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Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Auteurs Dr. Robby Roks en Mr.drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Robby Roks
Gastredacteur dr. R. Roks is als universitair docent werkzaam bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

Mr.drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Access_open Havens en georganiseerde criminaliteit: een historische bespiegeling

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden international harbors, organized crime, history, smuggling, Rotterdam
Auteurs prof. dr. Cyrille Fijnaut
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The structural vulnerability of the port of Rotterdam to organized crime is dealt with in this article from a broader, historical perspective. Using examples from ports in Italy and the United States, among others, the author shows how at the end of the last century local criminal groups managed to gain a dominant position in the handling of good flows. The author discusses various research reports that have been published over the years on the import of drugs into the port of Rotterdam and other European ports. Drug traffickers turn out to respond very flexible to stricter controls by simply moving to alternative ports or opting for transferring drug loads to small fast boats in open water. The author emphasizes that ports should not be studied as isolated transition points, but must be considered as nodes in networks that extend far inland and abroad. This is the only way to see the broader strategic and tactical options for stopping or reducing drug trafficking. In addition, attention must be paid to the problem of corruption among port workers, police and customs officers.


prof. dr. Cyrille Fijnaut
Em. prof. dr. C.J. Fijnaut is emeritus hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Tilburg.
Artikel

Tussen wal en schip

Etnografische inzichten in lokale havenbeveiliging

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden ethnography, ports of Rotterdam and Hamburg, security personnel, customs, global commerce
Auteurs Dr. Yarin Eski
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This ethnography of everyday policing realities in the European ports of Rotterdam and Hamburg presents an understanding of policing spaces where protecting and supporting global commerce dominate. In undertaking this research, the author participated in the daily activities of 85 participants in Rotterdam (N=52) and Hamburg (N=33), consisting of 30 operational port police officers, 31 security officers, 10 customs officers and 14 others involved in port security-related matters (e.g. shipping agents, port authorities, boatmen and maritime engineers). These participants were collectively responsible for protecting the vulnerability of the just-in-time logistics by becoming the intervention, through which they become the very local threat to global commerce itself. A struggle that reveals itself in their (narrated) policing struggles with management, colleagues and multi-agency partners, as well as with the maritime business community and dangerous others.


Dr. Yarin Eski
Dr. Y. Eski is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschap en Politicologie van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Boekbespreking

Drugssmokkelaars en de deur in de haven

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden book review, cocaine smuggling, harbor, corruption, customs
Auteurs Dr. Barbra van Gestel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, a recently published Dutch book on corruption in the port of Rotterdam is reviewed. De Schiedamse cocaïnemaffia. Een corrupte douanier, doorgewinterde criminelen en duizenden kilo’s coke was written by journalist Jan Meeus from NRC Handelsblad. The book can be seen as a case study of a customs officer – Gerrit – who fell for the big money. It gives a good insight into the connection between the legal and the illegal world and how this is experienced by those involved. The information in the book is based on seven large criminal files and dozens of conversations with people mentioned in those files. Meeus also attended the criminal proceedings intensively. It is now known that the film rights of the book have been sold and that Meeus will be writing the screenplay for the feature film together with director Jean van der Velde.


Dr. Barbra van Gestel
Dr. B. van Gestel is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Transitcriminaliteit en logistieke knooppunten in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden Drug trafficking, airports, seaports, security checks, corruption
Auteurs Renushka Madarie MSc en Dr. Edwin Kruisbergen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands functions as an important source and transit country for international organized drug trafficking. This is in part due to its large logistical nodes in the world economy, like the airport and the seaport. Based on in-depth analyses of sixteen cases of the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor, this article explores how drug traffickers operate at logistical nodes, in particular airports. The results demonstrate that organized crime groups deploy mainly three types of tactics to traffic drugs, namely defying, avoiding, and neutralizing security checks. Occupational embeddedness is manifested through several job-related factors. Autonomy, mobility, and the similarity between legitimate duties and criminal activities facilitate discrete engagement in organized crime activities during work time. Port employees are also attractive to organized crime groups because of their job-related social capital and knowledge.


