and ‘ecocide’ turn doing harm to nature and ecosystems, even when legal, into object of criminological research. Historical research exploring a wider time frame deepens and enriches criminological understanding of, e.g., wildlife trafficking and climate change. According active agency to animals and other non-human actors and attempts to create a new language transcending human-nature dichotomies, as undertaken in transspecies or multispecies history, anthropology, and narratology, offer substantial contributions to green criminologies of everyday life.


Stephen Snelders
Dr. Stephen Snelders is research fellow aan de Faculteit Bètawetenschappen en het Freudenthal Instituut/History and Philosophy of the Sciences van de Universiteit Utrecht. s.a.m.snelders@uu.nl

Nick Verouden
Dr. Nick Verouden is cultureel antropoloog, Digital Society School, Hogeschool van Amsterdam. n.w.verouden@hva.nl
Essay

Herstelrecht en milieuzaken: een verkenning van mogelijkheden in het antropoceen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden environment, rights of nature, restorative justice, green criminology, Anthropocene
Auteurs Femke Wijdekop en Anneke van Hoek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The environmental crisis makes it clear that our current legal instruments and concepts are not sufficient to effectively combat, remedy and prevent widespread environmental harm. However, new concepts and approaches are being developed that try to reduce these legal imperfections. Our essay explores these developments, in particular the emergence of a legal duty of care for the environment, the rights of nature-movement, the campaign to make ecocide (mass damage and destruction of the environment) an international crime and the application of restorative justice to repair environmental harm. We also advocate a new multidisciplinary perspective launched by us: positive green criminology.


Femke Wijdekop
Mr. Femke Wijdekop is juridisch adviseur en content manager Stop Ecocide Nederland. femke@stopecocide.nl

Anneke van Hoek
Drs. Anneke van Hoek is medeoprichter en manager van Restorative Justice Nederland. anneke.vanhoek@gmail.com
Discussie

‘Let op! Hier wordt gehandhaafd’

Handhavingsonderzoek in vier decennia Recht der Werkelijkheid

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2020
Auteurs Marc Hertogh
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Because of the sharp contrast between the law-in-the-books and the law-in-action regulatory enforcement has always been a popular subject in socio-legal research. This paper looks back at forty years of Dutch research on regulatory enforcement, using several key publications in this journal from each decade. First, it is argued that these Dutch studies reveal three general themes: this research can be seen as a time machine that takes us back to some of the most important social and political events of the past decades, these studies emphasize the crucial role of individual enforcement officials, and in everyday enforcement state law only plays a limited role. Next, this review also discusses some of the strengths and weaknesses of Dutch research. Most studies on regulatory enforcement are more interested in the role of the state than in the role of citizens and businesses. As a result, research focuses more on issues of effectiveness and less on questions of legitimacy. Finally, empirical research is seen as more important than theory development. Based on this overview, the author introduces a new research agenda for future research on regulatory enforcement.


Marc Hertogh
Marc Hertogh is hoogleraar Rechtssociologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Hij was eerder redactiesecretaris en redactielid van Recht der Werkelijkheid en is sinds 2020 voorzitter van de redactieraad.
Essay

Legitimering van massale schade

De narratieve sociologie van Lois Presser

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden narrative criminology, critical criminology, mass harm, narrative impacts, power paradox
Auteurs Dr. Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this review-essay, two books by criminologist Lois Presser are discussed: Why We Harm (2013) and Inside Story: How Narratives Drive Mass Harm (2018). In these books the author develops a general theory of harmful action, in particular collective and massive forms of harmful action that are often related to state institutions and large companies. Presser shows that all kinds of stories, scripts and ideologies may justify, support, cover up or deny harmful action. In her publications, cultural sociology, critical criminology and discourse analysis are intimately intertwined.


Dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is research fellow aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en redacteur van Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit.
Discussie en debat

Aandeelhouderskapitalisme en excessieve beloningen wakkeren fraude aan

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden shareholder capitalism, excessive rewards, fraude, shareholder idealism, long-term value creation
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Marcel Pheijffer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution examines shareholder capitalism and shareholder idealism. It is also argued that excessive rewards – often a result of shareholder capitalism – fuel fraud. Supervisory directors and shareholders should therefore act as a counterforce and fulfil a corrective role.


Prof. dr. mr. Marcel Pheijffer
Prof. dr. mr. M. Pheijffer RA is hoogleraar Accountancy aan de Nyenrode Business Universiteit en de Universiteit Leiden.
Discussie en debat

Overdaad schaadt

Pleidooi voor een verlichte consumptiedruk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Consumer society, Excess consumption, Consumer culture, Green criminology, Corona crisis
Auteurs Dr. Hans Dagevos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The lifeblood of contemporary consumer capitalism is ever-growing and accelerating human needs for new consumer goods and services. Needs that remain unsatisfied on the one hand but defy the carrying capacity of planet Earth on the other. Anything but a win-win situation. Although excess harms, the infrastructure of consumption pays full service to perpetuate and cultivate the ‘more and faster’ orientation of today’s consumers. It is believed that we can cope with excess by taking efficiency measures and paying attention to recycling and refurbishing. This article, however, points out that there is need to rethink consumption and reconsider prevalent orientations dedicated to excess consumption more fundamentally.


