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Artikel

Straftoemeting in zaken betreffende seksuele uitbuiting van minderjarigen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2020
Trefwoorden human trafficking, child victims, sentencing, Defence for Children
Auteurs Mr. Eva Huls en Drs. Frits Huls
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is a summary of the recently published study of Defence for Children - ECPAT: Sentencing of Sexual Exploitation of Minors: an analysis. The aim of the research was to provide insight into the penalties imposed in 2015-2019 in cases involving the sexual exploitation (human trafficking) of child victims. Another aim was to gain a better understanding of how the sentence was determined. A total of 145 convictions were analysed. This article first describes (the reason for) the research. Subsequently, the crime of human trafficking is briefly discussed. The findings of the analysis are then presented in a summarized version. Finally, the conclusion and recommendations follow.


Mr. Eva Huls
Mr. Eva Huls is advocaat-in-dienstbetrekking bij Defence for Children.

Drs. Frits Huls
Drs. Frits Huls is rechtssocioloog.
Artikel

Restorative justice en normconform gedrag: een systematische review

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Herstelrecht, Regelnaleving, normconform gedrag, restorative justice
Auteurs Dr Marieke Kluin en Dr Selma Albayrak
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Restorative justice has developed into a recognized sanction or intervention in several countries. Literature shows that restorative justice is experienced as a procedural just approach by participants. Furthermore, a strong rejection of the behavior of the violators would reinforce reintegrative shaming in the process. Finally, stopping crime (desistance) could be achieved if the restorative justice approach would include reconstructing the self-image of the participants. This systematic literature review examines to what extent restorative justice contributes to compliant behavior by individuals and corporations. Although direct effects of restorative justice on compliance and recidivism fail to appear, procedural justice and reintegrative shame are positively affected. The results offer practical implementations and challenges for further research.


Dr Marieke Kluin
Dr. Marieke Kluin is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr Selma Albayrak
Selma Albayrak studeert criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden en de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Niet zulke jazzy impressies uit Japan

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2017
Trefwoorden Japan, juryrechtspraak, quasi-jurystelsel, burgerjury, slachtoffer, detentieregime, discretionaire ruimte, Japans strafrecht, Japans strafprocesrecht
Auteurs Lucas Noyon en Beatrijs Jue-Volker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the experiences that authors gained during a study trip to Japan. In general terms, the main features of Japanese criminal law are being observed. This system resembles the letter of Dutch criminal law, but in practice it appears to differ greatly. Among other things, attention is paid to the strong position of the prosecutor’s office, the high conviction rate, the limited contradictory nature of the criminal procedure, and the relative strong position of the victim. Subsequently, attention is given to some recent reforms, including the democratization of criminal law. Also, authors describe a visit to the Fuchu-prison. This article concludes with the question to what extent we could learn something from the Japanese practice in the Netherlands.


Lucas Noyon
Lucas Noyon is als promovendus verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Beatrijs Jue-Volker
Beatrijs Jue-Volker is als docent verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Zij is tevens redacteur van PROCES.
Artikel

English and Welsh experience of marketisation, payment by results and justice devolution in the probation sector

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Transforming Rehabilitation, Payment by Results, Justice Devolution, Innovation
Auteurs Prof. Chris Fox
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The UK government has embarked on an ambitious programme to reform the English and Welsh probation sector. Key to these reforms has been ‘marketisation’ involving Payment by Results. More recently the devolution of justice has become a key theme. This paper describes key reforms that have taken place since 2010 and sets out evidence for their effectiveness. Currently, the available evidence is limited, but more evidence is available from other sectors where similar models have also been used. This evidence base is discussed with particular reference to the potential for the reforms to promote innovation.


