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Artikel

Het digitale jasje van eergerelateerd geweld

(Strafrechtelijke) mogelijkheden en beperkingen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Eergerelateerd geweld, zeden, strafwetgeving, internet
Auteurs Prof. dr. Janine Janssen en Prof. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Violence in the name of honour has an ancient ring to it. But honour codes tend to be very flexible: cyber-space has given a new dimension to honour-related violence. Images and messages that are perceived as violations of honour also pass through social media. Unfortunately these stings on the good name of the family are quite difficult to remove. In this contribution is explained how violations of honour occur on the internet. Next to that will be described how currently in the Netherlands criminal law especially regarding vice is being adapted in order to deal with phenomena like sexting and sextortion. What are the consequences of these changes for dealing with modern forms of the violation of family honour?


Prof. dr. Janine Janssen
Prof. dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld, lector Veiligheid in Afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan Avans Hogeschool, bijzonder hoogleraar Rechtsantropologie aan de Open Universiteit en tevens voorzitter van de redactie van PROCES.

Prof. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
Prof. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde is universitair hoofddocent Straf(proces)recht aan de Universiteit Leiden. Hij is tevens als bijzonder hoogleraar strafrechtsfilosofie, leerstoel Leo Polak, verbonden aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en lid van de redactie van PROCES.
Peer reviewed

Access_open Knokkers en vrije jongens

Het criminele verleden van het Nederlandse kickboksen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Kickboksen, Verknoping criminaliteit, Penoze
Auteurs Dr. Frank van Gemert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the early years of kickboxing in the Netherlands, a number of fighters got involved in criminal activities. Literature typically focusses on social learning, but as the inner city of Amsterdam in the eighties provides a specific setting, this article particularly describes a historical process. In the qualitative data from interviews, observations, and various documents, three questions: Who were these kickboxers? Where did they enter the criminal circles? Why did they go along with what happened there? It turns out, successful fighters easily came in contact with people from the underground, as they met in the gyms and in the night life where many fighters worked as bouncers. In a friendly atmosphere, the risks of seduction were hard to recognize for inexperienced fighters.


Dr. Frank van Gemert
Dr. F.H.M. van Gemert is criminoloog en werkt bij de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.
PS van een redacteur

Johnny is verhuisd

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2019
Auteurs Mr. Ad de Beer
Auteursinformatie

Mr. Ad de Beer
Mr. Ad de Beer is jeugdofficier van justitie te Rotterdam en redacteur van PROCES.
Artikel

De sluitingsbevoegdheid van artikel 13b Opiumwet: een mogelijk vervolgingsbeletsel voor het Openbaar Ministerie

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Bestuurlijk sanctierecht, Bestuursstrafrecht, Openbaar Ministerie, Opiumwet
Auteurs Mr. dr. drs. Benny van der Vorm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    According to article 13b of the Dutch Drug Act, the mayor is authorized to close homes and buildings in case of violation of this act. The closure of these homes and buildings is considered as an administrative sanction with no punitive aim. However, in certain cases it is possible that the application of this sanction could to be considered as a criminal charge. If so, this might have consequences for a possible criminal prosecution, because of the concept that no legal action can be instituted twice for the same cause (ne bis in idem-principle). This could lead to the situation that the Dutch Public Prosecution Service might lose its right to prosecute. In the combat of ‘undermining criminality’ this would be a major upset.


Mr. dr. drs. Benny van der Vorm
Mr. dr. drs. Benny van der Vorm is universitair docent Straf(proces)recht aan de Universiteit Utrecht (Willem Pompe Instituut voor strafrechtswetenschappen en Montaigne Centrum voor Rechtspleging en Conflictoplossing).
Peer reviewed

Opsporingsberichtgeving in een veranderend medialandschap

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden Opsporingsberichtgeving, (sociale) media, Privacy, belangenafweging, Engelse trefwoorden: Police and prosecutorial appeals for information and wanted notices, (social) media, privacy, balancing interests
Auteurs Dr. Gabry Vanderveen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Police and prosecution can appeal to the public for information to further their case. This requires a balancing exercise between the rights of the suspect (and other people involved), specifically the right to privacy and the interest of criminal investigations. Appeals for information and wanted notices require a medium as well. Also, in order for the appeal to be effective, other (news)media need to publish the appeal as well: it needs to be newsworthy and attractive for the public intended. Based on deskresearch, this article describes how an ever-changing media landscape and different media revolutions affect the appeals for information.


