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Artikel

Gender en geweld

Over hoe Nederland laveert tussen genderneutraliteit en internationale aandacht voor geweld tegen vrouwen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2020
Trefwoorden gender, violence, GREVIO, Istanbul Convention
Auteurs Dr. mr. Wendy Guns en Prof. dr. Janine Janssen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Internationally the term ‘violence against women’ has been coined. In the Netherlands is referred to ‘violence in relations of dependency’. GREVIO has critiqued Dutch government for their ‘gender neutral’ approach towards intimate violence, amongst other things by using the term ‘violence in relations of dependency’ instead of ‘violence against women’. This contribution offers a critical analysis of GREVIO’s point of view regarding Dutch policies on domestic violence.


Dr. mr. Wendy Guns
Dr. mr. Wendy Guns is universitair docent Internationaal recht aan de Open Universiteit.

Prof. dr. Janine Janssen
Prof. dr. Janine Janssen is als lector Veiligheid in Afhankelijkheidsrelaties verbonden aan Avans Hogeschool, als hoofd onderzoek aan het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld van de Nationale Politie en als bijzonder hoogleraar Rechtsantropologie aan de Open Universiteit. Zij is tevens voorzitter van de redactie van PROCES.
Artikel

De Nederlandse positie ten opzichte van godslastering in internationaal verband

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden Godslastering, Blasfemie, vrijheid van meningsuiting, Legalisering
Auteurs Mr. Tom Huisjes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2014, the Dutch government abolished its ban on blasphemy, which had laid dormant in its criminal code for decades. Similar laws have been abolished in nine other jurisdictions in the West since an international campaign to this end started in 2015. This article first describes the tension between blasphemy laws and the freedom of expression. It then examines the Dutch position on blasphemy in its international context. This article argues against bans on blasphemy and specifically against a potential reintroduction of a de facto ban on blasphemy in the Netherlands. Moreover, it argues in favour of applying political pressure to abolish bans on blasphemy around the world as well as giving diplomatic support to those affected by these laws.


Mr. Tom Huisjes
Mr. T.S. Huisjes is onderzoeker bij het Utrecht University Centre for Public Procurement (UUCePP).
Peer reviewed

De ‘Gulden Route’ in de realiteit

Het verloop van verlof tijdens tbs

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden verlof, tbs
Auteurs Maartje Clercx MSc, Marije Keulen-de Vos PhD en Hyacinthe van Bussel MBZD
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Rehabilitation of hospitalized offenders is a stepwise process ideally achieved through four consecutive types of leave: supervised, unsupervised, extra-institutional and a probational leave. However, in reality this sequence may often be deviated from. The current study was undertaken to examine the most common deviations and the relationship with how the treatment ended (e.g. positive/negative). File information of 422 offenders previously admitted to a high-secure forensic hospital was used. Deviations from the standard sequence are relatively common. Probational leave is often missing, and one in ten sequences contains a suspension of leave. The relevance for forensic and legal professionals is discussed.


Maartje Clercx MSc
M. Clercx MSc is promovenda/junior wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het Forensisch Psychiatrisch Centrum (FPC) de Rooyse Wissel.

Marije Keulen-de Vos PhD
M.E. Keulen-de Vos PhD is senior wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het Forensisch Psychiatrisch Centrum (FPC) de Rooyse Wissel.

Hyacinthe van Bussel MBZD
H.M. van Bussel MBZD is algemeen directeur van het Forensisch Psychiatrisch Centrum (FPC) de Rooyse Wissel.
Artikel

Een Europees Openbaar Ministerie: kansen en risico’s

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Europees Openbaar Ministerie (EOM), Europese Unie (EU), Forumshoppen, Telefoontappen
Auteurs Mr. Tom Huisjes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    By the end of 2020, the European Public Prosecutor’s Office (EPPO) will be operational. The EPPO will be tasked with investigating, prosecuting and bringing to judgement criminal offences against the EU budget. The substantive competence of the EPPO could in the future be extended to terrorism and other serious cross-border crimes. This article will first describe the background, structure and competences of the future EPPO. Then the procedural guarantees will be discussed and the problem of ‘forum shopping for evidence’. This problem entails that the choice in which Member State to conduct an investigative measure could be made on the basis of the less stringent rules in that Member State regarding, for example, the right to privacy. The article will end with a proposal on how to prevent forum shopping for evidence.


