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Access_open Intergenerationele overdracht en criminele families: introductie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Intergenerational transmission, Criminal families, Mechanisms, Organized crime, Prevention
Auteurs Dr. Steve van de Weijer en Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this introductory chapter we provide an overview of criminological research into intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour that currently is, and has been, conducted both internationally and in the Netherlands. The most important findings of these studies are also discussed. Next, possible explanations are discussed for intergenerational transmission of crime in general, and more particularly for families that are involved in more serious and organized crime. Moreover, possible ways in which intergenerational transmission of crime can be prevented are discussed. Finally, we give some directions for future research on this topic and will introduce the contributions to this special issue.


Dr. Steve van de Weijer
Dr. S.G.A. van de Weijer is postdoctoraal onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Intergenerationele continuïteit of discontinuïteit van crimineel gedrag?

Een onderzoek naar de modererende invloed van samenwonen en de geografische afstand tussen ouder en kind

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden intergenerational transmission, discontinuity, criminal parent, geographical distance, exposure
Auteurs Dr. Steve van de Weijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study (N=921) examines whether living together with a criminal parent moderates the intergenerational continuity of crime. Results are mixed, but show that the intergenerational continuity of crime decreases when the child lived together with the criminal parent for a shorter period of time. This association is most strong for children whose criminal mothers live on a large distance from them. Longitudinal fixed effects models, however, show that these results are likely the consequence of between-individual differences and therefore do not reflect causal influences on the intergenerational continuity of crime.


Dr. Steve van de Weijer
Dr. S.G.A. van de Weijer is postdoctoraal onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Artikel

De psychische gezondheid van gedetineerden in België en Nederland: een systematisch overzicht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden prison, mental disorders, distress, substance use, suicide
Auteurs Drs. Louis Favril en Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A well-established body of epidemiological research suggests that the prevalence of mental health problems (mental disorders, psychological distress, and substance use) in prisoner populations far exceeds that of non-incarcerated people in the surrounding community. Poor mental health in prisoners is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, including suicidal behaviour. In the past decade, novel data in Belgium and the Netherlands have been published on this topic, which have not been synthesized to date. The aim of the current systematic literature review was to provide an up-to-date overview of the mental health of prisoners in Belgium and the Netherlands. Based on 24 empirical studies conducted in 1997-2018, the authors conclude that people with mental health problems are overrepresented in Belgian and Dutch prisons, providing both a challenge and a public health opportunity to address the mental health care needs of a vulnerable and hard-to-engage population. Investing in the prevention and treatment of mental health problems not only benefits the prisoners concerned, but equally, society at large.


Drs. Louis Favril
Drs. L. Favril is doctoraatsonderzoeker bij de Faculteit Recht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent.

Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Artikel

Access_open Van salafistisch gedachtegoed alleen kun je niet leven: de financiële zelfredzaamheid van 131 uitreizigers nader bekeken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden jihadi travellers, terrorism, terrorist financing, financial independence
Auteurs Dr. Melvin Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The present article examines the financial life of 131 jihadi travellers (JTs), also known as foreign terrorist fighters, from the Netherlands. For the purpose of the research, access was acquired to all their banking transactions in the year preceding their departure: over 60,000 transactions in total. Their income from work or employment, various forms of social assistance, student grants, and other income or expenditure were examined. The data provided a good picture of their financial independence, i.e., the extent to which they were capable of making their own living or needed to claim assistance from the authorities. The analysis shows that it is highly exceptional for Dutch JTs to be financially independent. Only 5 percent have sufficient income from work or employment without making any claims on the government for financial assistance, and are free of mounting debts. The low score can for a large part be explained by the fact that almost half of the JTs are under 23 years of age and/or receive a student grant. Their financial picture largely resembles ordinary students. Older JTs (over 22 years of age, and not having received a student grant for at least one year) underperform, however. Only 9 percent are financially independent. Financial support could perhaps be used to monitor or steer recipients’ role in society.


