Zoekresultaat: 24 artikelen

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Jaar 2021 x
Werk in uitvoering

Water bij de wijn: alcohol, legitieme autoriteit en lokale opvattingen over de staat in ruraal Oeganda

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden Alcohol, law, clan councils, the state, Uganda
Auteurs Danse Anna Maria de Bondt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Those people in charge of rule creation, implementation or dispute settlement are often imagined to work with – or relate in some way to – the state. The state is often imagined to encompass full authority on law and governance over the people living in a specific space-time dimension. However, in everyday life, practices that intrinsically connect to the creation of ‘the state’ are not necessarily connected to those actors or institutions representing it, nor do they necessarily help to create or maintain the state’s positive image. In this dissertation I ethnographically study the everyday practices of law and governance in rural Uganda by using a relational approach. I follow lower-level government servants, police officers and clan councils in their work and show how colloquial conceptions of tradition, modernity and (un)officialdom blur what constituted the state, (state-)law and legitimate authority. I use alcohol as a lens through which to study these governance practices as its ambiguous status in decision-making practices of clans opens up a window through which discussions on legitimate authority, governance and the state can be explored.


Danse Anna Maria de Bondt
Danse de Bondt is antropologe en promovenda bij de afdeling ‘Public Law and Governance’ aan de Universiteit van Tilburg en bij het ‘Centre of African Studies’ aan de Universiteit van Edinburgh (UK). Haar werk richt zich op percepties van recht, regulering en de staat in Afrika en hoe dit zich vertaalt naar de alledaagse praktijk.
Artikel

Cultuurchristendom in de strijd tegen modern gnosticisme (deel 1)

Een alternatieve verklaring voor het huidige populisme

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden cultuurchristendom, gnosticisme, populisme, Voegelin, Immanentisering
Auteurs Hans van de Breevaart
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article takes issue with the tendency among political scientists and cultural critics to reduce the current rise of populism to resentment among certain groups in society. Instead, the article argues that particularly right-wing populist cultural criticism is derived from the Christian conceptual foundations of Western culture. Typical for these foundations has been the process of ‘diversification’ as defined by the American political philosopher Eric Voegelin (1901-1985). As such, ‘diversification’ is diametrically opposed to the so-called ‘immanentization of the eschaton’ characteristic of modern Gnosticism. Populism is to be understood as a counter-movement to this Gnostic tendency in politics.


Hans van de Breevaart
Dr. J.O. van de Breevaart is historicus en godsdienstwetenschapper. Momenteel is hij verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Instituut voor de SGP. Van zijn hand verscheen zeer onlangs Threat or Opportunity? A Christian View on Populism in Europe, geschreven in opdracht van Sallux, denktank van de European Christian Political Movement.
Artikel

Wat heeft het populisme de christelijke kiezer te bieden?

Een vergelijking van de verkiezingsprogramma’s van Forum voor Democratie, de Partij voor de Vrijheid, JA21 en christelijke partijen voor de parlementsverkiezingen van 2021

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden Christelijke kiezer, populisme, verkiezingsprogramma’s
Auteurs Marcel Maussen en Vita Appels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, it has often been suggested that the CDA, and to a lesser extent the ChristenUnie (CU) and the Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij (SGP), are losing voters to right-wing populist parties. To examine this proposition, the article first looks at which ‘Christian voters’ would be inclined to vote for right-wing populist parties. Next, a comparison is made between the positions of Forum voor Democratie (FvD), the Partij voor de Vrijheid (PVV) and JA21 and Christian parties, with respect to issues that are important to Christian voters. An analysis of the various election programmes for the 2021 parliamentary elections shows that while there is overlap between Christian and right-wing populist parties when it comes to limits on religious freedom and moral issues, there also remain significant differences and shared positions are often underpinned by very different arguments.


Marcel Maussen
Dr. M.J.M. Maussen is universitair hoofddocent bij de afdeling Politicologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Hij is als redacteur verbonden aan het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.