Prof. Chris Fox
Prof. Chris Fox is Professor of Evaluation and Policy Analysis and Director of the Policy Evaluation and Research Unit at Manchester Metropolitan University.
Artikel

Een systematische literatuurreview naar de gevolgen van een slachtofferverklaring voor de straftoemeting

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Spreekrecht, Slachtoffer, Slachtofferrechten, systematische literatuurreview, Straftoemeting
Auteurs Giulia De Groot en Mr. dr. Sigrid Van Wingerden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On July 1st 2016 a law entered into force that gives the victim or survivors of serious crimes the right to speak unrestrictedly in court. Where the victim or survivors used to be only permitted to make a statement on the consequences of the crime for them, the recent amendment of the law permits them to speak about the evidence, the legal qualification of the crime, the culpability of the offender and the appropriate punishment as well. Discussions on the introduction or extension of the victim’s right to speak mainly focused on the consequences of victim statements on the procedural consequences and on the consequences for the victim. Little attention is paid to the consequences for the offender. This article reports the findings of a systematic literature review on the relation between a victim statement and the imposed punishment. The findings from the American studies show that a victim statement aggravates sentencing outcomes. How desirable is that? For answering that question, more research is needed, which the legislator has not wanted to wait for.


Giulia De Groot
Giulia de Groot studeert rechten en criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Mr. dr. Sigrid Van Wingerden
Mr. dr. Sigrid van Wingerden is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Zij is tevens voorzitter van de redactie van PROCES.
Artikel

Doelen van straffen bereiken door lokale interventies

Taakstraffen in de wijk bezien in het licht van morele straftheorieën en visie van het Openbaar Ministerie

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2015
Trefwoorden community sentencing / taakstraffen, moral theories / morele theorieën, public prosecutor / openbaar ministerie, execution of punishments / executie van straffen
Auteurs Mr. Disa Jironet Loewe en Mr. Leon Plas
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch prosecutor’s office has set itself the goal of contributing to a safer and just society. This article investigates how a more proactive and innovative approach to the sanctioning of crimes can help towards realizing this goal. The authors take a close look at which types of sanctions could be ‘employed’ for this purpose, and when and how they ought to be executed, in the light of moral retributive and utilitarian theories on punishment. Specifically, the article considers community-sentencing punishments – punishments that are executed locally and in a way that is connected to context (perpetrator, neighbourhood) within which the crime was committed. The authors conclude that a visible connection between the crime and the punishment is vital to achieve the goals set out by the prosecutor’s office. However, at the same time various features of the execution of the punishment need to be considered in order to reach the right effect. This article does not purport to give a single answer these issues, but aspires to indicate where there is unexplored potential in the way community sentences are executed, and hopes to give a framework of what needs to be considered in order to do so effectively.


Mr. Disa Jironet Loewe
Mr. Disa Jironet Loewe is officier van Justitie in opleiding bij het Arrondissementsparket Amsterdam.

Mr. Leon Plas
Mr. Leon Plas is advocaat-generaal bij het Ressortsparket Den Haag en lector OM en Strafrecht bij het Studiecentrum Rechtspleging (SSR).
Artikel

Sociaaleconomische ongelijkheid en het strafrecht: aanzet tot discussie

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2015
Trefwoorden Ongelijkheid, Selectiviteit, sociaaleconomische status, strafrechtelijke beslissingen
Auteurs Dr. Gwen van Eijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recent sociological research and socio-political debates about socioeconomic inequality and social divisions urge legal scholars, criminologists, policy makers and practitioners to have a renewed discussion about the role of socioeconomic status of suspects and offenders in judicial decisions. If social divisions in Dutch society are deepening, we need to look anew at the possibility that injustices of the social structure affect legal rights and decisions about prosecution, sentencing and probation. This article intends to offer various starting points for debate and research.


Dr. Gwen van Eijk
Dr. Gwen van Eijk is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Vertrouwen van politiemensen in de strafrechtspleging

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden politie, strafrechtsketen, cynisme
Auteurs Jelle Kort MSc en Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Half of Dutch police has no confidence in the criminal justice system. Police officers complain that it is impossible to tackle crime and disorder, because as they believe, prosecutors and judges are often letting them down. This article discusses an empirical study on police attitudes towards criminal law in The Netherlands. It is found that many police officers don’t know much about the legal proceedings that follow police work. A description is presented of how police officers think about legal questions: conviction, sentencing and detention on remand. It is concluded that there is a tension between on the one hand, the operation goals of order following a moral duty to restore street justice, and the protection of legal rights of individual citizens on the other. Subsequent recommendations have to do with the working relationship between police and the judiciary.


Jelle Kort MSc
Jelle Kort MSc is promovendus Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Zijn promotieonderzoek richt zich op de relatie van de politie met het strafrechtssysteem.

Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Slachtoffers van onrecht: de psychologie van secundaire victimisatie (en positieve reacties voor slachtoffers)

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden slachtofferrechten, just-world theorie, negatieve reacties richting slachtoffers, steun richting slachtoffers
Auteurs Dr. Michèlle Bal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Victims play an increasingly more prominent role in the criminal justice process. While the consequences of victim participation in the judicial process have been criticized by researchers and practitioners alike, the possible negative consequences of secondary victimization has been largely neglected in this debate. From a social psychological perspective, I discuss research on just-world theory that can explain these negative reactions and give some insight into the processes that play a role in both negative and positive reactions toward victims. Implications for the law practitioners and scholars will be discussed.


Dr. Michèlle Bal
Dr. Michèlle Bal is universitair docent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Gevangenisstraffen van moeders en de belangen van kinderen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2014
Trefwoorden Imprisonment of mothers / Detentie van moeders, Alternative sentencing of mothers / Alternatieve straf voor moeders, Children’s interests / Belangen van kinderen
Auteurs Prof. dr. Doret De de Ruyter, Drs. Sanne Hissel en Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A substantial number of children are confronted with the detention of their mothers. Empirical research shows that these children’s well-being is seriously affected, although no study has been able to assess whether a mother’s detention as such causes long-term damage. On the basis of children’s interests, this article defends the principle that mothers who are actively involved in raising their children should not receive a prison sentence but an alternative punishment, unless continuing care is detrimental to the children or if the legal order or interests of society and its citizens would be disproportionally threatened. The article ends with several practical implications.


Prof. dr. Doret De de Ruyter
Prof. dr. Doret de Ruyter is hoogleraar Theoretische pedagogiek aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en opleidingsdirecteur Pedagogische wetenschappen.

Drs. Sanne Hissel
Drs. Sanne Hissel is postdoc onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld is hoogleraar Onderzoeksmethoden in de criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, adjunct professor aan het Griffith University Key Centre for Research en directeur van het NSCR.
Artikel

Straffen in soorten en maten

De ontwikkeling van de straftoemeting door de rechter in de periode 1995-2012

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden straftoemeting rechter, decompositie strafpunten, omrekensleutel
Auteurs Dr. Ben van Velthoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper studies the development of the sentences that were imposed by criminal courts in the Netherlands over the period 1995-2012. Available data cover all principal sanctions: (unconditional) prison sentences, community service orders and fines. A decomposition is made to separate the gravity of sentencing (changes in the type and severity of the sanctions) from size effects (changes in the composition of the criminal cases dealt with). The gravity of sentencing is found to oscillate over the period 1995-2012. There is (as yet) no clear trend towards heavier sentencing, contrary to recent claims by Dutch judicial authorities.


Dr. Ben van Velthoven
Dr. Ben van Velthoven is universitair hoofddocent Rechtseconomie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Een herstelgerichte benadering van delinquenten met een psychische stoornis

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2013
Trefwoorden resocialisatie, psychisch gestoorde delinquenten, herstelrecht, actieve verantwoordelijkheid
Auteurs Prof. dr. Frans Koenraadt en Mr. dr. Renée Kool
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Today’s risk based criminal justice policy leaves but little room to tune sentencing decisions to the individual offender’s mental capacities. As a result, sanctioning has become one-sided, being directed towards retribution. However, in the long run such a non-reciprocal concept of sanctioning, implying a denial of the need to facilitate rehabilitation, weakens the social fabric. Moreover, it holds a denial of citizenship towards (mentally ill) offenders. For the past decades, restorative justice has offered alternative solutions to deal with delinquency. Using informal procedures, taking into account peculiarities of the case, including the offender’s mental capacities, offenders are invited to take accountability for wrongful acts. A similar approach has been introduced within the field of mental health services, including the sector of the forensic mental health care. In response to the popular social biological model, a model of restorative treatment has been introduced, implying treatment to be directed towards reintegration, requiring active participation of the patient/offender. Bearing in mind the communalities between both models, we explore the potential of such a restorative citizenship based approach to better the integration of mentally disturbed offenders.


Prof. dr. Frans Koenraadt
Prof. dr. Frans Koenraadt is hoogleraar Forensische psychologie en psychiatrie aan de Universiteit Utrecht en wetenschappelijk adviseur in het Pieter Baan Centrum (NIFP) te Utrecht en bij de FPK te Assen.

