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Artikel

Restorative justice en normconform gedrag: een systematische review

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Herstelrecht, Regelnaleving, normconform gedrag, restorative justice
Auteurs Dr Marieke Kluin en Dr Selma Albayrak
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Restorative justice has developed into a recognized sanction or intervention in several countries. Literature shows that restorative justice is experienced as a procedural just approach by participants. Furthermore, a strong rejection of the behavior of the violators would reinforce reintegrative shaming in the process. Finally, stopping crime (desistance) could be achieved if the restorative justice approach would include reconstructing the self-image of the participants. This systematic literature review examines to what extent restorative justice contributes to compliant behavior by individuals and corporations. Although direct effects of restorative justice on compliance and recidivism fail to appear, procedural justice and reintegrative shame are positively affected. The results offer practical implementations and challenges for further research.


Dr Marieke Kluin
Dr. Marieke Kluin is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr Selma Albayrak
Selma Albayrak studeert criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden en de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Vertrouwen in toezichtsactoren in uitgaansgebieden: een vergelijking tussen politie, portiers en cameratoezicht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden vertrouwen, Toezicht, plural policing, Legitimiteit
Auteurs Dr. Janne van Doorn en Dr. Jelle Brands
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    While studies on trust in the police are numerous, this is much less the case for other policing actors. It is important to examine this in the light of the increasing number and diversification of policing actors and their legitimacy. Using a survey, 894 youngsters were asked to evaluate their trust in actors involved in the policing of urban nightlife areas: the police, door staff, and CCTV. Results showed that people tend to trust human actors of surveillance more compared to technological actors, however different (demographic and contextual) factors nuance this pattern.


Dr. Janne van Doorn
Dr. Janne van Doorn is universitair docent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Jelle Brands
Dr. Jelle Brands is universitair docent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Zelfredzaamheid in detentie

Kritische kanttekeningen bij het systeem van promoveren en degraderen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Zelfredzaamheid, Burgerschap, Gevangenis, Autonomie
Auteurs Dr. Esther van Ginneken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the ‘participation society’ it is expected that citizens actively contribute to solving societal problems, including health care, immigration and security issues. A somewhat similar responsibilisation culture is visible in prisons, where prisoners are held responsible for their own rehabilitation. This article problematizes the way in which prisoners’ agency is promoted in Dutch prisons, considering prisoners’ constrained agency and the normative expectations that are tied to the approach. This critique is advanced through discussion of the promotion/demotion system that has been used in Dutch prisons since 2014. This system, comparable to the Incentives and Earned Privileges system in England and Wales, espouses both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ behavioural norms. The soft behavioural norms reflect a citizenship ideal that extends beyond compliance with the law. It is argued that these normative expectations tied to agency have a limiting effect on prisoners’ autonomy. This article argues in favour of a shift from the citizenship ideal to an autonomy ideal, which applies the principle of minimum restrictions. Furthermore, access to education, reintegration courses and contact with family should be treated as a right, rather than a privilege, in order to maximise autonomy and minimise the harmful effects of imprisonment.


Dr. Esther van Ginneken
Dr. Esther van Ginneken is universitair docent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Digitale seksuele delicten in het straf- en strafprocesrecht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden Seksuele delicten, Internet, Strafbaarstelling, Opsporing
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Minister for Security and Justice recently announced a revision of the sexual offences in the Dutch Penal Code. Part of this revision could be the introduction of several sexual offences that are committed on the internet. The Minister mentioned sexchatting, sextortion and revenge porn. This article describes the present-day possibilities the Penal Code offers in tackling these crimes, and gives insight in the bottlenecks in current penal law. This article also provides a description of several relevant criminal investigative powers in existing and future Dutch procedural law.


Prof. dr. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
Prof. dr. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde is universitair hoofddocent Straf(proces)recht. Hij is tevens als bijzonder hoogleraar Strafrechtsfilosofie, leerstoel Leo Polak, verbonden aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en redacteur van PROCES.
Artikel

Percepties en ervaringen van verdachten in de kantonrechtspraak: een exploratief onderzoek

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden ervaringen, verdachten, kanton, rechtvaardigheid, rechter
Auteurs Kiki Twisk BSc, Roosmarijn van Es BSc en Rosa Utermark
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how fair or unfair defendants in the cantonal court experience their treatment during the process and which factors influence that experience. Very little research is done in this area. In a survey defendants were asked to evaluate how they were treated during the process. The results show that defendants who were convicted have a more negative judgement about fairness than defendants who weren’t convicted. Significant predictors of judgement about fair treatment are: the impression that the judge was listening, the overall impression of the way the case was treated by the court and the impression that the judge was patient.