Dr. Hans Dagevos
Hans Dagevos is consumptiesocioloog en als senior scientist verbonden aan Wageningen University & Research.
Essay

‘Porn’ graffiti in public space

Between moralization and agonism

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden porn, graffiti, public space, street art, morality
Auteurs Prof. Dr. Lucas Melgaço
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Sexualized graffiti has emerged on walls in Brussels since the beginning of 2013, generating fierce debates. Perceived as street art and a welcome challenge to heteropatriarchy by some and as obscenity and vulgarity by others, these pieces highlight the inherently contested character of public spaces. The controversies around the presence of these paintings in public space relate to what in the literature has become known as moral geographies, that is, the spatial aspect of morality. What should one do about these supposed ‘porn’ pieces: regulate their existence and control potential tensions and conflicts, or let frictions emerge between the partisans and the opponents of such urban interventions? Who gets to say what should be tolerated and what should be regulated in public space? In this opinion piece, I situate this issue between two ends: an agonistic one, in which contestation is the rule; and an excessively regulatory one, in which public space is over-rationalized and normalized.


Prof. Dr. Lucas Melgaço
Lucas Melgaço is werkzaam aan het Department of Criminology van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB).
Discussie

Victimologie en corruptie: over de slachtoffers van een (al dan niet) slachtofferloos delict

Een multidisciplinaire verkenning

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden bribery, corruption, victims, victimless crimes, victim identification
Auteurs Suzanne van Dijk MSc en Mr. drs. Moniek Hutten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There is no clear answer to the question if corruption makes victims. Currently an (international) discussion is taking place about this matter. On the one hand it can be discussed that corruption in general does not know any direct victims and that corruption can even take place without any damage. On the other hand it is known that corruption can cause tremendous public and financial damage, with society as a whole as the victim of this crime, whether or not in primary gradation. In the underlying article these two perspectives will be discussed and applied on two cases. Special attention will also be paid to the impact and relevance of pointing out the victims.


Suzanne van Dijk MSc
S.L. van Dijk MSc is criminoloog bij het FIOD – Anti-Corruptie Centrum.

Mr. drs. Moniek Hutten
Mr. drs. M. Hutten is vaktechnisch adviseur en criminoloog bij het FIOD – Anti-Corruptie Centrum.
Discussie

Alle dieren tellen mee!

Over non-speciesisme in de criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden speciesism, animal rights, animal cruelty
Auteurs Dr. Janine Janssen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminology traditionally focuses on the human experience. However, several criminologists have seriously criticized this anthropocentric perspective. In their view from a criminological perspective humans and other than human animals should be given equal attention. Although they advocate a non-speciesist criminology, they are not trying to fundamentally change criminology as we know it. Instead, their appeal is to not consider other than human creatures as passive objects and solely from the perspective of their usefulness for humans. Yet, this objective poses substantial methodological challenges to criminologists.


Dr. Janine Janssen
Dr. J.H.L.J. Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de nationale politie, lector Veiligheid in afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan Avans Hogeschool en lid van de Commissie Kennis en Onderzoek van de Politieonderwijsraad.

Prof. dr. Frans Leeuw
Frans Leeuw is directeur van het WODC en Professor Law, Public Policy and Social Science Research aan de Universiteit van Maastricht.

Marieke Borren
Dr. Marieke Borren werkte tot voor kort als postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan de faculteit filosofie van de Universiteit van Pretoria, Zuid-Afrika. Op dit moment is ze UD filosofie aan de Open Universiteit en UD gender en postcolonial studies aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Discussie

UNGASS 2016: in de Weense houdgreep

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden UNGASS, drug policy, war on drugs, harm reduction
Auteurs Pien Metaal MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution aims to discuss the main outcomes of the recent UNGASS (United Nations General Assembly Special Session) on Drugs that took place in New York from 19 to 21 April 2016. Based on my own participation in the preparatory discussions and political negotiations as civil society representative (through the work of NGO Transnational Institute), I argue that political divisions and entrenched institutional dynamics have transformed what could have been the beginning of the end of the war on drugs into a wasted opportunity for changing the status quo of the present world regime regarding the production, trafficking and use of illegal drugs. Despite high initial expectations after several governments expressed a clear concern about the effects of purely repressive policies, and the UN decision to organize the session 3 years earlier than planned, very soon it was clear that the session would not imply real changes in the current policies. The agenda setting was non-transparent and controlled by the most conservative factions and countries, largely excluding the views from NGO’s and academics in the final adopted resolution. The final document poorly reflects the rich discussions and developments that are taking place in many countries of the world, particularly the debates and policy developments in ‘the Americas’. A positive note is that the unchanged international UN conventions on drugs can hardly cope with developments taking place on cannabis policies in countries such as Canada, Uruguay, United States or Jamaica. Also other countries are more and more prepared to push for change on other essential questions, including the application of death penalty for drug offences, the access to controlled medicines, or the explicit application of ‘harm reduction’ approaches.