Mr. dr. Renée Kool
Mr. dr. Renée Kool is universitair hoofddocent bij het Willem Pompe Instituut, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Gratie uit de gratie?

Ontwikkelingen in gratiewetgeving, -verzoeken en -beslissingen (1990-2011)

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Gratie, tenuitvoerlegging van straffen, Straftoemeting, Strafdoel
Auteurs Mw. mr. Sigrid van Wingerden en Mr. dr. Ard Schoep
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Under Dutch law, convicted criminals have the opportunity to request a pardon to cancel, reduce or alter their punishment. Pardoning is an important institute to guarantee fair and reasonable execution of sentences. However, little is known about the everyday practice of pardoning in the Netherlands. The current study sets out the legal framework of the institute of pardoning, as well as changes in pardoning law and policy. We demonstrate that over the period 1990-2011 both the amount of pardoning requests and decisions have decreased dramatically, and that the period 1995-2004 is characterized by an upsurge of conditional pardons at the expense of both unconditional pardons and pardon denials. We try to explain these developments in the light of changes in pardoning law and policy, prison overcrowding, increases in life sentences and of royal celebrations. We conclude that we cannot fully explain the developments in the pardoning practice and that better registration of the pardoning requests and grants are needed for a better understanding of the pardoning practice.


Mw. mr. Sigrid van Wingerden
Mw. mr. S.G.C. van Wingerden is promovenda aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden, en tevens redactielid van PROCES.

Mr. dr. Ard Schoep
Mr. dr. G.K. Schoep is universitair hoofddocent Straf(proces)recht aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden, en tevens rechter-plaatsvervanger aan de Rechtbank Haarlem en plaatsvervangend officier van justitie.
Artikel

Registratie bij staandehouding en preventief fouilleren in Nederland

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden racial profiling, stop and search forms, police powers, stigmatization
Auteurs BSc. Yannick van Eijk, BSc. Roel Holman en BSc. Linde Lamboo
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines the desirability of implementing a registration system as a means of control on the discretionary space in police powers of stop and search. Firstly, the legal background concerning these powers is sketched, and the discretionary space therein is highlighted. This is then placed within the current social context in the Netherlands. Finally, the desirability of implementing a registration system in the Netherlands will be discussed by analyzing a similar system that has been implemented in the UK. We conclude that implementing a registration system is an essential step in coming closer to a solution for ethnic profiling.


BSc. Yannick van Eijk
Yannick van Eijk BSc. is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

BSc. Roel Holman
Roel Holman BSc. studeerde Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

BSc. Linde Lamboo
Linde Lamboo studeert Culturele Antropologie & Ontwikkelingssociologie aan de Universiteit Leiden
Artikel

Uitsluiting voor insluiting: selectie aan de poort?

Een bijdrage over crimmigratie in Nederland

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden crimmigration, citizenship, article 1F Refugee Convention, pre-sentencing
Auteurs Gera de Grauw MSc., Marit Janssen MSc. en Avalon Leupen MSc.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the past few years attention is placed on the influence of immigrants and asylum seekers on the security of the state. Due to this development the Dutch Criminal Law and Immigration Law are ‘merging’. Immigration and safety policies are applied to exclude certain groups of people from society, generally immigrants and (ex)offenders. This article will reflect upon this process by showing the exclusion of people from Dutch society on the basis of article 1F of the Refugee Convention. This legal ground is used as a condition for exclusion and therefore it can be considered as pre-sentencing.


Gera de Grauw MSc.
Gera de Grauw MSc. studeerde Criminologie, specialisatie Veiligheidsbeleid & Rechtshandhaving, aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Marit Janssen MSc.
Marit Janssen MSc. studeerde Forensische criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden en werkt nu als projectsecretaris op het Ministerie van Veiligheid & Justitie.

Avalon Leupen MSc.
Avalon Leupen MSc. studeerde Criminologie, specialisatie Veiligheidsbeleid & Rechtshandhaving, aan de Universiteit Leiden. Nu werkt zij als docent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Jeugdzonde, eeuwig zonde?