Kiki Twisk BSc
Kiki Twisk BSc heeft de studie criminologie afgerond en is bachelorstudent Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Rijksuniversiteit Leiden

Roosmarijn van Es BSc
Roosmarijn van Es BSc is masterstudent Forensische Criminologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Leiden

Rosa Utermark
Rosa Utermark is bachelorstudent Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Rijksuniversiteit Leiden
Artikel

‘Staring at the felony forest’

De complexiteit van risicoprofilering nader in kaart gebracht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden profileren, discretionaire bevoegdheden, etniciteit, selectie
Auteurs Tim Dekkers MSc en Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, the debate around police profiling has been rather low key – until recently. Now it has turned into a heated discussion with a clear focus on ethnic profiling. This extensive international literature review aims to show that there is more to profiling than just ethnicity. Factors such as behavior and the vehicle someone is driving can be just as important as a person’s looks. The results of this study put profiling in perspective and level the playing field of the debate, in which the side of the organizations using profiling has not gotten enough attention until now.


Tim Dekkers MSc
Tim Dekkers MSc is junior onderzoeker bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude ishoofddocent Straf- en strafprocesrecht aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie te Leiden. Zij is tevens redactielid van PROCES.
Artikel

Tevredenheid met advocaten onder Nederlandse preventief gedetineerden: percepties van procedurele rechtvaardigheid

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden tevredenheid met advocaten, procedurele rechtvaardigheid, percepties van gedetineerden
Auteurs Ellen Raaijmakers MSc, Dr. Jan W. de Keijser, Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Currently, procedural justice theory is predominantly used to explain defendants’ satisfaction with the police, courts and prisons. It is unclear to what extent this theory applies to lawyers. This study investigates to what extent defendants are satisfied with their lawyers, and procedural fairness characteristics are related to defendants’ satisfaction with their lawyers. Data from the Prison Project were used: a large-scale research project on Dutch criminal defendants. Results suggest that generally, defendants are very satisfied with their lawyers. Variation in satisfaction with lawyers can be attributed for a substantial part to procedural fairness characteristics.


Ellen Raaijmakers MSc
Ellen Raaijmakers MSc is promovendus Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Jan W. de Keijser
Dr. Jan W. de Keijser is universitair hoofddocent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. Anja Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving.
Artikel

Wraak de wraking

Een oproep tot herziening van de wrakingsprocedure in het Nederlandse strafprocesrecht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Wraking, Strafprocesrecht, Rechtsvergelijking, Art. 6 EVRM
Auteurs Mr. Eva Borg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    According to article 512 of the Dutch Criminal Procedure Code judges can be removed from a case due to facts or circumstances that (might) damage their impartiality. By analyzing how this procedure of challenge is used in practice, this research shows that it could and should be organised in a different way. Both with regards to the applicants, the challenged actors and the assessors of the procedure there are gaps and points of improvement in the current Dutch legislation. Suggestions for revision are gained from a comparative investigation of the challenge procedure in the Belgian criminal law system.


Mr. Eva Borg
Mr. Eva Borg is juridisch medewerker in de Rechtbank Midden-Nederland, afdeling Strafrecht.
Artikel

Jeugdzonde, eeuwig zonde?

Een onderzoek naar de beoordelingswijze van Verklaring Omtrent het Gedrag-aanvragen van jongeren

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden juvenile ex-offenders, collateral sentencing, conduct certificate, legitimacy
Auteurs Elina Kurtovic
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study aims to examine the practice of the decision making on conduct certificate requests of juvenile ex-offenders, as there has not been done any empirical research on this topic so far. 57 cases are studied in order to answer the question whether the decision making meets the legal and penological justifications for collateral sentencing. Conclusion is the decisions are not proportional as to the seriousness of the risks which are aimed to be prevented and the relation between the past convictions and the desired job. Moreover, the requests are being individually assessed, yet more weight should be attached to the age, interests and positive developments of juvenile ex-offenders. Only then, the decisions can be regarded legitimate and proportional and do hinder juvenile ex-offenders’ successful reintegration into society.


