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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2009 x

    The introduction in the Netherlands of the SOV measure in 2001, followed by the ISD Order in 2004, opened the opportunity for the courts to incarcerate systematic offenders, mostly addicts, for a period of two years. During the period of imprisonment convicted are offered various programs to kick their habits and tackle their other problems. The article assesses the social costs and benefits of the SOV/ISD measure. The analysis takes account of the improvement in general health and productivity of the participants, and models the crime reduction effects through special prevention, incapacitation and general deterrence. Substituting results from the first effectiveness study of the SOV program, which by the way only covers one follow-up year, it is calculated that the SOV/ISD measure may yield a positive net result of as much as € 4 million per participant.


B.C.J. van Velthoven
Dr. Ben van Velthoven is universitair hoofddocent rechtseconomie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid te Leiden.

D.E.G. Moolenaar
Dr. Debora Moolenaar is senior onderzoeker bij het WODC.

    This paper focuses on how organized crime in Bulgaria uses political corruption to achieve its goals. It focuses, though, on one specific type of criminal structures, the ones controlled by former security officers. More specifically it analyzes the criminal careers of two well known Bulgarian crime figures and former security officers. The way they use the instrument of corruption changes though the years when they evolve from relatively unimportant racketeers into powerful local oligarchs.


P. Gounev
Philip Gounev (philip.gounev@online.bg) is als research fellow verbonden aan het Center for the Study of Democracy in Londen. De auteurs bedanken Ruth van Leeuwen voor de vertaling van dit artikel en voor haar bijdrage aan het onderzoek.

T. Bezlov
Tihomir Bezlov (tiho@online.bg) is als senior analyst verbonden aan het Center for the Study of Democracy in Londen.
Artikel

Veelplegers terug bij af?

De ISD in retrospectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2009
Auteurs M. van Ooyen-Houben en M. Goderie
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Act introducing the Institution for Persistent Offenders Committal Order (ISD Order) took effect on 1 October 2004. The origins of the ISD Order are in safety policy. The order had a strong focus on imprisonment of persistent offenders. It can be seen as an exponent of the risk-oriented attitude towards safety, which has been predominant in recent years. At the start treatment of persistent offenders was of secundary importance and was only available for those who were motivated. But the ISD measure has had to deal with major problems in practice. The imprisoned ISD population proved to be one with complex problems like addiction, psychiatric illnesses and sometimes low intellectual abilities. The ISD institutions are ill-equipped for handling these people. The problems led to a slightly different attitude which is more oriented towards resocialization. Improvements are going on now, a process facilitated by a considerably improved co-operation between agencies around the ISD.


M. van Ooyen-Houben
Dr. Marianne van Ooyen-Houben is projectbegeleider bij het WODC en universitair docent bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

M. Goderie
Drs. Marjolein Goderie is onderzoeker bij het Verwey-Jonker Instituut.

    In the nineteenth century in the Netherlands, tramps and beggars were sent to Veenhuizen to work there as a form of punishment and rehabilitation. To investigate the background of these banished men, the authors drew a systematic 5% sample out of 6.000 men who were banished between 1896-1901. Using information from the so-called ‘signalements’-cards that were compiled, the authors found that the Veenhuizen men were not uneducated, unskilled workers, but on the contrary, often had some kind of (semi-)skilled profession. Many did not have a permanent abode, and only a few had (ever) been married. At on average 45 years of age, the Veenhuizen convicts were old for the era they lived in. As such these men lacked and had probably at some point in their lives lost societal as well as social ties, and had gone adrift.
    Recidivism was high. While the Veenhuizen measure may have been effective in delivering society from the blemishes that these men represented, but in general it didn't turn these men into fully participating citizens.


M. Weevers
Drs. Marian Weevers is historica en is werkzaam als beleidsadviseur bij de afdeling sociaal en economisch beleid van de gemeente Leiden.

C. Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld is hoogleraar Methoden en Technieken van Criminologisch Onderzoek aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam en senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving in Leiden.
Artikel

Aantallen civiele rechtszaken in Nederland en elders

Een vergelijking in de tijd en in Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2009
Auteurs E. Niemeijer en C.M. Klein Haarhuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Academic perceptions of litigation rates are dispersed: they vary from observations of a ‘litigation explosion’ to empirical accounts of ‘vanishing trials’. In this article the authors study whether civil trials are increasing or vanishing in the Netherlands. To find out, the authors studied trends in the number of civil cases in the Dutch courts. First, they observed developments in the filings as well as the dispositions of civil cases over the past 25 years, taking into account the trial-likeness of the procedures. Second, they put the Dutch figures - including other indicators of legal activity - in a European perspective. The findings show that the number of court cases in the Netherlands is on the rise. This does not automatically imply, however, that the Netherlands are a highly litigious society. ‘Light’ versions of trials are predominant, as is efficiency in the management of cases. Moreover, the number of lawyers and judges is rather small compared to other European countries.


