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Artikel

Reclassering, beeldvorming en identiteit

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Probation, Parole, identity advice, probation supervision, community service
Auteurs Prof. dr. Peter van der Laan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The probation service gives advice to the court tens of thousands of time each year, coordinates tens of thousands of community service orders, and supervises tens of thousands of offenders. This is done professionally and takes place without much incidents or problems. However, the probation is not very well known to the general public. The identity of probation is also ambiguous and therefore not strong. There is less appreciation for the probation than they deserve. This can be met by making the probation service responsible for the implementation of all community-based sanctions (suspended sentences and other conditional modalities and community service orders), similar to the responsibility of the prison system for custodial sanctions and measures. Secondly, by differentiation in the nature and intensity of activities. Many probation clients do well. They represent only a low risk, and probation involvement may be limited. For other clients, more is needed: more activities, greater intensity and focus on criminogenic needs. It is proposed to distinguish between probation and probation plus. In both, probation supervision and community service are at the center, but the plus version is emphatically more focused on rehabilitation and reintegration, and thus on minimizing recidivism. This requires more efforts by the probation service. It also requires adapting the organization: one probation organization that is accountable and responsible for the implementation of community-based sanctions, but with the possibility to outsource work if special expertise and special activities are required.


Prof. dr. Peter van der Laan
Prof. dr. Peter van der Laan is verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit en het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Artikel

Actuele opvattingen inzake civiel schadeverhaal via het strafproces

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden schadevergoeding, voeging benadeelde partij, onevenredige belasting, convergentie strafrecht/civielrecht
Auteurs Dr. Renée Kool en Mr. dr. Jessy Emaus
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Crime victims’ compensation is a focal point of interest within the present Dutch penal policy. Coming forward as an injured party, crime victims may claim compensation for pecuniary and non-pecuniary damages from the prepetrator. Since the claim is of a subsidiary, civil nature, the decision making may not represent an undue burden to the criminal procedure. To further compensation, the legal criterion for accessibility was extended (2010) and policy measures were taken. The article provides an overview of the most important findings of an evaluation into to date’s practice, paying special attention to the opinion of legal professionals. Focussing on both the preparatory and the trial phase, a multidisciplinary research was executed, combining quantitative and qualitative research methods. The results show an increase of the amount of claims awarded since 2007. To date, victims’ compensation is commonly accepted within the Dutch criminal procedure. Nevertheless, the legal professionals point at the potential draw backs that sprout from the acknowledgment of the victim as a participant within the Dutch criminal proceedings.


Dr. Renée Kool
Dr. Renée Kool is universitair hoofddocent Strafrecht aan de Universiteit Utrecht en als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Utrechtse onderzoekscentrum Ucall.

Mr. dr. Jessy Emaus
Mr. dr. Jessy Emaus is universitair docent Privaatrecht aan de Universiteit Utrecht en als onderzoeker verbonden aan de Utrechtse onderzoekscentra Ucall en Renforce, en is SIM-fellow.
Artikel

De relatie tussen racisme en criminaliteit in Nederland

Een verkennende studie onder Surinaamse en Caribische Nederlanders

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden Surinaamse en Caribische migranten, Racisme, Huidskleur, Criminaliteit
Auteurs Dr. Katharina J. Joosen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Surinamese and Dutch Caribbean migrants have been overrepresented in (official) Dutch crime statistics for years. From Hirschi’s Social Control Theory and the Theory of African-American Offending, this study investigates to what degree racism based on skin color is related to self-reported offending among Surinam and Dutch Caribbean migrants in The Netherlands. A total of 91 online questionnaires were filled out regarding skin color, experiences with racism, and offending. Results show that darker-skinned respondents experienced more racism and that more racism was reported by the respondents who committed more offenses; especially regarding violent and drug-related offenses.


Dr. Katharina J. Joosen
Dr. Katharina Joosen is postdoctoraal onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving.
Artikel

Wetenschap en de beroepspraktijk: partners in veiligheidszorg

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2016
Trefwoorden Wetenschappelijk onderzoek, Praktijkgericht onderzoek, Veiligheid, Valorisatie
Auteurs Prof. dr. Emile Kolthoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the relationship between science and professional practice from the presumption that the two need and reinforce each other. The distinction between theoretical and applied research is rather small and maybe even fictional. This is also true for research in the area of public safety. However, we deal with a very specific area of research here that sometimes requires specific requirements concerning publications and trust.