Renushka Madarie MSc
R. Madarie MSc. is als promovendus verbonden aan het NSCR te Amsteram

Dr. Edwin Kruisbergen
Dr. E.W. Kruisbergen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Uitdagingen in publiek-private samenwerking in de aanpak van drugscriminaliteit in de Rotterdamse haven

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden public private partnerships, Rotterdam harbor, security, drugs, crime
Auteurs Dr. Lieselot Bisschop, Dr. Robby Roks, Prof.dr. Richard Staring e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the challenges associated with public-private partnerships in tackling drug crime in the port of Rotterdam. The authors identified the actors involved in the fight against drug crime and, more generally, security in the port. The authors show how these various actors view the subject of drug crime (so-called mentalities), what they set as objectives (finalities) and how they try to achieve these objectives. Subsequently the various aspects of the interactions between these actors are being analyzed. The article is empirically based on 76 interviews with public and private actors in the port of Rotterdam, that were conducted in the period from January 2018 to February 2019, and an analysis of literature, news items, government reports and other documents.


Dr. Lieselot Bisschop
Dr. L.C.J. Bisschop is als universitair docent werkzaam bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R. Roks is als universitair docent werkzaam bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Prof.dr. Richard Staring
Prof.dr. R. Staring is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Elisabeth Brein MSc
E. Brein MSc is als onderzoeker en programmamanager verbonden aan de Rotterdam School of Management van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

    Trendwatching is a tool to get a better grip on what happens next and as such it is used by the Dutch Financial and Fiscal Investigation Service (FIOD) to explore possible futures of financial crime with a time lap of two years. The author describes how trendwatching works. In this case a platform Trends4fi (www.trends4fi.org) was created with a website, a mobile app and trend groups to generate foresights in cooperation with connected networks from public and private organisations. This is called network trendwatching, in fact a social intelligence tool designed to generate as much new information and new insights on developments which might have an impact on financial crime and the fight against it.


Drs. Andrea Wiegman
Drs. A.K. Wiegman is projectleider van Trends4fi bij de FIOD en auteur van De Tijdgeest ontrafeld. Van Snapshots naar Trends (Boom/Nelissen 2014).
Artikel

Over Cyber Forecasting-toernooien

Naar een effectiever gebruik van gekwantificeerde voorspelllingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2019
Auteurs Regina Joseph MSc, Dr. Marieke Klaver, Dr. Judith van de Kuijt e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Threats, vulnerabilities, and new forms of attack within the cyber domain develop rapidly. To keep up with and respond to these trends, cyber security professionals must demonstrate reaction velocity, accuracy and a high tolerance for complexity. Publicly available information (PAI) can serve as an important aid to personnel engaged in cyber security analysis. However, evaluation of cyber analytical capacity – a pre-requisite for any measurement of quality or improvement – is still inchoate. This article covers the concept and design of an initial phase of research begun in October 2018 in The Netherlands to measure and improve cyber analysis techniques. The research program features a forecasting tournament to record participants’ probabilistic estimates on future cyber outcomes based exclusively on PAI knowledge acquisition. This phase of research seeks to address whether analysts’ predictions are more accurate in certain subjects within the cyber domain than in others and to assess how predictive accuracy in the cyber domain compares to accuracy in other domains in which forecasting tournaments have been organized.


Regina Joseph MSc
R. Joseph M.Sci. is oprichter van de denktank Sibylink, gevestigd in Den Haag.

Dr. Marieke Klaver
Dr. M. Klaver is als onderzoeker verbonden aan TNO.

Dr. Judith van de Kuijt
Dr. J. van de Kuijt is als onderzoeker verbonden aan TNO.

