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Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie x Jaar 2015 x
Artikel

De remmende werking van huwelijk en arbeid op vermogensdelicten. Rotterdam, 1812-1820

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden property crime, marriage, labour, nineteenth century, Netherlands
Auteurs Bjørn Gallée BA en Jaap Ligthart MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the field of criminology, marriage and labour are important determinants for the decline in criminal behavior. However, these factors are seldom researched in the context of historical criminology. By conducting research into crimes against property in Rotterdam, those brought to the Rotterdam correctional court in the 1812-1820 period, this paper attempts to shed light on the topic. Our findings show that a majority of the delinquents in question were employed, while a minority of those female delinquents were married, yet also in gainful employment in most cases. Male adolescents, who had just entered the labour market, were the largest group of male delinquents. The female population of delinquents consisted mostly of women who were close to marriageable age. Thus, it is suggested that labour and marriage supplied insufficient economical stability to inhibit criminal behavior during the 1812-1820 period.


Bjørn Gallée BA
B. Gallée, BA is werkzaam als onderzoeksassistent in het project ‘Crime and Gender’ aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Jaap Ligthart MA
J. Ligthart, MA was in 2013 werkzaam als onderzoeksassistent in het project ‘Crime and Gender’ en promoveert momenteel aan de Universiteit Leiden op financiële problemen van vorsten in de vijftiende-eeuwse Nederlanden.
Artikel

Stapels koopwaar als eene bestendige aanlokking voor dieven’. De economische visie op criminaliteit en criminaliteitscontrole in de haven van Antwerpen (1880-1940)

De economische visie op criminaliteit en criminaliteitscontrole in de haven van Antwerpen (1880-1940)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden governance of security, private security, crime control, situational crime prevention, loss prevention
Auteurs Drs. P. Leloup
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution focuses on the manner in which between 1880 and 1940 private actors in the port of Antwerp, whether or not in cooperation with the public authorities, interpreted crime and crime control in terms of risk management, loss prevention and situational crime prevention through a strict economic approach, as opposed to the then dominant institutionalized and criminological discourse. Whereas crime control by the major criminal justice institutions put an emphasis on the biological, psychological and sociological characteristics of the offender, measures taken by maritime, industrial and commercial organizations were aimed exclusively at manipulating the temporal and spatial dimensions of the opportunity structures in which criminal activities, which posed a threat to the economic profitability, could develop.


Drs. P. Leloup
Drs. P. Leloup is verbonden aan de Crime & Society (CRiS)-onderzoeksgroep van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Faculteit Recht en Criminologie, is houder van masterdiploma’s geschiedenis (Universiteit Gent, 2009) en criminologische wetenschappen (Universiteit Gent, 2012) en werkt aan een proefschrift over de ontwikkeling van de private veiligheidszorg in België, getiteld ‘The development of the private security industry in Belgium (1907-1990). A historical-criminological perspective on contemporary changes in security and crime control’.
Artikel

‘Onze kinderen zijn geen terroristen’

Families van Belgische en Nederlandse Syriëgangers over het vertrek van hun geliefden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden foreign fighters, armed struggle, families, Syria, radicalization
Auteurs Dr. Marion van San
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since March 2013 a sizeable number of Belgian and Dutch youngsters have joined the armed conflict in Syria. According to recent estimates, Belgium has 438 foreign fighters in Syria, the Netherlands 160. Very little is known about who these people are and what made them decide to join the armed struggle. There is also a lack of information regarding their families. The research on which this article is based comprised interviews with twenty families with at least one member who has left for Syria. In addition, former teachers of these youngsters were asked to reflect on their students’ actions. The central questions of this article concern the views of family members on the youngsters’ decision to join the armed struggle, whether or not there were signs of radicalization prior to their leaving, and whether all of them actually did go through a process of radicalization.


Dr. Marion van San
Dr. M. van San is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het RISBO (Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam).
Redactioneel

De bestudering van criminaliteit op macroniveau: een inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden macro criminology, theory, crime drop, punitive turn, micro-macro problem
Auteurs Dr. Frank Weerman, Dr. André van der Laan, Prof. Ineke Haen Marshall e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this introductory article we introduce the subject of our thematic issue on ‘macro criminology’, and illustrate it with a short historical overview and examples of ‘typical macro criminological’ research. Successively we address the recent decrease in crime in many Western countries (the ‘crime drop’), the increased tendency to punish more severely in the last decennia (the ‘punitive turn’), and historical developments in homicide (‘history of violence’). After that we address an important theoretical and philosophical problem with regard to macro criminology: the balance between micro and macro factors in explaining macro phenomena. Finally, the contributions of this thematic issue are introduced.


Dr. Frank Weerman
Dr. F.M. Weerman is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. André van der Laan
Dr. A.M. van der Laan is senior onderzoeker bij de afdeling Criminaliteit Rechtshandhaving en Sancties (CRS) van het WODC.

Prof. Ineke Haen Marshall
Prof. I.H. Marshall is Professor bij de School of Criminology and Criminal Justice en de Department of Sociology & Anthropology van de Northeastern University in Boston (VS).

Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L.J.R. Pauwels is directeur van de Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

Van secularisering naar securitisering

Een beschouwing over de relatie tussen religie, criminaliteit en veiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden religion and crime, secularization, radicalization, surveillance
Auteurs Prof. dr. Hans Boutellier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Western world seems to be a secular one. Although secularization has long roots, from the sixties onwards the role of religion in public life has diminished. How did that affect the crime and security issue? Criminological literature learns that there is a two-sided relationship: (1) in a religious context there is an inhibiting effect of being religious; and (2) religion can also legitimize or neutralize criminal or violent behavior – for example in the case of Islam-related terrorist acts. Secularization did indeed contribute to the rise of crime; in nowadays secular context religion can – the other way around – legitimize criminal behavior. The author argues that secularization also has facilitated the growth of the security issue as such. Fear of crime was the driving force behind a process in which secularization resulted in securitization of Western society.