E. Niemeijer
Prof. dr. mr. Bert Niemeijer is werkzaam bij de directie Algemene Justitiële Strategie van het ministerie van Justitie en is tevens als hoogleraar empirische rechtssociologie verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.

C.M. Klein Haarhuis
Dr. Carolien Klein Haarhuis is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.

    In the years 2000-2003 crime on Curaçao seemed to be going out of control and the economy was virtually stagnant with low growth and high unemployment. This situation has changed significantly since 2005. The author shows that a targeted approach by the authorities pushed back major crime problems like the smuggling of cocaine on passenger flights, armed robberies and homicides. However only a permanent effort can guarantee the continuation of this success. Corruption and nepotism are still vibrant, but mainly concern individuals, not institutions as a whole, while the judiciary actively prosecutes corrupt officials. In the long run not only repression, but preventive measures are needed as well. A major cause of corruption and nepotism is the small scale of island life, in combination with economic protectionism and state ownership of companies. Structural adjustments in economic institutions and policy in recent years heralded the return of economic growth and employment. More adjustments in economic policy and institutions could further reduce incentives for corruption; these might also lead to the opening up of Curaçao's rigid labour markets for the many unemployed youngsters. A more autonomous Curaçao faces serious challenges, but the island's record so far gives no reason for despondency.


A.W. Weenink
Dr. Anton Weenink is senior onderzoeker bij de Dienst Nationale Recherche van het Korps Landelijke Politiediensten (KLPD).

    In 1954 the Statute of the Kingdom of the Netherlands came into force. This document can be seen as an internal Treaty between the Netherlands (as a country in Europe) and its former colonies. Nowadays three countries are (internal) partners in the Kingdom of the Netherlands: the Netherlands, Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles. In 2005 new negotiations have begun for a new (internal) structure of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Netherlands Antilles will cease to be a country in the Kingdom and will be divided into two new countries Curaçao and Sint Maarten. The other remaining (small) islands Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba will be part of the territory of the Netherlands as specific judicial bodies as meant in article 134 Dutch Constitution. A huge diplomatic and judicial procedure has started. Although it is not certain yet, in 2009 it looks as though these plans and procedures will be realized in the very near future.


R. Nehmelman
Mr. dr. Remco Nehmelman is als universitair hoofddocent Staats- en Bestuursrecht verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Utrecht.

    In the CEPEJ report litigious divorce cases are selected for additional analysis to get a better understanding of the workload of the courts in Europe and to compare the figures in a more reliable manner.

    The report presents the number of litigious divorce cases and the average length of litigious divorce proceedings. This article shows the variety of divorce legislation in European countries and concludes that the figures about divorce cases and length of procedures cannot be used as an indicator for the efficiency of justice in those countries. Furthermore the article presents some detailed information about Dutch divorce cases and shows that the figures presented in the CEPEJ report are incorrect. To get a better understanding of the quality of divorce procedures, the pros and cons of different systems should be investigated.


M. ter Voert

    There is currently no legal base for financial supervision and crisis management at the European level. Powers are nationally based. This article develops the financial trilemma, which states that a stable financial system, an integrated financial system and national financial autonomy are incompatible. Any two of the three objectives can be combined, but not all three; one has to give. Assuming that a stable financial system is desirable, this article explores the trade-off between national financial autonomy and financial integration in Europe. Policymakers face a clear choice. If they want to preserve the benefits of the single market for financial services (financial integration), financial supervision and crisis management have to be based on a European footing. This article stresses that a strong legal base is needed for such European arrangements. Voluntary cooperation does not work in a crisis, as national governments tend to follow their national interests. The alternative to European arrangements is preserving the current national powers. This article predicts that banking will then become national: each country has its own national banks.


D. Schoenmaker
Prof. dr. Dirk Schoenmaker is decaan van de Duisenberg School of Finance.

    Charles Kindleberger unravelled the anatomy of a typical financial crisis in his famous book Manias, panics and crashes (1978). He stresses that during a boom the tendency to swindle and be swindled runs parallel to the tendency to speculate. In this article five famous and non-famous swindles over the past ninety years are analyzed. Each financial boom, and each financial crisis during this period of modern capitalism experienced at least one famous financial swindle, which is to be seen as typical for the boom and the subsequent deception. The five swindlers described are Charles (Carlo) Ponzi in the 1920s, Ivar Krueger around 1930, Bernie Cornfeld in the 1960s/1970s, Michael Milken in the 1980s and - very recently - Bernard Madoff. His 65 billion dollar fraud is to be seen as the first worldwide Ponzi scheme - a fraud that lasted longer, reached wider and cut deeper than any similar scheme in history. An analysis of these five cases yields several striking similarities. It is concluded that financial swindles are no random events, but the result of both structural changes and circular waves of economic and financial boom and bust.