Dr. Gabry Vanderveen
Dr. Gabry Vanderveen is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam.
Peer reviewed

Onderzoeksjournalistiek en opsporing

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden Opsporing, Persvoorlichting, Onderzoeksjournalistiek, Misdaadjournalistiek, Privacy
Auteurs Dr. Peter Klerks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Investigative reporters show an increasing interest in criminal phenomena. Dutch journalists may be allowed access to ongoing police investigations on the condition that they comply with data protection legislation. Working in international cooperative projects, using sophisticated research tools and hot sources, journalists by themselves also manage to uncover hidden crimes that may prompt indictments. The article explores possibilities of future collaboration between criminal investigators and reporters, while acknowledging each other’s professional roles and responsibilities.


Dr. Peter Klerks
Dr. P.P.H.M. Klerks werkt als raadadviseur bij het Parket-Generaal van het Openbaar Ministerie en doceert aan de Politieacademie, waar hij van 2004 tot 2010 lector Recherchekunde was.
Artikel

Grijze gebieden

Hoe hybride professionals hun identiteit bevechten binnen de politie

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden hybride professionaliteit, Politie, identitieit
Auteurs Teun Meurs MsC en Amanda Visch Bsc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Public organizations seem to be in a permanent state of transition in an attempt to adapt to the outside world. A recent development is the emergence of hybrid professional roles in fields such as healthcare and primary education. These hybrids are a midway between managerial and professional roles and are expected to collaborate with stakeholders in tackling problems. This article focuses on the challenges of recently appointed hybrid professionals within a Police team in The Netherlands. We focus on their efforts to find a place and position in their team by analyzing some critical incidents in which they clashed with their fellow professionals. In doing so, they perform ‘identity work’ to find out who they are, both for themselves, as for colleagues. We conclude both identity and identity work don’t come natural in a hybrid professional reality and stress the need for facilitation of professional reflection at the organizational level.


Teun Meurs MsC
Teun Meurs Msc is promovendus ‘valorisatie en politieprofessionaliteit’ aan de Hogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen.

Amanda Visch Bsc
Amanda Visch BSc is operationeel specialist bij de Politie Noord-Holland.
Artikel

Ervaren complexiteit van sociale professionals die werken met moeilijk bereikbare burgers

De relatie met ketenpartners

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Sociale professionals in de frontlijn, Complexiteit, Ketenpartners, Moeilijk bereikbaren
Auteurs Drs. Jeanet de Jong en Heleen Jansen Msc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The day to day work of social professionals working with ‘hard to reach’ people, is known to be highly complex. Especially the interdependent relationship with other agencies.
    Often problems are not only related to social and welfare themes but also to safety and justice issues. Therefore a wider perspective is asked for. Questions answered in this article are: which elements are being perceived as complex in the relationship with other agencies and how do professionals relate to these elements. Data is used from former research performed within a team working with Roma families. Knowledge, expertise, information sharing and coordination are perceived as complex elements. Good contacts and communication between individual professionals are essential. Understanding each other’s perspective is crucial in achieving a joint effort. Professionals need intensive support in order to keep focused on the values of their work and avoid being led by emotions and issues of the day.


Drs. Jeanet de Jong
Drs. Jeanet de Jong is docent hoger onderwijs Academie Sociale Studies Breda, en onderzoeker Expertisecentrum Veiligheid bij de Avans Hogeschool.