Mr. Tom Huisjes
Mr. Tom Huisjes heeft de master Europees Recht afgerond en volgt momenteel de master Strafrecht aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Peer reviewed

Opsporingsmiddelen in ontwikkeling

Open-bronnenonderzoek als de nieuwe ‘tap’

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden Open bronnen onderzoek (OSINT), Opsporingsbevoegdheid, Stelselmatigheid, Commissie-Koops
Auteurs Mr. Mark Feenstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    With the development of the ‘digital society’ the information about crime on the internet is increasing rapidly. This creates the necessity for clarity about the boundaries of open source research by law enforcement agencies. However a specific article in the Code of Criminal Procedure lacks. While waiting for this article the police, the prosecution office, criminal defense lawyers and judges are struggling to find these boundaries. Nevertheless are they the only ones that can bring this clarity by informing themselves and exploring what should be legitimate.


Mr. Mark Feenstra
Mr. M. Feenstra is werkzaam als senior parketsecretaris bij het Openbaar Ministerie, parket Amsterdam.
Artikel

Daders van arbeidsuitbuiting

Over de vermeende rol van de georganiseerde misdaad

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Arbeidsuitbuiting, Mensenhandel, georganiseerde criminaliteit, grensoverschrijdende criminaliteit
Auteurs Dr. Masja van Meeteren en Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Human traffickers are usually depicted in public discourse as evil villains: the crème de la crème of organized crime. Although this image has also been dominant among scholars for a long time, it has become increasingly controversial. On the one hand, this debate is fueled by discussions amongst criminologists on criminal networks, on the other hand by the expansion of the legal definition of the crime since 2005. Apart from exploitation in the prostitution sector, various other forms of human trafficking are distinguished now, including labor exploitation. This article explores the question of which organizational forms play a role in labor exploitation. Through a review of the empirical research literature on labor exploitation, the authors show that in the field of labor exploitation, there is probably less involvement in criminal syndicates or criminal networks that maintain contacts with other criminal networks. In many cases, labor exploitation is committed by individuals or family businesses, or smaller loosely organized networks that are not necessarily embedded in other criminal networks. For researchers and policy makers alike, it is therefore advisable not to approach labor exploitation exclusively from the perspective of transnational organized crime.


Dr. Masja van Meeteren
Dr. Masja van Meeteren is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Seks, ICT en het strafrecht

Verslag van de studiedag van PROCES van 25 januari 2018

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Seks, Strafrecht, ICT, Studiedag PROCES
Auteurs Franck Budde en Rosanne Lagerwey
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On Thursday January 25, 2018 the study day of PROCES took place with the title ‘Sex, ICT and criminal law’. Sex is as old as the road to Rome so there is nothing new there. But with the arrival of ICT in addition to the physical world there is a new world in which sex has also found his way. Where as sex in the past consisted of physical interactions between people in the same space, now sexual interaction also happens between people who are miles apart, connected by ICT. During the study day the central issue was how organizations involved in sex, ICT and criminal law deal with sex in the digital dimension and which problems they face.


Franck Budde
Franck Budde is masterstudent Straf- en strafprocesrecht aan de Universiteit Leiden en loopt tevens stage bij het Wetenschappelijk Bureau van de Hoge Raad. Hij heeft dit stuk op persoonlijke titel geschreven.