B.M.J. Slot
Dr. Brigitte Slot is beleidsmedewerker bij de Directie Financiële Markten van het ministerie van Financiën. Zij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

    Many actors have been blamed for the financial crisis: Greenspan, banks, rating agencies, careless mortgage takers and incompetent mainstream economists. This paper however focusses on other explanations for the crisis which are usually neglected in mainstream economics. The imbalances in the income and wealth distribution worldwide have become so large, that the poor cannot buy the goods produced by rich countries anymore, while the rich have become so rich that they cannot spend all their income anymore in the real sector. This lack of demand for goods has artificially been filled by unsecured debts given to the poor, but eventually led to a taking off of financial markets, and to a crisis. When imbalances are too large, this backfires. Government packages aimed at stabilizing the economy should therefore not forget the income and wealth distribution in order to be successful in the long run.


B. Unger
Prof. dr. Brigitte Unger is hoogleraar economie van de publieke sector bij de Utrecht School of Economics.
Artikel

Trends in piraterij op zee

Verschillen tussen Zuidoost-Azië en Somalië

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2009
Auteurs M. Bruyneel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyzes the development of maritime piracy in the last decennium. Various sources show that piracy in Southeast Asia has declined, probably due to a better cooperation between coastal states in this region in promoting maritime security and increasing surveillance of coast guards and navy vessels. Also a gradual improvement of the social economic situation seems to have contributed to the diminution of piracy as a source of income for the inhabitants of coastal regions. The dramatic rise of piracy incidents in recent years is mainly caused by the increasing activities of pirates in the Somali waters and the Indian Ocean. Extreme poverty, internal conflicts and the collapse of state authority in Somalia seem to have contributed to this development. The author discusses various types of piracy and differences in operating between Somali and Asian pirates.


M. Bruyneel
Mark Bruyneel is onafhankelijk onderzoeker van het fenomeen zeepiraterij en is medewerker van het economisch datacentrum van de bibliotheek van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

    This article describes the development of the Dutch bar, which seems to follow the international trends, the Anglo-Saxon trends in particular. These trends are internationalization, commercialization, organizational professionalization, specialization and differentiation. The Dutch bar nowadays consists of approximately 15.000 advocates, working in approximately 3.800 law firms. Approximately 3.500 advocates work in the Top 30 law firms, whereas the firms consisting of one advocate form the majority of the bar. Particularly during the last decade the bar has grown tremendously due to an increase in demand for specialistic legal service and advice. Due to new developments the client has become more prominent when it comes to determining the quality of the legal service, a phenomenon also known as ‘simultaneity’.


R. van Otterlo
Prof. mr. dr. Rob van Otterlo is als bijzonder hoogleraar organisatie van de juridische dienstverlening verbonden aan de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Hij is tevens werkzaam bij de Nederlandse Orde van Advocaten in Den Haag.

    This article discusses the main features of the draft version of the new Criminal Code for the Netherlands Antilles, which was completely revised and updated in accordance with the latest case law and applicable international treaties. The draft legislation abolishes the dead penalty and minimum sentences. Also it introduces community services, a travel ban, an extension of self-defense in the direct vicinity of one's house and the obligatory review of life-long jail sentences after twenty years. Furthermore it adapts and modernizes the presently existing fines and criminal law for minors. The draft legislation is pending the recommendations of the Advice Council and will be presented to the Parliament thereafter.


M.F. Murray
Mr. Mirto Murray is advocaat en vennoot van Small Murray Scheper, Advocaten, te Willemstad, Curaçao. Hij is ouddeken van de Orde van Advocaten Curaçao en lid van de Commissie Herziening Wetboek van Strafrecht en de Gezamenlijke Commissie ter evaluatie van het Wetboek van Strafvordering.
Boekbespreking

Boekrecensie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2009
Auteurs N. Rozemond
Auteursinformatie

N. Rozemond
Dr. Klaas Rozemond is als universitair hoofddocent strafrecht verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Hij is auteur van Filosofie voor de zwijnen. Over het geluk van dier en mens (Veen Magazines, 2007) en van Het aardse leven. Een filosofische handleiding (Veen Magazines, 2009).