Vita Appels
Vita Appels studeert politicologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Dividing the Beds: A Risk Community under ‘Code Black’?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Cosmopolitan solidarity, COVID-19, Health care regulation, Risk society, Argumentative discourse analysis
Auteurs Tobias Arnoldussen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the COVID-19 crisis a risk of ‘code black’ emerged in the Netherlands. Doctors mentioned that in case of code black, very senior citizens might not receive intensive care treatment for COVID-19 due to shortages. Sociologist Ulrich Beck argued that palpable risks lead to the creation of new networks of solidarity. In this article this assumption is investigated by analyzing the different storylines prevalent in the public discussion about ‘code black’. Initially, storylines showing sympathy with the plight of the elderly came to the fore. However, storylines brought forward by medical organizations eventually dominated, giving them the opportunity to determine health care policy to a large extent. Their sway over policymaking led to a distribution scheme of vaccines that was favourable for medical personnel, but unfavourable for the elderly. The discursive process on code black taken as a whole displayed a struggle over favourable risk positions, instead of the formation of risk solidarity.


Tobias Arnoldussen
Tobias Arnoldussen is Assistant Professor of Jurisprudence at Tilburg Law School.
Artikel

Access_open Populism, the Kingdom of Shadows, and the Challenge to Liberal Democracy

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Populism, Liberal democracy, Political representation, Société du spectacle, Theatrocracy
Auteurs Massimo La Torre
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Populism is a somehow intractable notion, since its reference is much too wide, comprising phenomena that are indeed in conflict between them, and moreover blurred, by being often used in an instrumental, polemical way. Such intractability is then radicalized through the two alternative approaches to populism, one that is more or less neutral, rooting in the political science tradition, and a second one, fully normative, though fed by political realism, founding as it does on a specific political theory and project. In the article an alternative view is proposed, that of populism as the politics that is congruent with the increasing role played by ‘screens’, icons, and images in social relationships and indeed in political representation. In this way populism is approached as the specific way politics is done within the context of a digitalized société du spectacle.


Massimo La Torre
Massimo La Torre is Professor of Philosophy of Law, ‘Magna Graecia’ University of Catanzaro, Italy, and Visiting Professor of European Law, University of Tallinn, Estonia.
Artikel

Access_open Suffering from Vulnerability

On the Relation Between Law, Contingency and Solidarity

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Vulnerability, Contingency, Freedom and Anxiety, Solidarity, Legal concept of inclusion
Auteurs Benno Zabel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The COVID-19 crisis has produced or amplified disruptive processes in societies. This article wants to argue for the fact that we understand the meaning of the COVID-19 crisis only if we relate it to the fundamental vulnerability of modern life and the awareness of vulnerability of whole societies. Vulnerability in modernity are expressions of a reality of freedom that is to some extent considered contingent and therefore unsecured. It is true that law is understood today as the protective power of freedom. The thesis of the article, however, boils down to the fact that the COVID-19 crisis has resulted in a new way of thinking about the protection of freedom. This also means that the principle of solidarity must be assigned a new social role. Individual and societal vulnerability refer thereafter to an interconnectedness, dependency, and a future perspective of freedom margins that, in addition to the moral one, can also indicate a need for legal protection. In this respect, law has not only a function of delimitation, but also one of inclusion.


Benno Zabel
Benno Zabel is Professor of Criminal Law and Philosophy of Law at the University of Bonn.
Artikel

Access_open Sick and Blamed

Criminal Law in the Chilean Response to COVID-19

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Solidarity, Punishment, Legitimacy, Inequality, COVID-19
Auteurs Rocío Lorca
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Chilean government called upon ideas of social solidarity to fight the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 and it relied heavily on the criminal law in order to secure compliance with sanitary restrictions. However, because restrictions and prosecutorial policy did not take into account social background and people’s ability to comply with the law, prosecutions soon created groups of people who were being both over-exposed to disease and death, and over-exposed to control, blame and punishment. The configuration of this overpoliced and underprotected group became so visibly unjust that appealing to social solidarity to justify the criminal enforcement of sanitary restrictions became almost insulting. This forced the Fiscal Nacional to develop a ‘socially sensitive’ prosecutorial strategy, something that we have not often seen despite Chile’s inequalities. The changes in policy by the Fiscal Nacional suggest that perhaps, at times, penal institutions can be made accountable for acting in ways that create estrangement rather than cohesion.


