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Artikel

Access_open Witwassen als bedrijfsmatige activiteit: de verborgen netwerken van witwassers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden money laundering, financial facilitators, networked criminology, organized crime
Auteurs Jo-Anne Kramer, Arjan Blokland en Melvin Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Financial Action Task Force reported that money launderers may operate in professional money laundering networks. Whether such money laundering networks operate in the Netherlands is unclear. In this article the authors therefore explore whether professional money launderers collaborate in network structures and the business-like manner in which they offer their services. Business-like refers to their involvement in multiple cases, the amount of repeat customers, and excludes family relations. The research is based on Dutch police registrations of 236 professional money launderers. Our results suggest that professional money laundering networks are indeed active in the Netherlands and that money launderers in these networks offer their services in a business-like manner to a varying extent. An important caveat to the current findings is that the criminal cases analyzed predominantly pertain drug-related offenses, leaving the existence and professionalism of money laundering networks in other types of crime, like large-scale fraud, a question open for future research.


Jo-Anne Kramer
J. Kramer MSc is onderzoeker en docent Criminologie bij de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en was als junior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam.

Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. mr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam en bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology & Criminal Justice bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Melvin Soudijn
Dr. M.R.J. Soudijn is research fellow bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam en Operationeel Specialist bij de Nationale Politie.
Kroniek

Plattelandscriminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden Rural criminology, Policing, Critical criminology, Cultural criminology, Environmental crime
Auteurs Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminology has traditionally focused on urban areas where crime visibly concentrates. However, since the 1990s, attention for ‘rural criminology’ has steadily increased. First, rural areas are confronted with partly different and less visible crime problems, such as environmental crimes. Second, public actors such as enforcement and other agencies are less present and ‘available’ in rural areas, and people on average trust the government less to provide support when necessary. This chronicle presents an overview of international and Dutch research in the context of rural criminology. The paper addresses cultural differences between urban and rural areas, high-volume crimes, gender-related violence, alcohol and drug abuse, environmental crime, and enforcement in rural areas.


Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Criminaliteit, digitalisering en de online sociale wereld: dezelfde processen in een nieuwe sociale context?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden digitalisation, crime, cybercrime, social media, online
Auteurs Prof. dr. Frank Weerman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution reflects on the criminological meaning of the still ongoing trend of digitalisation. What does this mean for crime as a phenomenon and for the explanation of criminal behaviour? Not only did we see the emergence of new types of offending, also the context of crime has changed. In principle, the underlying explanatory processes can remain the same, but their application in the online world is complex and deserves further attention. Online social interactions are not only important for online crime, but also for traditional offenses. However, systematic research on how this actually takes place is scarce.


Prof. dr. Frank Weerman
Prof. dr. F.M. Weerman is bijzonder hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam.
Redactioneel

Access_open Intergenerationele overdracht en criminele families: introductie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Intergenerational transmission, Criminal families, Mechanisms, Organized crime, Prevention
Auteurs Dr. Steve van de Weijer en Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this introductory chapter we provide an overview of criminological research into intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour that currently is, and has been, conducted both internationally and in the Netherlands. The most important findings of these studies are also discussed. Next, possible explanations are discussed for intergenerational transmission of crime in general, and more particularly for families that are involved in more serious and organized crime. Moreover, possible ways in which intergenerational transmission of crime can be prevented are discussed. Finally, we give some directions for future research on this topic and will introduce the contributions to this special issue.


Dr. Steve van de Weijer
Dr. S.G.A. van de Weijer is postdoctoraal onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Discussie

‘Zij vreet er ook van’

Over de ongemakkelijke relatie tussen huiselijk geweld en zware en georganiseerde criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Domestic violence, Organized crime, Bikers
Auteurs Dr. Janine Janssen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In The Netherlands not much attention has been paid towards the relationship between domestic violence and organized crime. In this contribution the question is addressed why this is. One of the answers is that there is doubt about the moral status of the victim of organized crime: it assumed that the victim has benefited from the proceedings of organized crime. When domestic violence and involvement with organized crime by one of the family members come together, the case becomes more complex and difficult to deal with. For that reason professionals and researchers should pay more attention to the overlap of both phenomena.