Heleen Jansen Msc
Heleen Jansen Msc is strategisch beleidsadviseur bij het UWV.

drs. Désirée Versteijnen
Drs. D.M.L. Versteijnen is klinisch psycholoog-psychotherapeut en seksuoloog. Haar huidige functies zijn: behandelcoördinator bij de Pompekliniek te Nijmegen, raad bij het hof in Arnhem en Pro Justitia-rapporteur.
Artikel

Digitale seksuele delicten in het straf- en strafprocesrecht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden Seksuele delicten, Internet, Strafbaarstelling, Opsporing
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Minister for Security and Justice recently announced a revision of the sexual offences in the Dutch Penal Code. Part of this revision could be the introduction of several sexual offences that are committed on the internet. The Minister mentioned sexchatting, sextortion and revenge porn. This article describes the present-day possibilities the Penal Code offers in tackling these crimes, and gives insight in the bottlenecks in current penal law. This article also provides a description of several relevant criminal investigative powers in existing and future Dutch procedural law.


Prof. dr. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
Prof. dr. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde is universitair hoofddocent Straf(proces)recht. Hij is tevens als bijzonder hoogleraar Strafrechtsfilosofie, leerstoel Leo Polak, verbonden aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en redacteur van PROCES.

    Amsterdam is a popular destination for tourists. The number of tourists visiting Amsterdam increases every year and is expected to hit 23 million by 2025. This article describes which implications increasing tourism has on security and crime in Amsterdam. It appears that increasing tourism has a negative effect on social cohesion and can be a serious threat to safety. Tourism also attracts crime. Tourists are far more likely to suffer from crimes than inhabitants of Amsterdam. In particular they become victims of crimes like pickpocketing, mugging and scams. Tourists are also often associated with drug- and alcohol-related incidents. Apart from being a victim, a tourist can also be a perpetrator of crime. Inhabitants of Amsterdam regularly complain about nuisance caused by tourists. Especially subletted apartments via Airbnb is a serious concern for residents of Amsterdam and local policymakers.


Dr. Joke Harte
Dr. Joke Harte is universitair hoofddocent bij de afdeling Strafrecht & Criminologie van de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en redactielid van PROCES.

Ingrid van Houwelingen MSc
Ingrid van Houwelingen MSc is als junior onderzoeker werkzaam bij de afdeling Strafrecht & Criminologie van de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Ontstaan en ontwikkeling van de reclassering in vogelvlucht: 1823-heden

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Probation service, History of social work, history of pprobation, Solitary confinement, professionalization, Volunteer work, state control, social casework, resocialization, Alternative sanctions, What Works-debate
Auteurs Dr. Maarten van der Linde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the last decade history of social work gained a growing interest among social professionals, teachers, students and policy makers. They want to know more about the contributions the social work professions made to social welfare, community building and public safety. A website was launched, which today in 2017 presents the history of fifteen fields of social work: www.canonsociaalwerk.eu/.
    Part of this is the history of Probation. In this article this history is told, following highlights as the inspiration from Great Britain, the start in 1823 and the first decades of volunteer work. Probation tried to compensate the negative effects of solitary confinement. Since the early twentieth century the role of the state was growing (Probationcharter 1910) leading to 100% financial support in 1965 and 100% control in the 1980s. The probation service was integrated in the juridicial system, but became not an stateservice. Performance was delegated to relative independant institutions, heirs of the private probation associations of the past, with strong traditions of work ethic. This history of probation shows the influence of social casework methods since the 1950s, the search for a balance between dependance and independance from the state, and the balance between punishment and resocializing. Since the 1990s the role of probation in alternative sanctions, the contribution of volunteer work to a highly professionalized probation service and the What Works-debate brought innovation and new inspiration to the field of probation service.


Dr. Maarten van der Linde
Dr. Maarten van der Linde is emeritus lector Geschiedenis van sociaal werk aan de Hogeschool Utrecht.
Artikel

Radicalisering in Molenbeek

Belgisch tweesporenbeleid verhindert integrale aanpak

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Radicalisering, Molenbeek, Belgisch tweesporenbeleid
Auteurs Prof. Elke Devroe en Prof. dr. em. Paul Ponsaers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Radicalization in Molenbeek; Belgian dual policy obstructs integrated approach Belgisch tweesporenbeleid verhindert integrale aanpak