Rocío Lorca
Rocío Lorca is Assistant Professor at Universidad de Chile’s School of Law.
Artikel

De ‘disposable army’ van georganiseerde misdaadgroepen

Onderlinge relaties en weerbaarheid in de onderwereld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden the underworld, vulnerable youth, securitisation, national security, research agenda
Auteurs Anna Sergi
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article considers the concept of ‘disposable army’ as a recent addition to the agendas of some policing units countering organized crime in the Western world. The idea of a disposable army comes from counterterrorism and national security languages, but it also echoes studies on disposable youth, their delinquency and vulnerability. The author sketches the main lines of arguments on both the securitisation of organized crime and the vulnerability of disadvantaged and disposable children and young people. Also, she reflects on the concept of disposable army in organized crime by presenting starting observations for a research agenda on this subject and by pointing out how unpacking this concept, and its implications, indeed means to understand how relationships, values, and resilience work in the so-called ‘underworld’.


Anna Sergi
Dr. A. Sergi is senior lecturer in Criminology aan de University of Essex.
Artikel

Access_open Tussen tegenhouden en reguleren: de bestuurlijke aanpak van outlaw motorcycle gangs in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden mayors, administrative approach, prevention, barriers, organized crime
Auteurs Teun van Ruitenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch mayors play an increasingly prominent role in tackling (organized) crime. However, empirical research into how mayors fulfil this role remains scarce. Based on 23 interviews with nineteen mayors and sixteen municipal officials, this study reveals the different ways in which mayors have given meaning to the administrative approach of outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCGs) in the period 2012-2017. While the national approach to OMCGs fits within the wider focus in society on prevention and the exclusion of ‘risky groups’, this empirical study shows how mayors give their own effect to this focus at the local level.


Teun van Ruitenburg
Dr. T. van Ruitenburg is postdoconderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Artikel

Het rechtencurriculum als katalysator voor een inclusieve samenleving

Een proeve van ‘systeemkritiek’

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden uitsluiting, democratie, rechtencurriculum, perspectieven, twijfel
Auteurs Martine Beijerman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Students in law school learn to understand the legal system, rulings, and laws. Teachers emphasize the importance of legal principles and democratic values such as freedom and equality. However, at the same time, the society in which the aspiring lawyers will work is often built on structures of inequality, exclusion, and injustice. Law schools have the opportunity and the moral responsibility to make their students aware of the inevitable gap between ideals and the application of laws that facilitate or sustain social injustice. To this end, some reflection on the human tendency to bias and moral overestimation is a necessary first step. This reflection paves the way for the introduction of different theoretical perspectives on justice and injustice within the legal curriculum. Students learn to question and to reconsider dominant assumptions and points of view. These skills are fundamental to develop into lawyers who not only enforce the laws as they exist today but also consider how those laws may or may not be contributing to the preservation of democratic values in our society.


Martine Beijerman
Dr. mr. M. Beijerman (LLM) is onafhankelijk onderzoeker, woonachtig in de Verenigde Staten en auteur van Vreemde eenden. Op zoek naar gelijkheid in een wereld vol anderen (Podium 2021).
Redactioneel

Roldynamiek binnen juridische professies

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Role theory, Legal professions, Occupational role, Role dynamism, Structural functionalism
Auteurs Peter Mascini en Nienke Doornbos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This special issue focuses on the role concept, which has largely fallen out of use in sociology, but which seems ideally suited to analyze the circumstances in which legal professionals work nowadays. Their occupations are often surrounded by constitutional guarantees and professional standards, but at the same time in full swing due to policy reforms referred to as New Public Management and Socially Effective Judiciary (Maatschappelijk Effectieve Rechtspraak). This combination of relative role stability and rapid change can ensure that the predictability and desirability of the interpretation attributed to professional roles become subject of discussion and reflection. The way the role concept is used in this special issue is deliberately decoupled from the much-criticized structural functionalism with which it is often associated. The fact that this sociological perspective has lost much of its sway since the 1960s, because of its conservative character, makes it easier to give dynamics, ambiguity, conflict and resistance a prominent place in contemporary analyzes in which the role concept is central. The authors in this special issue examine whether the role fulfillment by professionals working in the legal field is actually subject of discussion and reflection and how this dynamic manifests itself.


