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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2010 x
Artikel

Omstreden gelijkheid

Over de constructie van (on)gelijkheid van vrouwen en mannen in partnergeweld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs R. Römkens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) changed from a private problem to a public concern over the last decades. It has become subject of various discourses in different domains. In the social sciences the gender-based discriminatory nature of IPV is contested by some researchers who claim a gender equality in IPV. They call for a gender-neutral approach to IPV as a family problem, de-contextualized from gender-based inequalities. In the Netherlands this degendering is reflected in current policy discourse. However, in the international legal human rights domain, IPV is unequivocally considered to be an issue that affects women disproportionately as a form of women's discrimination that is the result of unequal power relations. Both international binding human rights law and recent ruling of the ECHR impose binding duties to acknowledge this. This article addresses the paradox that is reflected in these two positions and how to get beyond it.


R. Römkens
Prof. dr. Renée Römkens is als hoogleraar Huiselijk geweld verbonden aan het International Victimology Institute (Intervict) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

    There are two conflicting viewpoints about partner violence: either that it involves a considerable degree of mutual combat or that it generally involves male perpetrators and female victims. In general, results supporting the former viewpoint are usually reported in studies of general population samples, while data that supports the latter viewpoint is usually collected in samples that were recruited in shelters, through victim support, or that was studied through police and court data. This article describes results from a Dutch study that investigated two different research groups: a sample of respondents from the general population and a group of offenders who had been in contact with the police and the law for domestic violence. In line with the literature on this topic, one of the most striking differences between the research groups from the general population and the judicial population is the fact that the former group consisted of more women than men (57.8% versus 42.2%), whereas the second group consisted nearly only of men (93.1% were men). This article explores a number of possible explanations for the strongly divergent proportion of men and women in the two research groups. The most probable explanation seems to be that, although both men and women commit domestic violence, the more serious types of injury are caused more often by men, as a result of which predominantly men come into contact with the police and the law for domestic violence. Moreover, there are some indications in the literature that male victims are less likely to report domestic violence to the police.


L.M. van der Knaap
Dr. Leontien van der Knaap is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan het International Victimology Institute van de Faculteit Rechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

S. Bogaerts
Prof. dr. Stefan Bogaerts is als hoogleraar Forensische Psychologie en Victimologie eveneens verbonden aan dit instituut.
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs M.P.C. Scheepmaker

M.P.C. Scheepmaker
Artikel

Mensenhandel en arbeidsuitbuiting

Recente ontwikkelingen in de jurisprudentie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2010
Auteurs L. van Krimpen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the developments in jurisprudence on human trafficking in sectors other than the sex industry. In October 2009, the Supreme Court for the first time ruled in a case about human trafficking outside the sex industry. Whereas the number of cases before the Supreme Court ruling was limited, with only a few convictions for this type of exploitation, and with differences in the way courts interpreted the legal definition, this has changed tremendously after this ruling. The Supreme Court, in the case about exploitation in a Chinese restaurant, gave a very clear interpretation on the elements ‘intention of exploitation’ and the means ‘abuse of a vulnerable position’. Following the Supreme Court ruling, the number of cases has increased, as well as the number of convictions for this type of exploitation. Among these cases are also cases of criminal exploitation. It is not completely clear yet what type of behaviour falls within the scope of criminal exploitation.


L. van Krimpen
Mr. Linda van Krimpen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Bureau Nationaal Rapporteur Mensenhandel in Den Haag.
Artikel

Werken in de marge

Illegaal verblijvende jongeren in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2010
Auteurs R. Staring en J. Aarts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A large number of former unaccompanied minors in the Netherlands leave for unknown destinations during the asylum procedure or after being rejected. In this contribution the authors provide answers to the question how undocumented (former) unaccompanied minors provide for their living and housing. The study is based on interviews with 118 former undocumented unaccompanied minors who were recruited through the personal networks of the researchers and through contacts with representatives of (private) organizations who support the youngsters. The undocumented minors are excluded from formal employment as well as provisions of the welfare state. By far the largest group of the undocumented (former) unaccompanied minors has never been involved in criminal activities and only one third of them work in the informal economy. The sectors in which these youngsters perform informal work vary from cleaning and construction to catering and personal services. The work is characterized by uncertain working hours. There are often few hours available and the work often takes place on call. The pay is meagre and few respondents can survive exclusively on their earnings. The undocumented (former) unaccompanied minors are mainly supported by friends and private organizations for their living and housing. It is because of this support that the youngsters do not roam the streets and can continue their illegal stay in the Netherlands. The strong orientation of the youngsters towards a lawful residence in the Netherlands causes them to fear the risks of arrest while working, so they rather settle for the limited support of private organizations and friends. The support of private organizations and the focus of the youngsters towards a lawful stay thus constitute a buffer against exploitation.