Prof. Elke Devroe
Prof. Elke Devroe is Associate Professor aan het Institute of Security and Global Affairs (ISGA), Faculteit Governance and Global Affairs van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. em. Paul Ponsaers
Prof. dr. em. Paul Ponsaers is werkzaam bij de Vakgroep Strafrecht, Criminologie en Sociaal Recht van de Rechtsfaculteit van de Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

Het EVRM en een strafbaarstelling voor overtreding van een visumsysteem in de strijd tegen het terrorisme

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Terrorismebestrijding, Visumstelsel, FTF, Mensenrechten
Auteurs Ernesto M.J. Lentze
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A visa system covered by criminal law could adequately confront the current issues surrounding terrorism and in particular Foreign Terrorist Fighters (FTF’s). Classical legal research demonstrates that the idea of creating a criminal offense for breaching this visa system does not conflict with relevant human rights parameters of the European Convention, except in cases where journalists or non-journalists with a strong civil expression would be prevented to undertake obvious journalistic activities. The latter differs during a state of emergency, but this is undesirable given the fundamental role of freedom of expression within democratic constitutional societies.


Ernesto M.J. Lentze
Ernesto Lentze is politicoloog, jurist en journalist.
Artikel

Actuele opvattingen inzake civiel schadeverhaal via het strafproces

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden schadevergoeding, voeging benadeelde partij, onevenredige belasting, convergentie strafrecht/civielrecht
Auteurs Dr. Renée Kool en Mr. dr. Jessy Emaus
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Crime victims’ compensation is a focal point of interest within the present Dutch penal policy. Coming forward as an injured party, crime victims may claim compensation for pecuniary and non-pecuniary damages from the prepetrator. Since the claim is of a subsidiary, civil nature, the decision making may not represent an undue burden to the criminal procedure. To further compensation, the legal criterion for accessibility was extended (2010) and policy measures were taken. The article provides an overview of the most important findings of an evaluation into to date’s practice, paying special attention to the opinion of legal professionals. Focussing on both the preparatory and the trial phase, a multidisciplinary research was executed, combining quantitative and qualitative research methods. The results show an increase of the amount of claims awarded since 2007. To date, victims’ compensation is commonly accepted within the Dutch criminal procedure. Nevertheless, the legal professionals point at the potential draw backs that sprout from the acknowledgment of the victim as a participant within the Dutch criminal proceedings.


Dr. Renée Kool
Dr. Renée Kool is universitair hoofddocent Strafrecht aan de Universiteit Utrecht en als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Utrechtse onderzoekscentrum Ucall.

Mr. dr. Jessy Emaus
Mr. dr. Jessy Emaus is universitair docent Privaatrecht aan de Universiteit Utrecht en als onderzoeker verbonden aan de Utrechtse onderzoekscentra Ucall en Renforce, en is SIM-fellow.
Artikel

De bestuurlijke aanpak van het jihadisme

De intrekking van het Nederlanderschap in het belang van de nationale veiligheid als (preventieve) verbanning

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden Bestuurlijke aanpak, Jihadisme, Intrekking Nederlanderschap, Dubbele nationaliteit
Auteurs Mr. dr. drs. Benny van der Vorm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the fight against terrorism, administrative measures are increasingly applied. This is called the administrative approach on terrorism. A recent bill seeks to the withdrawal of the Dutch citizenship of those who are suspected of certain terrorist activities abroad and when such is needed in the context of national security. Under this bill it is made possible to withdraw the Dutch citizenship of those who voluntarily join a terrorist group abroad. The idea behind this proposed administrative measure is to protect the national security of the Netherlands, by banning those who voluntarily joined a jihadi organization and pose a threat to national security due to their return. The bill has several major drawbacks: the limited legal protection of the persons concerned, the possible criminal nature of this measure and doubts about its effectiveness.


Mr. dr. drs. Benny van der Vorm
Mr. dr. drs. Benny van der Vorm is universitair docent Straf(proces)recht aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Dr. Janine Jansen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de nationale politie, lector ‘Veiligheid in afhankelijkheidsrelaties’ aan de Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch en voorzitter van de redactie van PROCES.
Artikel

De OM-strafbeschikking en de minderjarige bestrafte

Is het recht op een eerlijk proces voldoende verzekerd?