Rosanne Lagerwey
Rosanne Lagerwey is masterstudent Straf- en strafprocesrecht aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Digitale seksuele delicten in het straf- en strafprocesrecht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden Seksuele delicten, Internet, Strafbaarstelling, Opsporing
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Minister for Security and Justice recently announced a revision of the sexual offences in the Dutch Penal Code. Part of this revision could be the introduction of several sexual offences that are committed on the internet. The Minister mentioned sexchatting, sextortion and revenge porn. This article describes the present-day possibilities the Penal Code offers in tackling these crimes, and gives insight in the bottlenecks in current penal law. This article also provides a description of several relevant criminal investigative powers in existing and future Dutch procedural law.


Prof. dr. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
Prof. dr. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde is universitair hoofddocent Straf(proces)recht. Hij is tevens als bijzonder hoogleraar Strafrechtsfilosofie, leerstoel Leo Polak, verbonden aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en redacteur van PROCES.
Artikel

Gluren bij de buren

Over strafbaarstelling van heimelijk filmen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2017
Trefwoorden Heimelijk filmen, seksuele strekking, rechtsvergelijking
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In early 2016, the Dutch minister of Security and Justice announced a revision of the sexual offences in the Dutch Penal Code. One topic that has been debated in Dutch literature and case law, is whether secretly scanning of naked persons should be criminalised as a separate sexual offence. This article discusses various (recently introduced) criminalisations of secretly scanning of naked persons in different countries, with the purpose of exploring the difficulties of a separate criminal offence.


Prof. dr. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
Prof. dr. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde is universitair hoofddocent Straf(proces)recht. Hij is tevens als bijzonder hoogleraar Strafrechtsfilosofie, leerstoel Leo Polak, verbonden aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en redacteur van PROCES.
Artikel

Het EVRM en een strafbaarstelling voor overtreding van een visumsysteem in de strijd tegen het terrorisme

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Terrorismebestrijding, Visumstelsel, FTF, Mensenrechten
Auteurs Ernesto M.J. Lentze
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A visa system covered by criminal law could adequately confront the current issues surrounding terrorism and in particular Foreign Terrorist Fighters (FTF’s). Classical legal research demonstrates that the idea of creating a criminal offense for breaching this visa system does not conflict with relevant human rights parameters of the European Convention, except in cases where journalists or non-journalists with a strong civil expression would be prevented to undertake obvious journalistic activities. The latter differs during a state of emergency, but this is undesirable given the fundamental role of freedom of expression within democratic constitutional societies.


Ernesto M.J. Lentze
Ernesto Lentze is politicoloog, jurist en journalist.
Artikel

Effecten van een training cognitieve vaardigheden voor justitiabelen onderzocht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden Cognitieve vaardigheden, Justitiële gedragsinterventie, Volwassen daders, Effectonderzoek
Auteurs Suzan Verweij MSc LLM, dr. Wendy Buysse en dr. Bouke Wartna
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    One of the most widely implemented behavioral programs for adult offenders in the Netherlands is a cognitive skills training called CoVa. The training is an adapted version of the Enhanced Thinking Skills program (ETS). This paper reports on the findings of several impact studies on the effectiveness of CoVa and ETS. Special attention is paid to a recent study on the measured change in cognitive skills before and after the training and a recent comparative recidivism study. The majority of studies on CoVa and ETS show positive indications of the effectiveness of the training programs. In the Netherlands the effect sizes are small, but some English studies on ETS reveal large effects. The paper discusses possible explanations for this outcome and examines the relevance of the research findings for the present version of the CoVa-training.


