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Artikel

Het grensgebied als waterbed voor drugscriminaliteit?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden displacement, cross-border crime, organized drug crime, policy effectiveness, balloon effect
Auteurs Rik Ceulen, Stephan Van Nimwegen en Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper concerns the question whether in the period 2011-2017 displacement effects occurred from the Netherlands to Belgium in the context of synthetic drugs production, cannabis cultivation, and retail of illicit drugs, and if so, how these may be explained. We conclude that displacement took place in modi operandi of retail drug dealers. This is explained foremost by the policy of banning non-residents from Dutch coffeeshops in border region municipalities. Dealers and traffickers responded by switching to local distribution in Belgium as well as deliveries by drug couriers. The synthetic drugs and cannabis cultivation markets show minor changes in modi operandi, but no changes occurred in choosing production locations. Displacement effects in the context of organized drug crime must be explained from a range of factors. Reality is therefore more complex than assuming that government interventions are the main cause of a balloon effect.


Rik Ceulen
R. Ceulen MSc. is criminoloog bij de gemeente Tilburg.

Stephan Van Nimwegen
S.J.M. Van Nimwegen MCI is operationeel specialist/onderzoeker bij de Nationale Politie.

Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie bij de Tilburg University.
Artikel

Wie houdt de wacht?

Veranderingen in toezicht tijdens de jongvolwassenheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden parental monitoring, self-control, delinquency, social control
Auteurs Dr. Jessica Hill MSc en Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this study we examine whether parental monitoring remains a protective factor in the lives of emerging adults, as well as the extent to which monitoring in other settings replaces the protective role of the parents. We use data collected for the TransAM project, a longitudinal survey of 970 emerging adults (18-24 years) to examine monitoring in a range of different contexts using an instrument based on Stattin and Kerr’s parental monitoring scale (2000). Results indicate that whilst parental control plays a protective role in the first years of emerging adulthood, we find no evidence that monitoring in other settings replaces the protective role of parents. However, monitoring of the self, i.e., self-control, has an increasingly strong relationship with delinquency during emerging adulthood.


Dr. Jessica Hill MSc
Dr. J.M. Hill (MSc) is universitair docent criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.

Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. mr. A.A.J. Blokland is als bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology & Criminal Justice verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Artikel

Wie heeft een wiethok op zolder?

Een kwantitatief onderzoek naar risico- en beschermende factoren op persoons- en buurtniveau voor illegale hennepplantages in woningen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden indoor cannabis cultivation, risk factors, individuals, neighbourhoods
Auteurs Emily Berger MSc, Vera de Berk MSc, Dr. Joris Beijers e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Illegal weed cultivation is increasingly perceived as an important societal problem. Most of existing research in this area focuses on the criminal organisations active on the cannabis market and the criminal profits that are gained here. The current study however focuses on the actors at the bottom of the cannabis market – the home growers – and aims at answering the following research question: what factors influence the chance of encountering an illegal weed cultivation at a certain residential address? In this study, the risk and protecting factors are taken into consideration on both the individual level (e.g. family composition and financial position of residents) and the neighbourhood level (e.g. social cohesion, physical disorganisation, level of criminality in a certain neighbourhood). In the current study, data of 401 illegal hemp cultivation sites discovered between 2011 and 2016 in homes in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, were analysed. Data from various quantitative data sources – like municipal data (BRP and data from the Social Domain) and data from the municipal neighbourhood monitors – were combined and analysed through a multilevel logistic regression. The results suggest that the likelihood of an illegal weed cultivation site is most prominently influenced by individual factors. Being married for instance seems to decrease the risk, whereas being divorced seems to increase the risk. The housing type also turns out to be of influence. On a neighbourhood level, physical disorganisation and the presence of other hemp cultivation sites in the neighbourhood are the only predictors for hemp cultivation. The results are discussed in the light of criminological theories regarding participation in crime, using the theoretical concepts motivation, opportunity, and control.


Emily Berger MSc
E. Berger, MSc is als junior-onderzoeker verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden en was ten tijde van het initiële onderzoek masterstudente aan de Universiteit Utrecht en stagiaire bij de gemeente Eindhoven.

Vera de Berk MSc
V.J. de Berk, MSc was ten tijde van het initiële onderzoek masterstudente aan de Universiteit Utrecht en stagiaire bij de gemeente Eindhoven.