Peter Mascini
Peter Mascini is werkzaam als hoogleraar Empirical Legal Studies bij de Erasmus School of Law en universitair hoofddocent sociologie bij de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen. Tevens is hij programmadirecteur van de opleiding sociologie en lid van het managementteam van het Erasmus Center for Empirical Legal Studies (ECELS). Hij verricht onderzoek naar de legitimering, uitvoering en handhaving van wetgeving en beleid.

Nienke Doornbos
Nienke Doornbos is universitair docent en onderzoeker bij de afdeling Algemene Rechtsleer, Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit van Amsterdam. Zij rondde in 2021 een empirisch onderzoek af naar probleemoplossende rechtspraak. Haar onderzoeksexpertise ligt op het terrein van kwalitatief, rechtssociologisch onderzoek naar toegang tot recht en de organisatie en beroepsethiek van juridische professies.
Artikel

Access_open Time and Law in the Post-COVID-19 Era: The Usefulness of Experimental Law

Special Issue Experimental Legislation in Times of Crisis, Sofia Ranchordas & Bart van Klink (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, september 2021
Trefwoorden COVID-19, time and law, law-making, parliament, government, legal certainty
Auteurs Erik Longo
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The COVID-19 pandemic swept the world in 2020 impelling us to reconsider the basic principles of constitutional law like the separation of power, the rule of law, human rights protection, etc. The two most pressing legal issues that have attracted the attention of legal scholars so far are, on the one hand, the different regulatory policies implemented by governments and, on the other, the balance among the branches of government in deciding matters of the emergency. The pandemic has determined a further and violent acceleration of the legislature’s temporal dimension and the acknowledgement that, to make legislation quicker, parliament must permanently displace its legislative power in favour of government. Measures adopted to tackle the outbreak and recover from the interruption of economic and industrial businesses powerfully confirm that today our societies are more dependent on the executives than on parliaments and, from a temporal perspective, that the language of the law is substantially the present instead of the future. Against this background, this article discusses how the prevalence of governments’ legislative power leads to the use of temporary and experimental legislation in a time, like the pandemic, when the issue of ‘surviving’ becomes dominant.


Erik Longo
Prof. Dr. Erik Longo is associate professor of Constitutional Law at the University of Florence.

Lukas van den Berge
Lukas van den Berge is assistent professor of legal theory at Utrecht University.
Artikel

Access_open Civilisatie en emancipatie, maar van wie precies?

Twee eeuwen gevangen dertig jaar later

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden civilization process, emancipation of prisoners, penality, history of the prison system, modernity and late modernity
Auteurs René van Swaaningen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 1990, criminologist Herman Franke published a seminal book on 200 years detention in the Netherlands. For the occasion of the reissue of this book in 2020, the question is posed to what extent Franke’s vision of a gradual ‘emancipation’ of prisoners, in the realm of a societal ‘civilization process’, as it is put forward by Norbert Elias, still holds today. The author confronts the civilization perspective with the three main competing paradigms in penology, derived from the work of Émile Durkheim, Max Weber and Michel Foucault. After describing some recent developments in penal practices, he concludes that despite the fact that sanctioning is increasingly taking place within society, which can well be analyzed from an eliasian perspective, there is little reason to still adhere to the progress optimism, implicit in Franke’s book, and that today we rather witness an emancipation of the ‘angry citizen’, in which vulnerable groups in society, such as prisoners, are despised rather than ‘emancipated’.