Dr. Janine Janssen
Dr. J. Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de Nationale Politie en lector Veiligheid in Afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan de Avans Hogeschool.
Artikel

De moeder als facilitator van intergenerationele overdracht binnen de georganiseerde misdaad

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden organized crime, intergenerational continuity, discontinuity, mother, parenting
Auteurs Meintje van Dijk Msc, Prof. dr. Edward Kleemans en Dr. Veroni Eichelsheim
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Previous research on intergenerational continuity of crime is primarily focused on transmission from fathers to children. In this article, we aim to give insight in the role of mothers in (the prevention of) continuity of organized crime. The results of our explorative study on 25 organized crime offenders based in Amsterdam and their partners and children, show that parenting skills and norms and values of mother seem to have an important role in both the intergenerational continuity of organized crime and the prevention of the transmission.


Meintje van Dijk Msc
A.M.M. van Dijk MSc is promovenda bij de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Edward Kleemans
Prof. dr. E.R. Kleemans is hoogleraar zware criminaliteit en rechtshandhaving aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Dr. Veroni Eichelsheim
Dr. V.I. Eichelsheim is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Artikel

Wie heeft een wiethok op zolder?

Een kwantitatief onderzoek naar risico- en beschermende factoren op persoons- en buurtniveau voor illegale hennepplantages in woningen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden indoor cannabis cultivation, risk factors, individuals, neighbourhoods
Auteurs Emily Berger MSc, Vera de Berk MSc, Dr. Joris Beijers e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Illegal weed cultivation is increasingly perceived as an important societal problem. Most of existing research in this area focuses on the criminal organisations active on the cannabis market and the criminal profits that are gained here. The current study however focuses on the actors at the bottom of the cannabis market – the home growers – and aims at answering the following research question: what factors influence the chance of encountering an illegal weed cultivation at a certain residential address? In this study, the risk and protecting factors are taken into consideration on both the individual level (e.g. family composition and financial position of residents) and the neighbourhood level (e.g. social cohesion, physical disorganisation, level of criminality in a certain neighbourhood). In the current study, data of 401 illegal hemp cultivation sites discovered between 2011 and 2016 in homes in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, were analysed. Data from various quantitative data sources – like municipal data (BRP and data from the Social Domain) and data from the municipal neighbourhood monitors – were combined and analysed through a multilevel logistic regression. The results suggest that the likelihood of an illegal weed cultivation site is most prominently influenced by individual factors. Being married for instance seems to decrease the risk, whereas being divorced seems to increase the risk. The housing type also turns out to be of influence. On a neighbourhood level, physical disorganisation and the presence of other hemp cultivation sites in the neighbourhood are the only predictors for hemp cultivation. The results are discussed in the light of criminological theories regarding participation in crime, using the theoretical concepts motivation, opportunity, and control.


Emily Berger MSc
E. Berger, MSc is als junior-onderzoeker verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden en was ten tijde van het initiële onderzoek masterstudente aan de Universiteit Utrecht en stagiaire bij de gemeente Eindhoven.

Vera de Berk MSc
V.J. de Berk, MSc was ten tijde van het initiële onderzoek masterstudente aan de Universiteit Utrecht en stagiaire bij de gemeente Eindhoven.

Dr. Joris Beijers
Dr. J.E.H. Beijers is als docent verbonden aan de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht en werkzaam als analist bij de gemeente Eindhoven.

Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. mr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior-onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology and Criminal Justice aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Drie perspectieven op de illegale vogelhandel in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden green criminology, illicit trade in species of endangered birds, CITES convention
Auteurs Dr. Daan van Uhm en Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands are considered as an important hub for the illicit trade in species of endangered birds protected by the CITES convention. In this article the authors analyze five substantial criminal cases from three different perspectives. First, from a criminal business perspective, the cases illustrate that logistics vary from relatively simple to highly complex, but always require in-depth knowledge of the animals as well as regulations, to be able to keep the birds alive to make a profit, and to smuggle them to the Netherlands, respectively. Second, from a network perspective, it is clear that those who are involved in the illicit trade – suppliers, traders and customers – are part of a closed and often long-lasting group of people who know the trade. Finally, from a green criminological perspective, the authors conclude that harms of the illicit trade in protected birds are mentioned only to a limited extent in court rulings, contrary to what one might expect based on social construction theories of criminalization and sentencing.