Prof. dr. Hans Boutellier
Prof. dr. J.C.J. Boutellier is wetenschappelijk directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en bijzonder hoogleraar Veiligheid en Burgerschap aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen en Politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Daling in geregistreerde jeugdcriminaliteit

Enkele mogelijke verklaringen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden crime drop, juvenile suspects, trends, macro explanations, time series analysis
Auteurs Dr. André van der Laan en Dr. Gijs Weijters
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, from 2007 police census data show a sharp decrease in the number of suspects of crime among juveniles aged 12 to 25 years old. How to explain this decrease remains unclear. Constructionist theories suggest that changes in police census data are fully explained by changes in the law enforcement system. Normative theories argue that changes in police data can be explained by demographic, social or economic trends. In this paper, we systematically explored the (inter)national literature for macro factors that could explain changes in juvenile crime. Next, in an empirical case study of the city of Amsterdam, we explored which of these macro factors relate to changes over time in the number of juvenile suspects of crime and the types of crime they were suspected of. Due to multicollinearity of the macro factors multivariate analyses were not possible. Our results indicate that the decrease in police registered juvenile crime in Amsterdam should be explained by multiple factors. Some of these factors concern policy investments (such as focus on school drop-out and targeted law enforcement), other factors relate to socialdemographic developments which appeared coincidentally.


Dr. André van der Laan
Dr. A.M. van der Laan is senioronderzoeker bij de afdeling Criminaliteit Rechtshandhaving en Sancties (CRS) van het WODC. Zijn onderzoeksinteresse betreft ontwikkelingen in en achtergronden van jeugdcriminaliteit en veelplegers en effecten van justitiële sancties.

Dr. Gijs Weijters
Dr. G.M. Weijters is onderzoeker bij de afdeling Criminaliteit Rechtshandhaving en Sancties (CRS) van het WODC.

    The explosive growth of the Internet has led to countless new possibilities, and it opened the way for societal progress and an extensive globalization and digitization. However, the original ambition of the Internet as a free, open and neutral medium has also led to new possibilities in the field of crime. The current paper illustrates how governments dealt with the development of the Internet and it gives an explanation for why and how unintended side effects have manifested in society. Using the phenomenon of digital child abuse, this paper offers recommendations for an effective government response and for an effective detection of and fight against cybercrime.


Madeleine van der Bruggen MSc MA
M. van der Bruggen, MSc MA is Operationeel Specialist Zeden bij de Politie Landelijke Eenheid (Dienst Landelijke Recherche) – Team Bestrijding Kinderporno en Kindersekstoerisme (TBKK).
Artikel

Jeugddelinquentie in vergelijkend perspectief

Vertellen micro- en macroanalyses hetzelfde verhaal?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden cross-national criminology, juvenile delinquency, theoretical integration, self-report survey, theory-testing
Auteurs Chris Marshall PhD en Prof. Ineke Haen Marshall
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents a micro- and a macro-level analysis of predictors of delinquency in order to contribute to the discussion about the micro-macro problem in criminology. We use Coleman’s boat (1990) to situate our research question. Individual theories dominate the field of delinquency, there are few theories at macro level. Cross-level theoretical integration primarily takes place between individual (micro) and community (meso) levels, and hardly ever on (national) macro level. Our question is to which extent macro-level theory fruitfully may use concepts drawn from micro-level theory. We test a micro and a macro model using indicators from the domains of family, school, friends/peers and economy, using data collected by the Second International Self-Report Study of Delinquency (ISRD2), a cross-national self-report survey of delinquency and victimization among students between 12 and 16 years in 30 countries (n=71.436). Dependent variable at micro level is versatility (last year), at the macro level (national) we use contacts with the police for youths under 18. Results confirm the importance of including macro context (country clusters) in the analysis of individual delinquency. We further conclude that factors related to family and friends correlate at both micro and macro level with measures of delinquency; the role of school and economic factors is less clear-cut. The article concludes with the recommendation to give the micro-macro problem in delinquency theory a more central and explicit position in research programs.


Chris Marshall PhD
C.E. Marshall, PhD is Associate Professor bij de School of Criminology and Criminal Justice van de University of Nebraska-Omaha (VS).

Prof. Ineke Haen Marshall
Prof. I. Haen Marshall is Professor bij de School of Criminology and Criminal Justice en de Department of Sociology & Anthropology van de Northeastern University in Boston (VS).
Artikel

Terugblikken op de aanloop

Dynamische voorspellers van perioden van detentie gedurende de levensloop van vrouwelijke gedetineerden in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden women, incarceration, risk factors, life history calendars, Netherlands
Auteurs Dr. Katharina Joosen en Dr. Anne-Marie Slotboom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dynamic predictors of periods of incarceration across the life course of female prisoners in the Netherlands were examined, inspired by a Gendered Pathways to Offending framework. Through life course calendars and surveys 397 female prisoners were interviewed. Women who were employed, received benefits, experienced childbirth, or were involved with substance abusing partners were less likely to be incarcerated one year later. Women whose parents had divorced, were addicted to hard drugs, worked as prostitutes, were homeless, had debts, had income from crime or a criminal partner, or received treatment for psychological problems were at increased risk for incarceration one year later.


Dr. Katharina Joosen
Dr. K. Joosen is als postdoc onderzoeker werkzaam bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Anne-Marie Slotboom
Dr. A. Slotboom is universitair hoofddocent aan de faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
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