R. Staring
Dr. Richard Staring is verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Erasmus Universiteit in Rotterdam.

J. Aarts
Drs. José Aarts is verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Erasmus Universiteit in Rotterdam.

J.P. van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

J. Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek bij het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eergerelateerd Geweld, dat is ondergebracht bij politie Haaglanden. Daarnaast is zij geïnteresseerd in de positie van dieren in de criminologie.

J.A. de Bruijn
Prof. dr. Hans de Bruijn is als hoogleraar Bestuurskunde verbonden aan de Faculteit Techniek, Bestuur en Management van de Technische Universiteit Delft.
Artikel

Tussen Marrakech en Theater De Flint

Ideologie en praktijk in moskeebouw

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2010
Auteurs O. Verkaaik
Auteursinformatie

O. Verkaaik
Dr. Oskar Verkaaik is als assistant professor verbonden aan het Research Center for Religion and Society van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

    This article analyzes how football game situations, especially those where players get injured, are posted within the law. In the Netherlands sport rules are not regulated in specific laws. An incident in the soccer pitch should be approached by the ordinary law: criminal law as well as liability. An important standard laid down in jurisdiction is that sport participants accept a certain risk to get hurt.
    A conviction on the basis of criminal law occurs not very often, because it is hard to prove that the accused in a game situation had the intention to cause injury. The author gives an outline of the disciplinary rule structure of Dutch football. The Dutch football association KNVB has an important role in this structure. Every football player is a member of his own club as well as a member of the KNVB. As a consequence the club as well as the KNVB has the authority to take disciplinary action against football players breaking the rules. The disciplinary system and rules are different for professional and amateur football.


S.F.H. Jellinghaus
Dr. mr. Steven Jellinghaus is als universitair docent sportrecht verbonden aan de vakgroep sociaal recht en sociale politiek van de Universiteit van Tilburg en als advocaat aan De Voort Hermes de Bont te Tilburg.
Artikel

Het nieuwe hooliganisme

Geweld ook buiten het voetbalveld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2010
Auteurs H. Ferwerda, I. van Leiden en T. van Ham
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Large-scale violations of public order occur regularly in the Netherlands. The most startling riot of the last decade took place last summer on the beach of Hoek van Holland during the dance festival Sunset Grooves. In this riot as well as in other riots, hooligans play more and more a negative role. Put differently, they do not confine themselves to the riots at football matches, but they also show up at events, parties and in entertainment centres to disturb the peace. The article argues that the phrase ‘hooligan’ is in fact inappropriate. It is better to speak about notorious disturbers of the peace; people who are consciously looking for a stage and an opponent to disturb the peace.


H. Ferwerda
Dr. Henk Ferwerda is als directeur/onderzoeker werkzaam bij Bureau Beke in Arnhem.

I. van Leiden
Drs. Ilse van Leiden is als senior onderzoekster werkzaam bij Bureau Beke in Arnhem.

T. van Ham
Drs. Tom van Ham is als junior onderzoeker werkzaam bij Bureau Beke in Arnhem.
Artikel

Misdaadgeld en voetbal

Emotioneel witwassen en andere oneconomische motieven

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2010
Auteurs B.M.J. Slot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    With the growing economic importance of sport in the past two decades there has been a massive increase in the investment of money in the football sector, and some of this has criminal connections. The FATF has carried out a study, Money laundering through the football sector, to analyze what makes the football sector attractive to criminals. The report examines case studies to identify vulnerabilities of the football sector for criminal money. Some of those relate to the financial fragilities of the sector as a whole. Other vulnerabilities involve the intransparant transfer market and the dubious role of football agents. There are also social-psychological vulnerabilities. Football has a long history of private individuals investing in clubs. These individuals do not expect profits, but hope to acquire prestige and gain access to the local or even national establishment. Football has changed from a popular sport into a global industry, but its regulatory structure has not yet caught up with these changes.


B.M.J. Slot
Dr. Brigitte Slot is beleidsmedewerker bij de Directie Financiële Markten van het ministerie van Financiën. Zij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Overlast op het plein

Over de architectuur van de openbare ruimte

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2010
Auteurs N. Boonstra en M. Ham
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Public spaces are often seen by policy makers en researches as places that are essential for a social cohesive society. In daily life public spaces tend to be jungles where citizens rather stay away. Research in Rotterdam shows that much people indeed do not feel at home on ‘their’ squares. This situation can be improved by another view on the fysical construction of public spaces and squares in particular. Places where you can only play soccer are often confiscated by one group. For instance benches can make a place more attractive for different groups.