Dr. Diederik van Luijk
Dr. D. van Luijk is werkzaam bij het Nationaal Cyber Security Centrum van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2019
Auteurs Bob van der Vecht en Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Bob van der Vecht
Gastredacteur dr. B van der Vecht is als senior researcher verbonden aan TNO. Hij is tevens lid van de redactieraad van Justitiële verkenningen.

Marit Scheepmaker
Mr.drs. M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.

    This article focusses on the question whether quantitative modelling and simulation is useful for judicial forecasting, ex-ante testing of judicial policies, and (re)designing chains of organisations like the judicial chain. Specific attention is given to methods that can be used in the face of complexity and deep uncertainty. That is, when facing many substantial uncertainties. Complexity and uncertainty are first of all focused on. Subsequently, modelling methods for dealing with complexity and uncertainty are discussed in more detail, examples are given, and the process needed to build such models in a participatory way is discussed.


Dr. Erik Pruyt
Dr. E. Pruyt is als universitair hoofddocent Policy Modelling verbonden aan de Technische Universiteit Delft. Hij is tevens founding partner van het Center for Policy Exploration Analysis and Simulation en directeur van het Institute for Grand Challenges.
Artikel

Voorspellen met big-datamodellen

Over de valkuilen voor beleidsmakers

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Big data, predictive analytics, challenges, data quality, interpretation
Auteurs Dr. Susan van den Braak en Dr. Sunil Choenni
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the field of policymaking, there is a growing need to take advantage of the opportunities that big data predictions offer. A strong point of big data is that the large amounts of data that are collected nowadays can be re-used to find new insights. However, for effective use in policymaking it is also important to take into account the relating limitations and challenges. For example, the quality of the data used can be a problem. Outdated data and data of which the semantics have changed, may result in predictions that are no longer correct. In addition, it is difficult to apply predictions to individual cases or people. In this article authors provide various practical recommendations for dealing with these problems. As long as people are aware of the limitations and handle the results with care, big data models can be a useful addition to traditional methods in the field of policymaking.


Dr. Susan van den Braak
Dr. S.W. van den Braak is als senioronderzoeker verbonden aan de afdeling Statistische Informatievoorziening en Beleidsanalyse (SIBa) van het WODC.

Dr. Sunil Choenni
Dr. S. Choenni is als hoofd van de afdeling Statistische Informatievoorziening en Beleidsanalyse (SIBa) werkzaam bij het WODC. Hij is tevens lector Future Information & Communication Technology aan de Hogeschool Rotterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Toekomstige risico’s voor de nationale veiligheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden national security, risk analysis, scenarios, horizon scanning, foresight
Auteurs Dr. Minke Meijnders, Ir. Leendert Gooijer en Dr. Hanneke Duijnhoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What are the most important threats for national security in the following years? What do we foresee for the longer term? How are threats interrelated? In this article, we discuss the work of the Dutch Network of Safety and Security Analysts (ANV), which deals with this type of questions since 2011. The main task of this multidisciplinary network is to provide input for the National Security Strategy. It does so by providing an Integrated Risk analysis and a Horizon scan National Security. The authors discuss the foresight-methods used by the network (scenario studies and horizon scanning techniques), as well as the most important conclusions from both studies.


Dr. Minke Meijnders
Dr. M. Meijnders was tot voor kort Research Fellow bij Instituut Clingendael en in die functie betrokken bij het ANV.

Ir. Leendert Gooijer
Ir. Leendert Gooijer is programmacoördinator nationale veiligheid bij het RIVM en tevens Algemeen Secretaris van het ANV.

Dr. Hanneke Duijnhoven
Dr. Hanneke Duijnhoven is Senior scientist nationale veiligheid bij TNO en in die functie betrokken bij het ANV.

    This is a review of the book Met de kennis van morgen. Toekomst verkennen voor de Nederlandse overheid (‘With the knowledge of tomorrow. Exploring the future for the Dutch government’), published at the end of 2018. The bundle contains ten contributions written by authors working at various Dutch advisory boards and planning agencies. The articles do not discuss subjects belonging to the Justice and Security domain. But they are certainly relevant in terms of methods and approach.