Een onderzoek naar de beoordelingswijze van Verklaring Omtrent het Gedrag-aanvragen van jongeren

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden juvenile ex-offenders, collateral sentencing, conduct certificate, legitimacy
Auteurs Elina Kurtovic
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study aims to examine the practice of the decision making on conduct certificate requests of juvenile ex-offenders, as there has not been done any empirical research on this topic so far. 57 cases are studied in order to answer the question whether the decision making meets the legal and penological justifications for collateral sentencing. Conclusion is the decisions are not proportional as to the seriousness of the risks which are aimed to be prevented and the relation between the past convictions and the desired job. Moreover, the requests are being individually assessed, yet more weight should be attached to the age, interests and positive developments of juvenile ex-offenders. Only then, the decisions can be regarded legitimate and proportional and do hinder juvenile ex-offenders’ successful reintegration into society.


Elina Kurtovic
Elina Kurtovic is advocaat te Amsterdam.
Artikel

‘Gestraft’ na de straf

Legitimiteit en proportionaliteit van juridische belemmeringen na afloop van de straf

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Certificate of good conduct, wet justitiële en strafvorderlijke gegevens, collateral sentencing, disqualifications
Auteurs Prof. dr. Miranda Boone
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution the question is addressed how measures that aim to hold ex-convicts from occupying certain jobs and positions can be justified and what their limitations are. In the literature on collateral sentencing in particular four conditions are stressed. First, the vulnerable character of the occupation or activity involved. Second, there should be a strong relation between the conviction and the risk that has to be avoided. Third, collateral consequences should be individualized and only be imposed against those posing specific and demonstrable risks. Finally, a broad proportionality test should be applied on them, harsh civil disqualification should not be applied for relatively minor offences and burdensome restrictions may not be imposed in order to prevent relatively trivial risks. This theoretical model is applied on the regulation and practice of the Dutch conduct certificate.


Prof. dr. Miranda Boone
Prof. dr. Miranda Boone is bijzonder hoogleraar Penologie en Penitentiair recht aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en universitair hoofddocent aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Redactioneel

Gevolgen van de VOG: niet aan de bak, maar erin?

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2012
Auteurs Mr. drs. Sigrid van Wingerden
Auteursinformatie

Mr. drs. Sigrid van Wingerden
Mr. drs. Sigrid van Wingerden is PhD-fellow bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en tevens redactielid van PROCES.
Artikel

De levenslange gevangenisstraf, gratie en voorwaardelijke invrijheidstelling in rechtsvergelijkend perspectief

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden mandatory life sentence, parole, European Convention on Human Rights, comparative law
Auteurs Mr. Wesley Welten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, a person sentenced to life imprisonment (lifer) cannot be pardoned or paroled. This has led to debate. I have investigated if this impossibility also exists in other countries (Canada, England, Germany, Belgium). This article shows that in all the other countries studied, lifers can be pardoned after a certain period of time. A law comparative interpretation of article 3 ECHR would therefore lead to the conclusion that the current Dutch policy is contradictory to this article. The results in this article could contribute to the debate that has arisen in the Netherlands.


Mr. Wesley Welten
Mr. Wesley Welten is werkzaam als buitengriffier bij de Rechtbank Rotterdam, sector strafrecht.
Artikel

Door een gekleurde bril?

Bespreking van een verkennend onderzoek naar de percepties en ervaringen van allochtone en autochtone jongeren ten aanzien van oneigenlijk selectief politiewerk

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2011
Trefwoorden racial profiling, actuarial justice, discretionairy powers, police
Auteurs Mr. dr. drs. Maartje van der Woude, Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun, Fleur van Barneveld e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    By expanding preventive powers, the Dutch criminal justice system is increasingly aimed at detecting risky people and groups as soon as possible. This so-called actuarial justice is accompanied by a great deal of discretionary power in the hands of those who have to enforce the law, bearing the risk that such powers may be carried out (in part) on the basis of generalizations relating to race, ethnicity, religion or nationality instead of on the basis of individual behavior and/or objective evidence. By presenting the results of an exploratory study into the perceptions of minorities with regard to racial profiling, the main conclusion of this article is that there is a clear necessity for further empirical research into this area.


Mr. dr. drs. Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude is universitair docent bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Fleur van Barneveld
Fleur van Barneveld is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Yannick van Eijk
Yannick van Eijk is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Roel Holman
Roel Holman is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Madelin Mooijer
Madelin Mooijer is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
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