N. Boonstra
Drs. Nanne Boonstra is senior onderzoeker bij het Verwey-Jonker Instituut.

M. Ham
Drs. Marcel Ham is journalist en eindredacteur van Tijdschrift voor sociale vraagstukken. Samen met Hans Boutellier voerden Boonstra en Ham redactie over het boek Omstreden ruimte. Over de organisatie van spontaniteit en veiligheid (2009).
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2010
Auteurs M. Schuilenburg
Auteursinformatie

M. Schuilenburg
Gastredacteur mr. drs. Marc Schuilenburg is als docent criminologie verbonden aan de faculteit Rechten van de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

    It is now well established that both the ‘war on terror’ and its descendents have been heavily constituted through highly urban discourses, materialities and practices. This article - deliberately transdisciplinary, synthetical and polemical in scope - seeks to demonstrate that new ideologies of permanent and boundless war are radically intensifying the militarization of urban life in the contemporary period. By engaging with Michel Foucault's concept of the ‘boomerang effect’, this paper delineates the ways in which contemporary processes of militarisation - which surround what I label the ‘new military urbanism’ - raise fundamental questions for critical urban and political scholarship because of the ways in which they work to normalise the permanent targeting of everyday urban sites, circulations, and populations. Focusing primarily on US military security and military doctrine, culture and technology, this paper explores four of the new military urbanism's inter-related foundations in detail. These are: the deep Foucauldian boomerangs linking experimentation with new architectures and technologies of control in war-zone and domestic cities; the emerging urban political economies of the ‘security’ industries; the ways in which practices and discourses of political violence and securitisation permeate the everyday infrastructures of cities; and the cultural performances of militarised media consumption. The paper concludes by identifying emerging counter-political and countergeographic activism as it seeks to challenge the normalization of the new military urbanism.


S. Graham
Prof. Stephen Graham is verbonden aan de School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape van Newcastle University. Hij is auteur van o.a. Splintering urbanism (2001) en Cities under siege (2010).
Artikel

De architect heeft het gedaan!

De rol van stedenbouw, architectuur en stadsbestuur in de rellen in de Franse voorsteden van 2005

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2010
Auteurs W. Vanstiphout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Is the design of a city a decisive factor in the development of violent behavior by its inhabitants? The discussion following the 2005 riots in the French suburbs shows that many blame the concept of La Ville Radieuse and its most famous founding father, the architect Le Corbusier, for the social degeneration of the banlieues. For some critics, like the British author Theodore Dalrymple, this ‘totalitarian’ architecture symbolizes the evil of the welfare state with its social security, mass immigration, egalitarism and its elites with their blindness for the threat to the western Enlightenment values coming from these ‘black’ suburbs. However, the truth of urban development is that cities are fundamentally unpredictable. After several generations a building will be used in a completely different way than perceived, by people whose existence one wasn't aware of and in a social context one couldn't have predicted. This ‘natural’ development is labeled as the failure of a project, often leading to a policy of repression and demolition. However, local politicians, project developers and architects should realize that it's not their actions that determine the development of cities, but the way the inhabitants use and interpret their environment. They create their own city. Instead of replacing the inhabitants by demolishing their houses, we probably have no other choice than getting to know these quarters better and renovate these together with and for the local inhabitants.


W. Vanstiphout
Prof. dr. Wouter Vanstiphout is lid van Crimson Architectural Historians. Met Crimson houdt hij zich sinds 1994 bezig met stedenbouwkundig onderzoek, ontwerp, het maken van tentoonstellingen en het schrijven en redigeren van boeken. Hij is tevens hoog leraar Ontwerp & Politiek aan de Faculteit Bouwkunde van de Technische Universiteit Delft.

    Cross-border police cooperation, in any case against political adversaries, has always been an important component in the foreign policy of European states, especially when police forces were established in their colonies during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Against this background it was quite astonishing, because very artificial, that in the Maastricht Treaty a rather clear distinction was made between a second pillar (foreign and defense policy) and a third pillar (justice and home affairs, later on called police and judicial cooperation). Over the years this gap has been bridged from two sides: on the one side the geographical enlargement of the European Union into Central and Eastern Europe asked for the integration of police and judicial cooperation in the related policies vis-à-vis the (new) member states; on the other side the enlargement of the political and military role of the European Union on the international stage, reinforced by the 9/11 attacks on the United States. The proposal in the The Hague Program (2004) that it is necessary to develop a coherent strategy with regard to the ‘external’ aspects of the European Union policy in the area of freedom, security and justice, has led to the formulation of such a strategy by the member states. This strategy partly focuses on the containment of serious general problems like the containment of terrorism and organized crime and partly on the reinforcement of criminal justice systems in, respectively the strengthening of police and judicial cooperation with specific important third states. The Stockholm Program sticks to this format, but underlines the necessity to reinforce the coherence between the ‘external’ freedom, security and justice policy of the European Union and the police missions it organizes in a number of weak, failing or failed states.


C. Fijnaut
Prof. dr. Cyrille Fijnaut is als hoogleraar internationaal en vergelijkend strafrecht verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
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