Dr. Daan van Uhm
Dr. D.P. van Uhm is universitair docent criminologie bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Veroordeeld tot (g)een baan

Hoe delict- en persoonskenmerken arbeidsmarktkansen beïnvloeden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1-2 2017
Trefwoorden employment experiment, employment chances, labour market, conviction, ethnicity
Auteurs Dr. Chantal van den Berg, Dr. Lieselotte Blommaert, Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Previous research showed that job applicants with a criminal record have lower chances of obtaining employment compared to job applicants with no criminal record. At the same time empirical studies showed that having a job is especially beneficial for ex-delinquents, as employment was found to lower recidivism. The current study uses an experimental design to look into the influence of a criminal record on employment chances. For this purpose, 520 resumes and motivation letters were sent in response to vacancies published on the internet. All were identical except for the stated offence type (no offence, violent offence, property offence, or sexual offence), duration between conviction and application, business sector and ethnicity of the applicant. Results show no effect for type of offence or no offence on employment chances. However, a strong effect is found for ethnicity. Ethnic minorities with no conviction were even found to have lower chances of receiving a positive reaction compared to applicants with a Dutch name and a conviction for a violent offence.


Dr. Chantal van den Berg
Dr. C.J.W. van den Berg is onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Lieselotte Blommaert
Dr. E.C.C.A. Blommaert is postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld is directeur van het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en hoogleraar Methoden en Technieken aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Prof. dr. Stijn Ruiter
Prof. dr. S. Ruiter is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en bijzonder hoogleraar Sociale en ruimtelijke aspecten van deviant gedrag aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Diversen: Artikelen

Drie drugsnetwerken in een kleine stad

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden drug trafficking networks, criminal networks, social opportunities
Auteurs Dr. Eric Bervoets en Dr. mr. Anton Van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recently, we conducted a study on drug trafficking criminal networks in a Dutch town. In this article, we examine the results of this study by assessing the development of criminal networks and the way in which individuals get involved with these networks. Our analysis of the qualitative data focuses on three central empirical findings derived from earlier (mainly Dutch) research on criminal networks. A first outcome of earlier studies was that criminal networks are not based on a specific kind of crime and therefore do not resemble goal driven companies. Our fieldwork suggests, however, that the networks seemed less ‘flat’ and more goal driven than previously assumed. Second, earlier studies conclude that the structure of social opportunities facilitates a subjects’ inclination towards committing crime. Our study seems to confirm this finding: social pressure from peers and family is strong and encourages involvement in drug trafficking networks. Finally, earlier research pointed out that involvement in criminal networks was not a result of intentional recruitment. In our study we found – anecdotic – evidence of the opposite. We found evidence that suggests that most youth criminals are not ‘persisters’, however, mobs may serve as gateways to organised crime.


Dr. Eric Bervoets
Dr. E.J.A. Bervoets is zelfstandig onderzoeker bij Bureau Bervoets.

Dr. mr. Anton Van Wijk
Dr. mr. A.Ph. van Wijk is directeur van Bureau Beke.
Artikel

Detentie en gevolgen van detentie

Onderzoek in Nederland en België

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden Detentiebeleid, detentieonderzoek, detentiebeleving, gevangeniscultuur, detentie-effecten
Auteurs Prof. dr. Kristel Beyens, Dr. Anja Dirkzwager en Prof. dr. Dirk Korf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Prison policy in Belgium and the Netherlands is changing rapidly. While Belgium struggles with a persisting prison overcrowding, the Netherlands strongly cuts back on the prison system and is closing an increasing number of prisons. This introductory article to a special issue on detention starts with a short outline of recent changes in Dutch and Belgian prison policy, focusing on developments in detention capacity and prison population. Subsequently we present an overview of empirical criminological research in the Netherlands and Belgium, situated within the international literature, with a specific focus on studies regarding life in detention and effects of detention on prisoners' lives and on their social environment. Finally, we reflect upon existing detention research in both countries, e.g. in terms of gaps in research topics and methodology, and discuss some future developments.