René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. R. van Swaaningen is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Voorbij de horizon

Bauhaus, moderniteit en de Unrechtstaat

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Bauhaus, National Socialism, architecture, Bauhäusler
Auteurs Martina Althoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article discusses the connection between Bauhaus, a modern art and architecture school founded in 1919, and National Socialism. The central question is to what extent modern ideas about art and culture, architecture and modern life went hand in hand with the emerging and assertive National Socialist ideas. In the review of an art and architecture collection, activities of famous Bauhaus figures are traced in order to discuss the Bauhaus myth. Accordingly, it must be concluded that neutrality of art and architecture does not exist and Bauhaus modernity was not incompatible with National Socialism.


Martina Althoff
Dr. Martina Althoff is universitair hoofddocent criminologie in de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en redacteur van Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit.
Artikel

Levensbeschouwelijk perspectief op goed bestuur in onzekere tijden

De dreiging van een gesloten samenleving keren

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden reflexiviteit, open samenleving, post-seculier, Nederigheid, improvisatie
Auteurs Robert van Putten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What is a good governance approach to uncertainty or reflexivity? Reducing uncertainty is an important task of policy and governance, but it can also derail. That is why good governance includes holding space for uncertainty. A Christian worldview provides insights for a more relaxed handling of uncertainty. The notions of certitudo, improvisation and humility are then central. Together, they form building blocks for a post-secular perspective on governance in times of crisis.


Robert van Putten
Dr. R.J. van Putten promoveerde aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam op een bestuursfilosofisch proefschrift getiteld De ban van beheersing (2020). Momenteel werkt hij als onderzoeker aan het Wetenschappelijk Instituut van de ChristenUnie en aan het lectoraat Bezieling & Professionaliteit van de Christelijke Hogeschool Ede.
Essay

Dubbel gevangen

Over slachtofferschap en dieren in het antropoceen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden dieren, antropoceen, dierethiek, slachtofferschap
Auteurs Joost Leuven, Eva Meijer en Bernice Bovenkerk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, there has been a shift within animal ethics, in which animals are no longer seen purely as passive suffering subjects, but attention is also being paid to their role as agents. In this essay, we look at what that agency means and argue that in the Anthropocene animals are actually victimized in two ways: because their agency is literally curtailed by human actions and because at the knowledge level agency is taken away from them: we see them as victims even when they are not. In this text, we focus on zoo animals to illustrate how this works.


Joost Leuven
Joost Leuven, MA, MSc. jleuven@gmail.com

Eva Meijer
Eva Meijer, PhD, is post-doc, Wageningen University. eva1.meijer@wur.nl

Bernice Bovenkerk
Bernice Bovenkerk, PhD, is universitair hoofddocent, Wageningen University. bernice.bovenkerk@wur.nl
Significant others

Susanne Karstedt

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Maartje Weerdesteijn
Auteursinformatie

Maartje Weerdesteijn
Dr. Maartje Weerdesteijn, MSc, is universitair docent bij de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, en onderzoeker bij het Center for International Criminal Justice. m.weerdesteijn@vu.nl

Toine Spapens
Professor Toine Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan Tilburg University. a.c.spapens@tilburguniversity.edu
Artikel

Burgers als institutioneel werkers. Een nieuw perspectief op burgerparticipatie in veiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden institutional work, citizen participation, fire, disruption, actor perspective
Auteurs Jasper Bongers en Wim de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we show how the concept of ‘institutional work’ can be used to study citizen participation in the field of security arrangements. Institutional work starts from the perspective of actors trying to influence security institutions, and not from the perspective of government (as concepts like the ‘participation society’ and ‘ladder’ do). As such, this dynamic concept can be a useful addition to the conceptual arsenal of security experts. By applying the concept to the case of the Voluntary Fire Brigade in nineteenth-century Utrecht (1879-1890) we show how institutional work can work in practice. Finally, we reflect on the contribution that institutional work can make to our understanding of citizen participation in the field of safety.


Jasper Bongers
Jasper Bongers is promovendus aan de Open Universiteit. jasper.bongers@ou.nl

Wim de Jong
Wim de Jong is postdoc aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en Radboud Universiteit. wpthdejong@gmail.com
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