Pien Metaal MA
Pien Metaal, MA, is programmacoördinator van het Drugs & Democracy programma van het Transnational Institute (TNI), waar ze werkzaam is sinds 2002. Ze heeft veel artikelen, rapporten en bijdragen voor boeken geschreven over drugsbeleid in Latijns Amerika sinds 1996.
Discussie

Veranderingen in de visie op druggebruik – van een strafrechtelijk naar een gezondheidsparadigma

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden drug policy, paradigms, criminalisation, harm reduction, health problem
Auteurs drs. Franz Trautmann
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Various studies show that the views on the drug problem and appropriate policy responses have undergone profound changes from the 1960s onward. This article is analysing one of these changes, the decriminalisation of drug use, reflecting a fundamental change of view: understanding drug use as a health issue and not as crime. A useful heuristic to understand this type of change is Thomas Kuhn’s paradigm concept. He sees a paradigm as a set of beliefs that are shared by a scientific community and accepted by a wider community. A paradigm change is therefore a socio-psychological process rather than rooted in new scientific or research facts.
    The author analyses the change from the dominance of a crime to the dominance of a health paradigm reflecting its social-historic context, starting with the widely shared concerns about substance use related health problems in the 20th century. These concerns translated into two different views on the essence of these problems, a crime and a health paradigm. The first served as fundament of the international drug control efforts, resulting in the still governing drug prohibition. Yet, the health paradigm was also of influence from the start and gradually gained weight. From the 1970s onwards the health paradigm became more important as part of a wider reform movement. It started in the Netherlands and the UK as bottom-up process criticising criminalising the users of illicit drugs as inappropriate, detrimental for their health and inhumane. The health paradigm was seen as more appropriate.
    The author reflects on the benefits and disadvantages of the health paradigm. Its primary benefit is that it helps to understand the health problems related to drug use. A key disadvantage is its close relationship with the disease paradigm. The latter fits well with the generally negative view on drugs as dangerous or evil. It is encompassing the risk of ‘pathologising’ all forms of drug use and denying phenomena of unproblematic use for, among other things, recreational or spiritual purposes. Like the crime paradigm it can serve for control purposes. The drug user remains subject of control or disciplining policies and is not in charge of his/her own life. An additional problematic issue is that ‘softening’ the approach towards the users seems to be mirrored by a harder, more punitive approach to the producers and sellers of the substances, which are seen as villains, making available the drugs which deserve harsh punishment for ‘devastating’ the lives of users.
    The author concludes with a short discussion of the well-being paradigm as possible alternative for the health paradigm. It covers a broader spectrum than the health paradigm and helps to grasp the negative impact of (problem) drug use, reducing well-being, but is also useful in understanding the positive sides, enhancing well-being.


drs. Franz Trautmann
Drs. Franz Trautmann was Senior Drug Policy Advisor bij het Trimbos-instituut in Nederland. Hij werkte meer dan tien jaar aan harm reduction-programma’s in Amsterdam en leidde sinds 1990 tal van nationale en internationale projecten rond de ontwikkeling van preventie, behandeling en harm reduction-programma’s in verschillende landen en kwalitatief, praktijkgericht onderzoek (Rapid Assessment and Response). De laatste vijftien jaar legde hij zich tevens toe op onderzoek naar het functioneren van de internationale drugsmarkt en naar de beleidsrespons daarop. Enkele weken na het aanleveren van de laatste versie van zijn bijdrage, op 11 juni 2016, overleed hij geheel onverwacht.

Marjoleine Zieck
Dr. Marjoleine Zieck is Professor of International Refugee Law at the Amsterdam Law School of the University of Amsterdam, and Professor of Public International Law at the Pakistan College of Law, Lahore.

Dr. Ben Vollaard
Dr. B.A. Vollaard is universitair docent economie aan de Universiteit Tilburg.
Discussie

Cultuur op den duur

Een reactie op Bovenkerk en Fokkema

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2015
Auteurs Dr. Frank van Gemert
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Frank van Gemert
Dr. F.H.M. van Gemert is universitair docent bij de sectie criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Discussie

Het kwaad in het daglicht

Geschiedenis in de rechtszaal

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden tribunals, war criminals, post-conflict context, impunity, public censure
Auteurs prof. mr. dr. Harmen van der Wilt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author points out that tribunals against war criminals are characterized by investigations of the broader military and social developments. By outlining the historical context of the violence the public is in a better position to make informed and balanced judgments. Criminal tribunals have a communicative character and great educational potential; they make clear why the Great Evil cannot be accepted and has to be punished.


prof. mr. dr. Harmen van der Wilt
Prof. dr. H.G. (Harmen) van der Wilt is hoogleraar internationaal strafrecht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
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