Prof. dr. Kristel Beyens
Prof. dr. K. Beyens is hoogleraar en voorzitter van de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Dirk Korf
Prof. dr. D.J. Korf is bijzonder hoogleraar criminologie en directeur van het Bonger Instituut, faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Criminaliteit en werk

Een veelzijdig verband

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden employment, corruption, organisational crime, life course
Auteurs Judith van Erp, Victor van der Geest, Wim Huisman e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Employment and crime are commonly assumed to be negatively correlated. Those employed are less likely to commit crimes, and conversely, those who have a criminal record are less likely to become employed. Criminological research has provided strong empirical and theoretical support for the link between employment and crime, but also suggests that a complex set of mechanisms may be at play. Additionally, studies show that employment can also increase the risk of criminal behaviour. In the introduction of this special issue, three causal relationships in the work-crime nexus will be discussed: employment causing crime, employment preventing crime, and crime blocking future employment.


Judith van Erp
Dr. J.G. van Erp is criminoloog aan de faculteit rechtsgeleerdheid van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, vanerp@frg.eur.nl.

Victor van der Geest
Dr. V.R. van der Geest is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en als onderzoeker aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), vvandergeest@nscr.nl.

Wim Huisman
Prof. dr. W. Huisman is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, w.huisman@rechten.vu.nl.

Janna Verbruggen
J. Verbruggen, MSc is als promovendus verbonden aan het Phoolan Devi instituut, in een samenwerkingsverband tussen de Afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), jverbruggen@nscr.nl.
Artikel

Criminele expats

Britse criminelen in Nederland en Nederlandse criminelen in Spanje

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden drugshandel, Internationale criminaliteit, Spanje, Verenigd Koninkrijk
Auteurs Dr. Melvin Soudijn en Dr. Sander Huisman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on migration with criminal motives. Two specific groups are discussed, British migrants in the Netherlands and Dutch migrants in Spain. Little is written on criminal migration motives in combination with Western subjects. On the other hand, investigative authorities have first-hand knowledge on this matter. An analysis of 25 closed case files shows that within these two groups of migrants, some people are heavily involved in the international drugs trade. Although their numbers are small, their function is important. Through their actions it becomes possible for certain cities or areas to evolve into international criminal drug marketplaces. There are also some differences between British and Dutch criminals abroad. British criminals are often involved as brokers. They broker drugs for third parties in Great Britain. Their stay in the Netherlands seems temporarily. They do not invest in the economy or buy property. Conversely, Dutch criminals in Spain could be described as leaders of organized crime groups. They invest in Spain by buying companies and property.


Dr. Melvin Soudijn
Dr. M. Soudijn is senior onderzoeker bij de KLPD, melvin.soudijn@klpd.politie.nl.

Dr. Sander Huisman
Dr. S. Huisman is senior onderzoeker bij de KLPD, Sander.huisman@klpd.politie.nl.
Titel

Veldwerk online: Mensensmokkel vanuit het perspectief van de gesmokkelde migrant

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 04 2008
Trefwoorden Observatie, Illegaal, Legaliteit, E-mail, Internet, Handel, Telefoon, Verkoop, Bemiddelaar, Certificaat
Auteurs Siegel, D.

Siegel, D.
Artikel

Moslimjongeren

De salafi-beweging en de vorming van een morele gemeenschap

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2009
Trefwoorden moslimjongeren, salafisme
Auteurs Martijn de Koning
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Accounts of radicalization and of social movements are often flawed by a static understanding of participation in radical networks. By analyzing the practices of the Salafi movement and its participants in reviving, establishing and nurturing a moral community of true believers I will explore how participation in this movement is sustained. I will show that by teaching young Muslims a particular lifestyle, exemplifying what it means to be a true believer, the Salafi movement tries to establish a position as the moral guardian of the Muslim community. For Muslim youth in this movement the activities are a means to evoke and nurture the experience of belonging and an essential practice for being part of the community of true believers.


Martijn de Koning
Drs. M. de Koning is onderzoeker aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, post@martijndekoning.com.
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