Dr. Joris Beijers
Dr. J.E.H. Beijers is als docent verbonden aan de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht en werkzaam als analist bij de gemeente Eindhoven.

Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. mr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior-onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology and Criminal Justice aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De impact van criminaliteit op de lokale belastingontvangsten

Toepassing van de Tiebout-hypothese in Vlaamse gemeenten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden crime, local taxes, migration, Tiebout mobility
Auteurs Drs. Nik Smits en Prof. dr. Stijn Goeminne
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper empirically investigates whether the Flemish local income tax base yield in 306 Flemish municipalities is sensitive to changes in the local crime level between 2000 and 2014. There are two underlying assumptions. First, in a Tiebout world, rational voters holding the local government accountable for the safety of its citizens move when the local level of security becomes too greatly alienated from what they want it to be (first assumption). If migration is due to crime, the wealthier citizens are expected to move first. Consequently, the average income per capita and thus the income distribution will be affected, which in turn will influence the local income tax base yield (second assumption). By confirming both assumptions, evidence is presented for a relation between changes in local crime rates and the income tax base yield of Flemish municipalities, occurring through household mobility.


Drs. Nik Smits
N. Smits is doctoraatsstudent aan de Universiteit Gent, vakgroep Algemene Economie.

Prof. dr. Stijn Goeminne
Prof. dr. S. Goeminne is hoofddocent aan de Universiteit Gent, vakgroep Algemene Economie.
Artikel

Criminaliteitsconcentraties en microplaatsen

Een toets van de ‘law of crime concentration at places’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden law of crime concentration, micro places, crime concentrations, criminology of place
Auteurs Prof. dr. Wim Hardyns, Thom Snaphaan MSc. en Prof. dr. Lieven J.R. Pauwels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The spatial concentrations of crime are increasingly being studied in smaller units of analysis. This study examines the extent to which crime levels occur at micro places. Weisburd argues there is a law of crime concentration at micro places. His so-called ‘law of crime concentration at places’ states that within an urban context a limited bandwidth of micro places is associated with a specific cumulative proportion of crime (e.g. 25 or 50 percent of crime in a city). In this study the authors investigate Weisburd’s statement in regard to crime concentrations in two large Belgian cities. Official police crime statistics (PCS) for the period 2004-2012 were used. There are several ways to define and operationalize a micro place. Therefore, this study also examines whether the unit of analysis has implications for the concentration of crime at places. Analyses were conducted at two small levels, namely: grid level (using 200 meters by 200 meters grid cells) and the level of the statistical sector (more or less similar to four digit postcode areas or CBS-neighborhoods). This study shows that the concentrations of crime at grid cells are in line with the findings of Weisburd. This trend is consistent in time, for the types of crime as well as for the two cities involved. The concentrations of crime at the level of the statistical sector appear to be less strong and therefore are not in line with the law of crime concentration at places.


Prof. dr. Wim Hardyns
Prof. dr. W. Hardyns is professor aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht van de Universiteit Gent. Als lid van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP) bestudeert hij de ruimtelijke context van criminele fenomenen en is hij gespecialiseerd in big data toepassingen in het veiligheidsdomein.

Thom Snaphaan MSc.
J.A.J.M. Snaphaan, Msc behaalde zijn diploma van Master in de Veiligheidswetenschappen aan de Universiteit Antwerpen.

Prof. dr. Lieven J.R. Pauwels
Prof. dr. L.J.R. Pauwels is professor aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht van de Universiteit Gent en co-directeur van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP).
Artikel

Stapels koopwaar als eene bestendige aanlokking voor dieven’. De economische visie op criminaliteit en criminaliteitscontrole in de haven van Antwerpen (1880-1940)

De economische visie op criminaliteit en criminaliteitscontrole in de haven van Antwerpen (1880-1940)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden governance of security, private security, crime control, situational crime prevention, loss prevention
Auteurs Drs. P. Leloup
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution focuses on the manner in which between 1880 and 1940 private actors in the port of Antwerp, whether or not in cooperation with the public authorities, interpreted crime and crime control in terms of risk management, loss prevention and situational crime prevention through a strict economic approach, as opposed to the then dominant institutionalized and criminological discourse. Whereas crime control by the major criminal justice institutions put an emphasis on the biological, psychological and sociological characteristics of the offender, measures taken by maritime, industrial and commercial organizations were aimed exclusively at manipulating the temporal and spatial dimensions of the opportunity structures in which criminal activities, which posed a threat to the economic profitability, could develop.