Dr. Melvin Soudijn
Dr. M.R.J. Soudijn is operationeel specialist bij de afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek, Dienst Landelijke Informatieorganisatie, Landelijke Eenheid, Politie.
Redactioneel

Organisatiecriminaliteit en de aanpak ervan in de Lage Landen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Organisatiecriminaliteit, Witteboordencriminaliteit, Handhaving, ING-affaire
Auteurs Dr. Karin Van Wingerde, Prof. dr. Antoinette Verhage en Dr. Lieselot Bisschop
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this introductory article we will discuss some of the recent developments in corporate crime research in the Netherlands and Belgium since 2008. In doing so, we will answer the following three questions: (1) What are the most important developments in the way research on corporate crime has been carried out? (2) What are key themes in corporate crime research? (3) What are the most important blind spots in research into corporate crime? We will conclude with some avenues for future research on corporate crime and its enforcement.


Dr. Karin Van Wingerde
Dr. C.G. van Wingerde is universitair docent bij de sectie criminologie aan Erasmus School of Law van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Prof. dr. Antoinette Verhage
Prof. dr. A.H.S. Verhage is docent bij de vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid (Universiteit Gent) en verbonden aan het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP) van de Universiteit Gent.

Dr. Lieselot Bisschop
Dr. L.C.J. Bisschop is universitair docent bij de sectie criminologie aan Erasmus School of Law van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Een bijzondere groep daders: vrouwelijke langgestraften na afloop van de Tweede Wereldoorlog in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden female, perpetrators, World War II, empirical study, criminal career
Auteurs Drs. Jantien Stuifbergen MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Early literature on female perpetrators of World War II focused on labelling the accused as deranged psychopaths, thereby distinguishing the group of perpetrators from the vast subdued and ‘normal’ population. While this perception has changed over the past decades, the perception of female perpetrators has remained limited either way, women are denied having a lot of agency when perpetrating crimes in conflict. Similar to the ‘mad Nazi’-theory these narratives imply that female perpetrators are different from ‘ordinary’ women, as their actions collide with notions of ideal femininity. This empirical research has shown that in the case of female perpetrators of World War II in the Netherlands it seems that they can be seen as ordinary women operating in extraordinary circumstances. In this study, a special group of female war criminals is described. Against the background of early post-war imaging of such women and more recent research on female perpetration during wartime, an analysis of Dutch perpetrators who received severe punishments after the War, is made. Based on unique historical data, the criminal career of these women as World War II perpetrators is analysed. The outcomes show that a notable part already had a criminal record before the war and that the perception of who they were and why they acted the way they did needs reconsideration, since they were not psychologically weak and incompetent. They were generally young, unemployed and low educated and they planned and committed their crimes of treasons in order to create better living conditions for themselves. In fact, one can claim that these women are likely to be ordinary people influenced by dispositional and situational factors.


Drs. Jantien Stuifbergen MSc
Drs. J.A.M. Stuifbergen, MSc is programmacoördinator van de Master International Crimes, Conflict and Criminology en promovenda bij de sectie Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam,
Kroniek

Het adolescentenstrafrecht in Nederland: de stand van zaken vier jaar na invoering van de Wet adolescentenstrafrecht

Kroniek van het jeugdrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Youth justice – Jeugdstrafrecht, Adolescence – Adolescentie, Young adults – Jongvolwassenen, Age limits – Leeftijdsgrenzen, Judicial decision-making – Rechterlijke besluitvorming
Auteurs Prof. mr. Ton Liefaard en Dr. Stephanie Rap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On 1 April 2014, the Dutch Act on Adolescent Criminal Law entered into force. With this law, the age limit in article 77c of the Criminal Code, which allows for the application of juvenile criminal law to young adults, was stretched from 21 to 23 years. In this article stock is taken of the developments that have taken place in the four years after the introduction of this law. In practice, article 77c Criminal Code is increasingly being applied in case of young adult suspects, however still to a little extent. Among others, this has to do with confusion about the target group that qualifies for the adolescent criminal law. The access to and justification for the application of the law show a very diverse picture.


Prof. mr. Ton Liefaard
Prof. mr. T. Liefaard is hoogleraar kinderrechten en bekleedt de UNICEF-leerstoel Kinderrechten in de Afdeling Jeugdrecht van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Stephanie Rap
Dr. S.E. Rap is universitair docent bij de Afdeling Jeugdrecht van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Het verloop van de partnerrelaties van gedetineerden tijdens en na detentie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden detention, partnerships, relationship quality, longitudinal
Auteurs Anne Brons MSc, Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta en Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the current criminological literature surprisingly little is known about the development of partnerships of detainees during and after detention. In particular, it is unknown to what extent existing differences in the relationship quality at the start of the detention period continue. Therefore, this study examined how the partnerships of detainees developed by using data from the Prison Project. This is a longitudinal study in which 747 detainees with a partner were interviewed at various moments during detention and six months after detention. The results show that bad partnerships at the beginning of detention remain in general bad or end during and/or after detention, while the average to good relationships remain the same.