    The world is in the throes of the deepest economic depression since the 1930s. Worst is yet to come. The financial crisis has spread to the real economy on a global scale. A global recession combined with the current credit crunch is a rare, but a deadly cocktail. This will lead to a recession of unimaginable magnitude - a deflationary depression. This doom scenario is based on the conjuncture waves of the Russian economist Nikolai Dimitrievitsj Kondratieff (1892-1938) and the strong similarities between 1920-1929 and 1980-2000, both autumn seasons in the Kondratieff cycle. Soon it will become clear that all measures taken by governments have had only a little, temporary positive effect. The stock markets, housing markets and world economy will reach new depths in the coming decade. Social chaos will be the result. The history of the 1930s could serve as our guide here.


E. Mecking
Drs. Eric Mecking studeerde geschiedenis aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en werkt in het bedrijfsleven als informatiespecialist. Hij is auteur van Deflatie in aantocht De historische achtergronden van de kredietcrisis en de komende grote depressie (2005, uitg. Mets & Schilt). Ook publiceerde hij in 2006 het boek Het drama van 1918. Over de Spaanse griep en de zoektocht naar virus en vaccin (uitg. Mets & Schilt).

    In Dutch history five cases are known of animals that received the death penalty after ‘committing a crime’. Nowadays it sounds rather strange to present animals as offenders. Does that mean that no contemporary examples can be found of animals being presented as offenders? Before answering that question some outlooks on judicial and criminological ideas are presented on offending by human and other animals. Next the debate on invasive exotic species and the threats to biodiversity, health and other risks, and the discussion about the dangers regarding pit bulls is described in order to illustrate that in this day and age there still seems to be a risky anthropomorphic and anthropocentric tendency to present animals as offenders.


J. Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek bij het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eergerelateerd Geweld, dat is ondergebracht bij politie Haaglanden. Daarnaast is zij geïnteresseerd in de positie van dieren in de criminologie. In 2008 publiceerde zij ‘Hondenbaan’, over de geschiedenis en de werkzaamheden van de politiehond (Den Haag, politie Haaglanden).

P.W. Zuidhof
Drs. Peter Wim Zuidhof studeerde economie en filosofie. Hij is docent bij Europese Studies aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en bereidt aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam een proefschrift voor over de verbeelding van de markt binnen het neoliberalisme.

    How to understand the disintegration of the Dutch Caribbean? The Kingdom of the Netherlands comprising three countries - the Netherlands, the Netherlands Antilles, and Aruba - will be reordered. The Netherlands Antilles will cease to exist as a separate country. Curaçao and Sint Maarten will acquire country status within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, just as Aruba did in 1986, though theirs will be of a different status and with less autonomy. The islands Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, the so-called BES islands, will be integrated into the Netherlands as public authorities (openbare lichamen); as such the BES islands will be administered by the Netherlands while retaining local government functions (just as municipalities in the Netherlands).
    This article outlines the history behind these changes and the factors that are at play. However improbable the Dutch Caribbean hypothesis, the Kingdom facilitates a connection of these islands with the international world. Against all odds and populist opponents, the Dutch Caribbean is a challenge to square the circle, a complex pact, impossible to balance, which will never come to a definitive conclusion.


L. de Jong
Dr. Lammert de Jong is bestuurskundige en was tussen 1984 en 1998 geruime tijd Vertegenwoordiger van Nederland in de Nederlandse Antillen. Hij werkt deze dagen aan een boek Being Dutch, more or less. True Dutch is not the issue, so what is? Oplevering jaarwisseling 2009/2010.

    In spite of the recent growing international naval presence in the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean Somali pirates still continue to attack passing merchantmen trying to hijack these and kidnap the crews. It seems logic to consider what security measures can be taken on the ships themselves against piracy attacks. After analyzing the dilemmas surrounding armed self-defence the author describes how various technological devices, some still developing, could contribute to greater security on board. Just as important however, is the development and appliance of an anti-piracy policy, at the shipping company as well as on board. Information sharing and communication are crucial to an efficient anti-piracy policy. Also crewmembers should know what to expect when a piracy attack occurs and how to act. The structural protection of important waterways is a primary task for naval forces, while the merchantmen themselves could take care of primary protection against piracy attacks. This would diminish their dependence on naval presence, which can never be large enough to effectively prevent piracy.


H.A. L'Honoré Naber
Henri L'Honoré Naber heeft ruime ervaring opgedaan met alle facetten van piraterij. Eerst als koopvaardijofficier. Later bij de Marinestaf te Den Haag als Hoofd Koopvaardijzaken, waar hij o.a. belast was met de veiligheid voor de koopvaardij. Hij is oprichter en directeur van adviesbureau Safer Seas Consultancy. In samenwerking met andere experts heeft hij het programma Seacure ontwikkeld, dat rederijen en offshorebedrijven de mogelijkheid biedt een volledig en integraal anti-piraterij-beleid op te zetten.
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