Drs. P. Leloup
Drs. P. Leloup is verbonden aan de Crime & Society (CRiS)-onderzoeksgroep van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Faculteit Recht en Criminologie, is houder van masterdiploma’s geschiedenis (Universiteit Gent, 2009) en criminologische wetenschappen (Universiteit Gent, 2012) en werkt aan een proefschrift over de ontwikkeling van de private veiligheidszorg in België, getiteld ‘The development of the private security industry in Belgium (1907-1990). A historical-criminological perspective on contemporary changes in security and crime control’.
Artikel

Ruimtelijke criminologie

Van woonbuurt tot cyberspace en van politiestatistiek tot space-time budgets

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden environmental influences, social ecology, environmental criminology, studies in the Netherlands and Belgium
Auteurs Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels, Dr. Frank Weerman, Dr. Wim Bernasco e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the publication of a special issue in TvC (the Dutch Journal of Criminology) on the spatial distribution of crime, about fifteen years ago, a vast number of developments have been observed in the field of social ecology and environmental criminology. During this period many studies have been undertaken in the Netherlands and Belgium. However, there still is room for progress, e.g. through the study of new contexts beyond the traditional boundaries of residential neighbourhoods and through the use of promising new methodologies and technological developments. This special issue provides some examples of such innovative research on environmental influences on crime. In this introductory article the authors provide an overview of the background of the theme, and discuss recent theoretical and methodological developments. They move on to discuss contemporary studies that have been carried out in the Netherlands and Belgium, and outline some desirable and necessary future developments. Finally, the authors provide the reader with an overview of the other contributions to this special issue.


Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L.J.R. Pauwels is directeur van de Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent.

Dr. Frank Weerman
Dr. F.M. Weerman is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Wim Bernasco
Dr. W. Bernasco is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Beate Volker
Prof. dr. B.G.M. Volker is hoogleraar ‘Sociologie van het Sociaal Kapitaal’ en als zodanig verbonden aan de afdeling Sociologie van de Universiteit van Utrecht.
Artikel

Oorzaken van het mijden van onveilige situaties bij mannen en vrouwen

Een contextuele analyse op basis van de ‘collective efficacy’-theorie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Gender, Angst voor criminaliteit, Mijdgedrag, Collective efficacy
Auteurs Dr. Wim Hardyns, Prof. dr. Stefaan Pleysier en Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Two explanations can be found for the unequal geographical concentrations of avoidance behaviour: (1) the demographic composition of residential areas, and (2) the social and structural contextual effects of residential areas. Different studies all over the world have shown that women report more fear of crime than men. In this article we study contextual as well as individual determinants of avoidance behaviour for men and women separately to gain a better insight in the explanation of individual differences in avoidance behaviour. The theoretical framework of this study is derived from the collective efficacy theory. In the present study a contextual model was tested on a 2009 survey of 2,080 residents from 40 municipalities in Flanders (Belgium), by using block-wise multilevel analyses on data from the Social Cohesion Indicators in Flanders Survey (SCIF-survey), the Security Monitor and the registered crime statistics. The results indicate that economic disadvantage in the residential area increases the risk on avoidance behaviour both for men and women, because these areas often have high disorder and violent crime rates. With regard to the social ecology of crime this study shows that more research is needed on the differences in contextual effects of structural area characteristics on avoidance behaviour.


Dr. Wim Hardyns
Dr. W. Hardyns is verbonden aan de Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse (SVA) en het Centre for the Study of Urban Crime and Delinquency (UCD) binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent. Op 1 november 2010 heeft hij zijn doctoraal proefschrift verdedigd met de titel: Social cohesion and crime. A multilevel study of collective efficacy, victimisation and fear of crime, wim.hardyns@ugent.be.

Prof. dr. Stefaan Pleysier
Prof. dr. S. Pleysier is als docent verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC) van de K.U. Leuven, stefaan.pleysier@law.kuleuven.be.

Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L.J.R. Pauwels is codirecteur van het Centre for the Study of Urban Crime and Delinquency, Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse (SVA-UCD) binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent, lieven.pauwels@ugent.be.
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