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2015
Trefwoorden OM-strafbeschikking / Public prosecutor’s penalty decision, jeugdige verdachten / juvenile suspects, recht op eerlijk process / right to due process
Auteurs Petra Van Es MBA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article tries to answer the question whether the right to due process, especially for minors receiving a public prosecutor’s penalty decision in the Netherlands is sufficiently guaranteed. To answer this question, formal legislature with respect to this topic, the concept of ‘due process’ as well as the actual legal guarantees for minors, have been explored. In juvenile criminal law, contrary to adult criminal law, the pedagogic aspect plays an important role. The pedagogic point of view is also taken into account. A recent report by the Attorney General of the Dutch Supreme Court showed undoubtedly that after six years of experience, the processes surrounding the instrument of the public prosecutor’s penalty decision are far from being executed flawlessly. Both from a judicial perspective as well as a pedagogic perspective, this is a serious problem. The most important procedural aspects that require substantial improvement are related to determining guilt, attorney accessibility and the presence of parents.


Petra Van Es MBA
Petra van Es MBA werkt als officier Veiligheidsregio Amsterdam-Amstelland voor het ministerie van Defensie en studeert strafrecht aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Doelen van straffen bereiken door lokale interventies

Taakstraffen in de wijk bezien in het licht van morele straftheorieën en visie van het Openbaar Ministerie

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2015
Trefwoorden community sentencing / taakstraffen, moral theories / morele theorieën, public prosecutor / openbaar ministerie, execution of punishments / executie van straffen
Auteurs Mr. Disa Jironet Loewe en Mr. Leon Plas
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch prosecutor’s office has set itself the goal of contributing to a safer and just society. This article investigates how a more proactive and innovative approach to the sanctioning of crimes can help towards realizing this goal. The authors take a close look at which types of sanctions could be ‘employed’ for this purpose, and when and how they ought to be executed, in the light of moral retributive and utilitarian theories on punishment. Specifically, the article considers community-sentencing punishments – punishments that are executed locally and in a way that is connected to context (perpetrator, neighbourhood) within which the crime was committed. The authors conclude that a visible connection between the crime and the punishment is vital to achieve the goals set out by the prosecutor’s office. However, at the same time various features of the execution of the punishment need to be considered in order to reach the right effect. This article does not purport to give a single answer these issues, but aspires to indicate where there is unexplored potential in the way community sentences are executed, and hopes to give a framework of what needs to be considered in order to do so effectively.


Mr. Disa Jironet Loewe
Mr. Disa Jironet Loewe is officier van Justitie in opleiding bij het Arrondissementsparket Amsterdam.

Mr. Leon Plas
Mr. Leon Plas is advocaat-generaal bij het Ressortsparket Den Haag en lector OM en Strafrecht bij het Studiecentrum Rechtspleging (SSR).
Artikel

Bedreigende rap en de kunstexceptie

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden Kunstexceptie, Bedreiging, Artistieke vrijheid, Vrijheid van meningsuiting, Strafuitsluitingsgronden
Auteurs Mr. Sven Bakker en Veerle van de Wetering LL.B.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In several Dutch criminal cases rap artists have invoked the ‘exceptio artis’ as a ground for justification in court. In this article Bakker and Van de Wetering research the possibilities of successful appeals in such cases. Both the meaning and scope of the ‘exceptio artis’ are taken into consideration, consulting the literature and ECtHR case law on article 10 ECHR. Furthermore the contribution also deals with Dutch case law on the ‘exceptio artis’ and rap lyrics that were held punishable so as to clarify the seldom discussed relationship between rap and the ‘exceptio artis’.


Mr. Sven Bakker
Mr. Sven Bakker is als wetenschappelijk docent en onderzoeker verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en verricht promotieonderzoek naar ‘uitzonderlijke excepties’.

Veerle van de Wetering LL.B.
Veerle van de Wetering LL.B. is masterstudente Strafrecht en werkzaam als student-assistent bij de afdeling Strafrecht van de Erasmus School of Law.
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