Suzan Verweij MSc LLM
Suzan Verweij MSc LLM is wetenschappelijk medewerker bij de Recidivemonitor van het WODC.

dr. Wendy Buysse
Dr. Wendy Buysse is senior onderzoeker bij DSP-groep in Amsterdam.

dr. Bouke Wartna
Dr. Bouke Wartna is senior wetenschappelijk medewerker en programmaleider bij de Recidivemonitor van het WODC.
Artikel

U zult geen dieren houden

En doet u dat toch, wat dan nog

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Strafrecht, Verbod, Dierenmishandeling, Dierenverwaarlozing, Handhaving
Auteurs Ilse Van Leiden, Manon Hardeman en Anton Van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Cruelty to and neglect of animals are criminal offences. In the criminal prosecution of perpetrators of cruelty to and neglect of animals, the court may impose an injunction on the offenders to keep animals for a specific period of time. In the Netherlands, this so-called ban on keeping animals (‘houdverbod’) can be imposed by the criminal court in the form of a special condition imposed in combination with a suspended sentence. In this article we present the results of a study into the frequency with which and the manner in which the ban on keeping animals is applied nationwide in the Netherlands. The study provides insights into the prerequisites for adequate application of the ban on keeping animals. In practice, the implementation of the ban on keeping animals in its current form faces some problems. The question is how the effectiveness of the ban on keeping animals may be improved and whether there are alternative ways to apply the ban on keeping animals that may serve the purpose better. The issue of the most effective form in which to implement a ban on keeping animals – also in the longer term – is a thorny one.


Ilse Van Leiden
Ilse van Leiden is werkzaam bij Bureau Beke.

Manon Hardeman
Manon Hardeman is werkzaam bij Bureau Beke.

Anton Van Wijk
Anton van Wijk is werkzaam bij Bureau Beke.
Artikel

Nazorg ex-gedetineerden – tien jaar na invoering

Terugblik en huidige stand van zaken

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Nazorg ex-gedetineerden, Reclassering, Recidive, Gemeenten
Auteurs Drs. Karel van Duijvenbooden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2002, the Dutch Ministry of Justice introduced the programme ‘Reducing Recidivism’ to reduce high recidivism rates among ex-prisoners. As part of this programme, a special project called ‘Follow-up care for former detainees’ was launched late 2004. Until then, little attention had been given to this topic and there had not been any organised form of cooperation between municipalities and penal institutions. In many cases the basic conditions for reintegration were not well arranged. The main aim of the project was to establish a connection between prisons and municipalities by which the basic conditions for social reintegration could be settled. First, cooperation at working level practice was established. In 2007, this practice was confirmed at a political administrative level. In doing so, a unique form of cooperation between prison services and municipalities for follow-up care for former detainees has been realised in the Netherlands.


Drs. Karel van Duijvenbooden
Drs. Karel van Duijvenbooden is manager van het Veiligheidshuis Regio Utrecht.
Artikel

De rol van de strafrechter: van waarheidsvinder naar regisseur van de proceslogistiek

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden moderniseringstraject / modernisation project, strafvordering / Code of Criminal Procedure, strafrechter / criminal judge, waarheidsvinding / truth finding, rechtsbescherming / legal protection
Auteurs mr. drs. Egge Luining
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The current legislative project aiming to modernise the Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure will have far reaching consequences for how criminal law is organised and therefore has implications for the criminal law practice. A large implication is the changing role of the criminal judge. As the judge traditionally has an important role to play with regard to truth finding and legal protection, this raises the question what the legislative project means for this role and whether complete and balanced truth finding and legal protection are sufficiently guaranteed. This article provides answer to this question and offers some recommendations.


mr. drs. Egge Luining
Mr. drs. Egge Luining is wetenschappelijk docent Strafrecht aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Wat wordt er nu eigenlijk gezegd? Een verkennend onderzoek naar communicatiepatronen op het Darkweb

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Darkweb, zwarte markten / dark markets, online communicatie / online communication, contentanalyse / content analysis
Auteurs Tommy Van Remunt MSc en Dr. Johan Van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The continuous integration of the Internet in societal daily life leads to an array of new communication methods, including the Darkweb. This hidden form of the Internet (which enables much more anonymity due to several encryption techniques) seems to be used for a lot of criminal enterprise. Also in the planning phase of crimes, the Darkweb seems to play an important role. Nevertheless, research on this phenomenon is quite scarce. In the present study, a sample of 198 threads (i.e. discussion topics) was analyzed via a quantitative content analysis, after which an exploratory study was conducted to highlight patterns and structures of communications on the Darkweb. The results show that different types of Darkweb users (e.g. sellers, rookie users, etc.) vary clearly in their communication activities and the crimes that they communicate about (e.g. malware, drugs).