Anne Brons MSc
M.D. Brons, MSc is PhD student bij het Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut (NIDI).

Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. P. Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Brenda Oude Breuil
Dr. B.C. Oude Breuil is universitair docent bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen in Utrecht.
Boekbespreking

Reserve-onderdelen

Inzichten in de orgaanhandel en een pleidooi voor de vermarkting van orgaandonatie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2018
Auteurs Dr. Michelle Habets
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Michelle Habets
Dr. M.G.J.L. Habets is medisch-ethicus en onderzoeker bij het Rathenau Instituut.

Prof. dr. Miranda Boone
Prof. dr. M.M. Boone is hoogleraar Criminologie en vergelijkende Penologie bij de Universiteit Leiden.
Kroniek

Politie en wetenschap

De Strategische Onderzoeksagenda voor de Politie 2015-2019 en de doorwerking van onderzoek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden police, Strategic Research Agenda for the Police
Auteurs Dr. Janine Janssen en Drs. Henk Huisjes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This is the third chronicle on the relationship between police and science. This contribution focusses on the Strategic Research Agenda for the Police 2015-2019. For researchers who would like to do research for or with regard to the police, it is important to understand the functions of this agenda and it’s thematic priorities. Every four years the Research Agenda will be recalibrated under the authority of the minister of Justice and Security. A first evaluation is being prepared. The Research Agenda 2015-2019 underlines the importance of the transfer of research outcomes into police practice and police education.


Dr. Janine Janssen
Dr. J.H.L.J. Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de nationale politie, lector Veiligheid in afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan Avans Hogeschool en lid van de Commissie Kennis en Onderzoek van de Politieonderwijsraad.

Drs. Henk Huisjes
Drs. H. Huisjes is bijzonder lector Kennistransfer aan de Politieacademie, zijdens de Politieonderwijsraad, en gastonderzoeker aan het Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research (AISSR).
Artikel

Naar een blauwe criminologie?

Over illegale visserij, visfraude en criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden illegal fishing, fish fraud, organization crime, green criminology, blue criminology
Auteurs Prof.dr.mr. Wim Huisman, Kees Camphuysen en Prof.dr.mr. Catrien Bijleveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Illegal (IUU) fishing is a relatively understudied area within criminology. In this article the authors briefly describe what IUU fishing entails, what is known about the consequences of such fishing, and will list law enforcement issues. They illustrate how illegal fishing can be organized in different ways, and will give some examples of fish fraud. The authors also discuss the (massive) measurement issues. The ecological impact of IUU fishing constitutes an important reason for more research into this phenomenon.


Prof.dr.mr. Wim Huisman
Prof.dr.mr. W. Huisman is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit.

Kees Camphuysen
K. Camphuysen is senior onderzoeker aan het Koninklijk Nederlands Instituut voor Onderzoek der Zee (NIOZ).

Prof.dr.mr. Catrien Bijleveld
Prof.dr.mr. C. Bijleveld is hoogleraar Methoden en Technieken van Criminologisch Onderzoek aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en directeur van het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Discussie

Alle dieren tellen mee!

Over non-speciesisme in de criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden speciesism, animal rights, animal cruelty
Auteurs Dr. Janine Janssen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminology traditionally focuses on the human experience. However, several criminologists have seriously criticized this anthropocentric perspective. In their view from a criminological perspective humans and other than human animals should be given equal attention. Although they advocate a non-speciesist criminology, they are not trying to fundamentally change criminology as we know it. Instead, their appeal is to not consider other than human creatures as passive objects and solely from the perspective of their usefulness for humans. Yet, this objective poses substantial methodological challenges to criminologists.


Dr. Janine Janssen
Dr. J.H.L.J. Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de nationale politie, lector Veiligheid in afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan Avans Hogeschool en lid van de Commissie Kennis en Onderzoek van de Politieonderwijsraad.