Prof. dr. Emile Kolthoff
Prof. dr. Emile Kolthoff is lector Veiligheid, Openbare orde en Recht aan de Avans Hogeschool. Hij is fellow bij de onderzoeksgroep Quality of Governance aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en hoogleraar Criminologie aan de faculteit Rechtswetenschappen van de Open Universiteit.
Praktijk

10 jaar VNJA: het verlanglijstje van een jarige

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2016
Auteurs Mr. Cindy Koole en Coosje Peterse
Auteursinformatie

Mr. Cindy Koole
Cindy Koole is voorzitter van de Vereniging van Nederlandse Jeugdrechtadvocaten (VNJA) en (jeugdrecht)advocaat bij Olie & De Jonge in Goes).

Coosje Peterse
Coosje Peterse is bestuurslid van de HVJA Haagse vereniging van jeugdrechtadvocaten (HVJA), (jeugdrecht)advocaat bij Sennef De Koning van Eenennaam Advocaten in Den Haag en redacteur van PROCES.

Mr. dr. Ard Schoep
Mr. dr. Ard Schoep is officier van justitie te Den Haag en redactielid van PROCES.
Praktijk

Dadendrang

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2015
Auteurs Mr. Justus Candido
Auteursinformatie

Mr. Justus Candido
Mr. Justus Candido is rechter-commissaris in de Rechtbank Noord-Holland en als promovendus verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Schadevergoedingsregelingen voor slachtofferschap van seksueel misbruik: kwetsbaar voor fraude?

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Schadevergoedingsregelingen, Slachtofferschap, Seksueel misbruik, Fraude
Auteurs Dr. mr. Maarten Kunst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Lately, several private and public compensation schemes have been established in the Netherlands for people who have been sexually abused as a minor by representatives of the Catholic Church, childcare workers or foster parents. Eligible for compensation are those who can make a reasonable case of the likelihood that they have been sexually abused. They do not have to provide indisputable proof of the abuse. The author of this article argues that this low burden of proof makes these compensation schemes vulnerable to fraud. He supports his argumentation with several examples of dishonest victims who have been unmasked as fraudsters. Furthermore, he explains that undetected fraud can have several adverse by-effects, such as the condemnation of falsely accused persons and impairment of the credibility of compensation schemes and agencies that run such schemes. The author concludes with emphasizing the need for more explicit policies on fraud prevention, detection, and control.


Dr. mr. Maarten Kunst
Dr. mr. M.J.J. Kunst is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

‘Moral hazard’ onder slachtoffers van identiteitsfraude? De relatie tussen schadevergoeding bij onterechte bankafschrijvingen en riskant internetgedrag

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Identiteitsfraude, Schadevergoeding, Online activiteiten, Onbedoelde gevolgen
Auteurs Dr. Johan Van Wilsem en Levy Paulissen MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Due to digitalization of modern societies, identity fraud is becoming a serious problem. Until recently, Dutch victims of unauthorized cash withdrawals from their bank accounts were reimbursed by their banks in most instances. Because most victims were not confronted with financial damages, this generous reimbursement policy may have unintendedly stimulated moral hazard among victims, due to a lack of incentives to change risky behavior and avoid future victimization. This paper therefore compares post-victimization changes in Internet activities among reimbursed victims of identity fraud and non-reimbursed victims, as well as non-victims. For this purpose, large-scale, representative victimization survey data were used from the Dutch LISS-panel. Overall, we found no differences in Internet activity change between the distinguished groups, which points to the absence of moral hazard in this specific case.


Dr. Johan Van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Levy Paulissen MSc
Levy Paulissen MSc is werkzaam als stagiair bij Europol (afdeling cybercrime).
Artikel

Over een verdrinkend kalf en groener gras

Een beschouwing van de Nederlandse en Belgische gedragskundige rapportage in strafzaken

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden gedragskundige rapportage strafrecht, rapportage pro justitia, psychiatrische expertise
Auteurs Mr. Merijne Groeneweg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the Belgian criminal trial on Kim de Gelder, Belgian forensic psychiatry was criticized. Forensic psychiatrists seemed to be longing for the Dutch practice. Was this justified? In this article, the psychological and psychiatric report in criminal cases in the Netherlands and Belgium are compared. Subjects of criticism are analyzed. Important differences exist regarding to the competency assessment the experts, their research possibilities, the (legal) requirements to the psychological and psychiatric report and the concept of ‘toerekeningsvatbaarheid’. New Belgian legislation can be a basis for improvement. Taking the differences into account, the Dutch practice could service on improving certain criticized aspects.


Mr. Merijne Groeneweg
Mr. Merijne Groeneweg was tot 1 januari 2015 jurist bij het NIFP, locatie Pieter Baan Centrum.

Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude is universitair hoofddocent Straf- en strafprocesrecht bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Zij is tevens redactielid van PROCES.

    Victims of violent crime who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can request financial compensation from the Dutch Violent Offences Compensation Fund (VOCF). Problematic with this is that PTSD is amenable for malingering. Malingering involves the invention or exaggeration of psychological symptoms or the attribution of such symptoms to wrong causes. If malingered PTSD remains undetected, the VOCF will run the risk of compensating damages which do not exist. The literature suggests that malingering can be detected by focusing on extreme scores on symptom screeners. The results of the current study, however, seem to suggest that this may not be an adequate strategy.


Dr. Maarten Kunst
Dr. Maarten Kunst is universitair docent Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Het slachtoffer centraal?

Opinie ten aanzien van slachtofferrechten in Nederland

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2013
Trefwoorden opinie over slachtofferrechten, slachtofferrechten in Nederland, attitudes, willingness to pay
Auteurs Dr. Karlijn F. Kuijpers, Sanne van Parera en Lieke Popelier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of the current study is to provide insight in the support for victim rights among Dutch citizens. Although it is generally assumed that the Dutch public supports these rights, empirical research into this topic appears to be scarce. The opinion with regard to four victim rights was established in two ways. Firstly, respondents were asked about their attitudes and, secondly, about their willingness to pay extra taxes for those rights. Respondents’ attitudes concerning the victim rights in this study appear to be positive; their willingness to pay, however, is low. Findings indicate the importance of combining conventional attitude questions with alternative methods (such as questions about willingness to pay) when studying public preferences and opinions.


Dr. Karlijn F. Kuijpers
Dr. Karlijn Kuijpers is universitair docent Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden

Sanne van Parera
Sanne van Parera was ten tijde van het onderzoek bachelorstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Lieke Popelier
Lieke Popelier was ten tijde van het onderzoek bachelorstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Column

Het verfrommelde slachtoffer

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2013
Auteurs Mr. Jeannette Bruins
Auteursinformatie

Mr. Jeannette Bruins
Mr. Jeannette Bruins is rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Utrecht en raadsheer-plaatsvervanger bij het Gerechtshof Amsterdam. Zij is tevens redactielid van PROCES.
Artikel

Wel de lasten, niet de lusten

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden migration law, detention law, human rights, crimmigration
Auteurs LLB. Anne Beckers, Lonneke Bontje MSc., LLB. Silvia Gardini e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper reviews the status quo of immigration law in the Netherlands in regard to the human rights of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). Based on a thorough reading of the literature, Dutch detention law and policies aimed at immigrants are reviewed in relation to articles 3, 5 and 6 ECHR and 9 ICCPR to see whether they are compatible and whether a breach of human rights takes place in Dutch detention centres. Even though the ECHR has not yet ruled that Dutch immigration detention breaches drawn conclusions as to a potential breach of human rights, the writers of this paper argue that Dutch policy does potentially violate some of them.


LLB. Anne Beckers
Anne Beckers LLB. is student straf- en strafprocesrecht aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Lonneke Bontje MSc.
Lonneke Bontje MSc. studeerde forensische criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

LLB. Silvia Gardini
Silvia Gardini LLB. is student straf- en strafprocesrecht en civiel recht aan de Universiteit Leiden.

David Pinchasik
David Pinchasik is student rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Maatregel of dubbele bestraffing?

Het misleidende instituut van de vervangende hechtenis bij de schadevergoedingsmaatregel

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2012
Trefwoorden Order for damages, Substituting detention, Convicted persons, Victim
Auteurs An Klaasse en Mr. Sjoerd van Berge Henegouwen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    When an order for damages – or ‘schadevergoedingsmaatregel’ – has been given in Dutch criminal proceedings, the administering judge subsequently has to order that if the convicted person fails to pay the order, so-called substituting detention will be applied (art. 36f par. 6 jo. 24c of the Dutch Criminal Code). This implies that persons who have been long-term convicted and/or have been placed at the disposal of the government (‘terbeschikkingstelling’) and who do not have the financial capacity to pay a substantial amount of the order for damages, need to undergo an inevitable substituting detention. Therefore, the term ‘substituting’ is misleading, since it does not eliminate the duty to pay the order for damages. For this reason, convicted persons with little financial capacity are de facto administered two punishments, the order for damages ánd the ‘substituting’ detention. Moreover, for both victims and society as a whole, the measure does not provide any solace. This article will discuss the legal and practical issues of the substituting detention related to the order for damages concerning convicted persons as well as the consequences for society and victims.


An Klaasse
An Klaasse is studente Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit van Maastricht.