Elina Kurtovic
Elina Kurtovic is advocaat te Amsterdam.
Redactioneel

‘De’ publieke opinie?

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2011
Trefwoorden editorial, public opinion
Auteurs Mr. dr. drs. Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This editorial offers an introduction to the current issue.


Mr. dr. drs. Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude is universitair docent bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Door een gekleurde bril?

Bespreking van een verkennend onderzoek naar de percepties en ervaringen van allochtone en autochtone jongeren ten aanzien van oneigenlijk selectief politiewerk

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2011
Trefwoorden racial profiling, actuarial justice, discretionairy powers, police
Auteurs Mr. dr. drs. Maartje van der Woude, Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun, Fleur van Barneveld e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    By expanding preventive powers, the Dutch criminal justice system is increasingly aimed at detecting risky people and groups as soon as possible. This so-called actuarial justice is accompanied by a great deal of discretionary power in the hands of those who have to enforce the law, bearing the risk that such powers may be carried out (in part) on the basis of generalizations relating to race, ethnicity, religion or nationality instead of on the basis of individual behavior and/or objective evidence. By presenting the results of an exploratory study into the perceptions of minorities with regard to racial profiling, the main conclusion of this article is that there is a clear necessity for further empirical research into this area.


Mr. dr. drs. Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude is universitair docent bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Fleur van Barneveld
Fleur van Barneveld is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Yannick van Eijk
Yannick van Eijk is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Roel Holman
Roel Holman is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Madelin Mooijer
Madelin Mooijer is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Is het Nederlandse terrorismebeleid écht zo degelijk vormgegeven?

Een bespreking van recent uitgevoerd evaluatieonderzoek

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden legislation evaluation, counterterrorism legislation, evaluative research, security culture
Auteurs Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Almost ten years after the catastrophic attacks in New York and Washington, Dutch counterterrorism legislation has been evaluated. Since (the drafting of) this body of legislation has been highly criticized over the past years, there was a great need for a thorough and objective evaluation, covering the questions that were risen over years concerning the legitimacy, necessity and effectiveness of the counterterrorism legislation. This article aims to show that the political nature of counterterrorism seems to impede on such an evaluation by systematically discussing the flaws and weaknesses of the evaluative study carried out by the Ministry of Security and Justice.


Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. M.A.H. van der Woude is universitair docent bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden en tevens redactielid van PROCES.

    How can the social environment of a prison be accurately assessed? Why is it important to measure? How should the prison experience be represented in empirical research? How do we capture distinctions between prisons, which can be good or bad in so many different ways? There is considerable consensus about the inadequacy of narrow and selective performance measures, such as hours spent in purposeful activity or serious assaults, in representing prison quality. The difficulties are both methodological and conceptual. This paper will outline one attempt to address these questions in England and Wales. Based on a series of studies aimed at identifying and measuring aspects of prison life that ‘matter most’, prisoners describe stark differences in the moral and emotional climates of prisons serving apparently similar functions. The ‘differences that matter’ are in the domain of interpersonal relationships and treatment. A developmental programme of empirical research on the quality of life in prison suggests that (a) some prisons are more survivable than others and (b) important differences in identifiable aspects of prison quality exist and may be related to outcomes. These findings have implications for our understanding of the meaning of terms like ‘inhuman and degrading’ treatment as well as for our uses and expectations of the prison.


Alison Liebling
Alison Liebling is hoogleraar Criminology & Criminal Justice aan de Universiteit van Cambridge en is directeur van het Prison Research Centre.
Titel

Ten strijde tegen overlast

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 06 2008
Trefwoorden Overlast, Voorstel van wet, Hondenpoep, Burgemeester, Contract, Bewijslast, Gemeente, Student, Vernieling, Aanhouding
Auteurs Koemans, M.

Koemans, M.
Artikel

What Works in Probation?

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2009
Trefwoorden probation, corrections, desistance, rehabilitation, resettlement
Auteurs Prof. Fergus McNeill
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper the author argues that, despite the apparently technical nature of questions of effectiveness, in fact any considered and critical analysis of the empirical evidence about desistance, rehabilitation and ‘what works?’ compel us to consider the moral character and context of criminal justice interventions.


Prof. Fergus McNeill
Fergus McNeill is Professor of Criminology & Social Work in the Glasgow School of Social Work (a joint venture of the Universities of Glasgow and Strathclyde) and a Network Leader in the Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research (at the University of Glasgow).
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