Prof. dr. Frank Weerman
Prof. dr. F.M. Weerman is bijzonder hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam.
Redactioneel

Groene criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2018
Auteurs Dr. Daan van Uhm en Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Daan van Uhm
Dr. D.P. van Uhm is universitair docent criminologie bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Georganiseerde houtcriminaliteit in de Braziliaanse Amazone

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden criminal timber networks, community-based and situational forest crime prevention, Amazon rainforest, Brazil, Illegal logging
Auteurs Dr. Tim Boekhout van Solinge
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    That criminal networks are active in the illegal exploitation of timber is increasingly acknowledged. The degree of organization of these networks, and the way in which they use (threats of) violence and corruption, is less known. This article describes and analyses, on the basis of various, including local, sources, how organized criminal groups in the Amazon rainforest illegally harvest trees which they sell on the (international) market and how they try to stay immune from the law by using threats, violence, fraud and corruption. This article also discusses the first results of a three-year pilot (2014-2017) of community-based forest monitoring and protection with waterproof GPS-camera’s, developed with communities and with support of the Brazilian Public Prosecutor’s Office.


Dr. Tim Boekhout van Solinge
Dr. T. Boekhout van Solinge is onafhankelijk criminologisch onderzoeker, docent en consultant.
Artikel

Drie perspectieven op de illegale vogelhandel in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden green criminology, illicit trade in species of endangered birds, CITES convention
Auteurs Dr. Daan van Uhm en Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands are considered as an important hub for the illicit trade in species of endangered birds protected by the CITES convention. In this article the authors analyze five substantial criminal cases from three different perspectives. First, from a criminal business perspective, the cases illustrate that logistics vary from relatively simple to highly complex, but always require in-depth knowledge of the animals as well as regulations, to be able to keep the birds alive to make a profit, and to smuggle them to the Netherlands, respectively. Second, from a network perspective, it is clear that those who are involved in the illicit trade – suppliers, traders and customers – are part of a closed and often long-lasting group of people who know the trade. Finally, from a green criminological perspective, the authors conclude that harms of the illicit trade in protected birds are mentioned only to a limited extent in court rulings, contrary to what one might expect based on social construction theories of criminalization and sentencing.


Dr. Daan van Uhm
Dr. D.P. van Uhm is universitair docent criminologie bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Dr. Andrew Lemieux
Dr. A.M Lemieux is onderzoeker bij het NSCR in Amsterdam
Artikel

Access_open De daling in jeugddelinquentie: minder risico, meer bescherming?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden crime drop, juvenile delinquency, risk and protective factors, ecological model, self-reported delinquency
Auteurs Dr. André van der Laan, Dr. Josja Rokven, Dr. Gijs Weijters e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    According to police statistics, juvenile crime in the Netherlands decreased annually since 2007. Explanations for the crime drop primarily focused on single macro explanations, such as increasing prosperity, focused policing or decreasing alcohol use. The prevalence of self-reported delinquency also dropped in the period 2005 till 2015. In three consecutive cohorts of the Youth Delinquency Survey (YDS; 2005, 2010, 2015) changes in exposure to risk and protective factors offered potential explanations for the drop in juvenile delinquency. Compared to previous cohorts, juveniles in the 2015-cohort were less exposed to risk factors like alcohol use and delinquent friends, and more exposed to protective factors like perceived emotional support, solicitation and monitoring by parents. Amongst serious delinquents, however, the exposure to individual risk behavior and delinquent friends was stable over time. Serious delinquents also showed stability over the cohorts in frequency and seriousness of offenses. The vulnerability for risk and protective factors was consistent amongst the three cohorts, regardless the seriousness of delinquency. Changing social cultural attitudes towards risk behavior, e.g. delinquency, could be an additional explanation for the juvenile crime drop. Implications for theory and policy are discussed.


Dr. André van der Laan
Dr. A.M. van der Laan is senioronderzoeker en plaatsvervangend afdelingshoofd bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid.

Dr. Josja Rokven
Dr. J. Rokven is onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid.

Dr. Gijs Weijters
Dr. G. Weijters is senioronderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid.

Dr. Marinus Beerthuizen
Dr. M.G.C.J. Beerthuizen is onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid.
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