Mr. Sjoerd van Berge Henegouwen
Mr. Sjoerd van Berge Henegouwen is advocaat te Maastricht.
Artikel

Op het land in plaats van achter het raam

Aard en omvang van arbeidsuitbuiting in Nederland

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2012
Trefwoorden Human trafficking, Labour exploitation, Illegal migration
Auteurs Daphne Postma MSc. en Dr. Joris van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2005 article 273 of the Dutch criminal code does not only qualify exploitation of prostitutes as a criminal act, but also exploitation taking place in other sectors. Seven years down the line not much is known about this type of human trafficking. Based on an analysis of files of the Dutch Social Security Investigation and Detection Service (ISZW-DO) this article describes in which sectors such exploitation takes place, the characteristics of both victims and (alleged) perpetrators and the modus operandi used. The article concludes and emphasizes that especially subtle means of coercion are used, but that these can transform into more serious types of coercion.


Daphne Postma MSc.
Daphne Postma MSc. is in 2011 afgestudeerd als criminoloog aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Dr. Joris van Wijk
Dr. Joris van Wijk is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, j.van.wijk@vu.nl.
Artikel

Voorwaardelijke PIJ-maatregel of voorwaardelijke jeugddetentie?

Een vergelijking van problematiek van de jeugdigen en invulling van de sancties

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden conditional juvenile detention, conditional PIJ-measure, change of behaviour, punishment
Auteurs MSc Aniek Verwest
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Juvenile detention and the custodial measure ‘institutional placement order’ (plaatsing in een inrichting voor jeugdigen; PIJ-measure) are often administered by the court under conditions at first. It is unknown to what extend it is possible to make a distinction between a punishment and a treatment measure looking at both conditional penalties. In order to gain more information about the differences and similarities between these conditional penalties, the verdicts of juvenile offenders have been studied. The study involves a group of juvenile offenders with a conditional PIJ-measure and a group of juvenile offenders with a conditional juvenile detention. The results reveal that there are considerable similarities between the two groups. The high prevalence of behavioural problems and disorders in the group juvenile offenders with a conditional juvenile detention is particularly notable. Conditional juvenile detention may include treatment of the behavioural problems and disorders, but if the conditional juvenile detention is transformed into unconditional juvenile detention there will be no individual and specific treatment of these disorders.


MSc Aniek Verwest
Aniek Verwest MSc studeerde Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, met als specialisatie Jeugd, Samenleving en Criminaliteit. Momenteel volgt zij de master Strafrecht aan diezelfde universitieit.
Artikel

De verstandelijk beperkte verdachte verhoord

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden mental retardation, interrogation, vulnerable suspects, Freedom to speak
Auteurs Mr. Gerben van Oijen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Suspects with a mental retardation are a vulnerable group in the judicial investigation. This group of suspects is more susceptible to influence and there is an increased risk of getting an incomplete, inaccurate and inconsistent statement. That is the reason why on an extremely careful manner should be dealt with these suspects. It appears that this degree of care in an interrogatory often will not be respected. This article analyses the current safeguards surrounding the interrogation of mentally retarded suspects. It remains to be seen whether the current rules for the interrogation of mental retarded suspects will safeguard their position adequately.


Mr. Gerben van Oijen
Mr. G.M.J. van Oijen is advocaat bij Van Iersel Luchtman Advocaten in Breda.
Artikel

Vakmanschap is meesterschap

Risico’s van classificatie, risicotaxatie en registratie van delinquente jongeren

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden diagnostiek, classificatie, risicotaxatie, stigmatisering
Auteurs Dr. Nils Duits
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Betrokkenen bij het jeugdstrafrecht denken vanuit verschillende domeinen anders over wat er aan de hand is met jongeren die in aanraking komen met justitie en over wat nodig en mogelijk is om daar verandering in aan te brengen. Dat leidt soms tot te hoge verwachtingen en misverstanden en het kan leiden tot stigmatisering van delinquente jongeren als geclassificeerd risico- en probleemgeval.In dit artikel worden de verschillende domeinen en domeinverschillen van de betrokkenen belicht. Vervolgens wordt stilgestaan bij de noodzaak en beperkingen van psychiatrische diagnostiek, classificatie en risicotaxatie van delinquente jongeren en welke rol overleg en registratie en het delen van informatie daarbij kunnen spelen.


Dr. Nils Duits
Dr. Nils Duits is kinder- en jeugdpsychiater en is programmaleider Kwaliteit en Innovatie bij het Nederlands Instituut voor Forensische Psychiatrie en Psychologie (NIFP).
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