Dr. Bob van der Vecht
Dr. B. van der Vecht is als Senior Researcher verbonden aan TNO. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Circles of Support and Accountability

Een sociaal netwerk voor zedendelinquenten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden COSA, sex offenders, re-entry, desistance, recidivism
Auteurs Dr. Mechtild Höing en Audrey Alards LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Circles of Support and Accountability (COSA) a group of trained and supervised volunteers support a medium to high-risk sex offender in his process of re-entry after detention. Sex offenders participate on a voluntary basis. Circles have a double aim: the prevention of new sexual offences and the rehabilitation of the sex offender. Circles offer social inclusion and support for behavior change, and monitor risk. They are embedded in the professional network of sex offender after care. Through a professional circle coordinator relevant information is circulated between the circle and professional agencies, to enable adequate support and interventions. Effect studies show that COSA contributes to a reduced risk of reoffending. The model was developed in Canada almost 25 years ago and has been picked up by a growing number of countries in Europe, the America’s, Asia, as well as Australia and New Zealand. Variations in the model become apparent and raise questions about the essentials of COSA.


Dr. Mechtild Höing
Dr. M. Höing is docent en onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Transmuraal Herstelgericht Werken van Avans Hogeschool in Breda. Zij is daar als operationeel projectleider verbonden aan het project Sterktegericht werken met COSA buiten justitieel kader.

Audrey Alards LLM
A. Alards LLM is extern kenniskringlid bij het lectoraat Transmuraal Herstelgericht Werken van Avans Hogeschool in Breda. Ze is verbonden aan het lectoraat als senior cirkelcoördinator en onderzoeker.
Artikel

Access_open Enkele reflecties op toezicht in het Nederlands strafrechtelijk sanctiestelsel

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden penal law system, supervision, political debate, responsibility, personal autonomy
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch legal scholars have expressed their concern over an increase in (the relevance of) supervision as part of the criminal sanction system. They endorse the need for a more fundamental research on the nature and position of supervision within the Dutch criminal sanction system. This article discusses some fundamental issues: the meaning of autonomy and the position of the autonomous person as an object of supervision, the possible consequences of supervision for and the various purposes of supervision within the criminal sanction system.


Prof. dr. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
Prof. dr. mr. J. ten Voorde is universitair hoofddocent straf(proces)recht aan de Universiteit Leiden en bijzonder hoogleraar strafrechtsfilosofie (leerstoel Leo Polak) aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

Technologische hulpmiddelen bij toezicht op delinquenten in de samenleving

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden supervising offenders, reintegrating offenders, technological tools, smartphone and sensor technology, GPS tracking
Auteurs Dr. Katy de Kogel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How can technological tools contribute to supervising and reintegrating offenders in society? Globally, technological tools for supervision are broken down into so-called first generation (GPS tracking) and second generation (smartphone and sensor technology). An overview is given of what is globally known about the effectiveness and assumed mechanisms of action of first-generation technical tools. Then it is explored what added value second-generation technical aids can have and to which working mechanisms they could connect. Smartphone and sensor technology have the potential to contribute to the rehabilitation functions of the supervision, inter alia because they offer possibilities for more personalized supervision and for the combination of supervision and treatment. Although initiatives have been started in this regard and research is ongoing, hardly anything is known yet about the effectiveness of these new technological applications. The reliability and safety of IT, as well as ethical and legal aspects also require attention.


Dr. Katy de Kogel
Dr. C.H. de Kogel is senior wetenschappelijk medewerker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid en senior onderzoeker bij de Capaciteitsgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechten van de Universiteit Maastricht.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2019
Auteurs prof. mr. dr. Miranda Boone en Mr.drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

prof. mr. dr. Miranda Boone
Gastredacteur prof. mr. dr. M.M. Boone is als hoogleraar criminologie en vergelijkende penologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Zij is tevens lid van de redactieraad van Justitiële verkenningen.

Mr.drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr.drs. M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
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