Tommy Van Remunt MSc
Tommy van Remunt MSc is werkzaam als onderzoeker aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Johan Van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Mr. Coosje Peterse
Mr. Coosje Peterse is strafrechtadvocaat te Den Haag en tevens redactielid van PROCES.
Artikel

Bedreigende rap en de kunstexceptie

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden Kunstexceptie, Bedreiging, Artistieke vrijheid, Vrijheid van meningsuiting, Strafuitsluitingsgronden
Auteurs Mr. Sven Bakker en Veerle van de Wetering LL.B.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In several Dutch criminal cases rap artists have invoked the ‘exceptio artis’ as a ground for justification in court. In this article Bakker and Van de Wetering research the possibilities of successful appeals in such cases. Both the meaning and scope of the ‘exceptio artis’ are taken into consideration, consulting the literature and ECtHR case law on article 10 ECHR. Furthermore the contribution also deals with Dutch case law on the ‘exceptio artis’ and rap lyrics that were held punishable so as to clarify the seldom discussed relationship between rap and the ‘exceptio artis’.


Mr. Sven Bakker
Mr. Sven Bakker is als wetenschappelijk docent en onderzoeker verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en verricht promotieonderzoek naar ‘uitzonderlijke excepties’.

Veerle van de Wetering LL.B.
Veerle van de Wetering LL.B. is masterstudente Strafrecht en werkzaam als student-assistent bij de afdeling Strafrecht van de Erasmus School of Law.
Artikel

Beperkingen aan en dilemma’s van de slachtoffergerichte aanpak van mensenhandel; een blik op arbeidsuitbuiting.

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Slachtoffers, Mensenhandel, Arbeidsuitbuiting, Immigratiebeleid
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. Tineke Cleiren, Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun en Dr. Masja Van Meeteren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In their article on the victim orientation in the combat against human trafficking – in particular labour exploitation – Cleiren, Van der Leun and Van Meeteren highlight the limitations of the protection of victims in practice. Based on a brief legal analysis and a secondary reading of the empirical literature, they conclude that the rights of victims remain subordinate to the main aims of the relevant legal domains: criminal law and immigration law. In addition, the practices-based analysis shows a mismatch between a victim-oriented approach and preferences and perceptions of many migrants involved as well as existing tensions between different legal domains.


Prof. mr. dr. Tineke Cleiren
Prof. mr. dr. Tineke Cleiren is hoogleraar Straf- en strafprocesrecht aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Masja Van Meeteren
Dr. Masja van Meeteren is universitair docent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

In de leer over eer bij Curaçaose jongens

Mogelijkheden voor verdieping van het begrip ‘eergerelateerd geweld’

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2014
Trefwoorden eergerelateerd geweld, Gender, Antillen
Auteurs Dr. Janine Janssen en Dr. Marion van San
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands honour based violence is often associated with cases that take place in a Turkish context. But honour codes can be found all over the world. In order to develop a more profound understanding of honour based violence it is therefore important to study this phenomenon in different social and cultural circumstances. In this contribution attention is paid towards the experiences of young men from Curaçao that live on the fringes of Dutch society. How do they perceive honour and the relationship with the use of violence?


Dr. Janine Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de Nederlandse politie, universitair docent bij de vakgroep Strafrecht & Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en tevens redacteur van PROCES.

Dr. Marion van San
Dr. Marion van San is hoofdonderzoeker bij RISBO (Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam).

Mr. Beatrijs Jue-Volker
Mr. Beatrijs Jue-Volker is als promovenda werkzaam bij de sectie Straf- en strafprocesrecht aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Zij is tevens redactielid van PROCES.
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