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Artikel

Naar een maatschappelijk effectieve schuldenrechter

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden judiciary, debt collection cases, local experiments, reorganization, legislation
Auteurs Prof. mr. Nick Huls
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The corona crisis can be seen as an opportunity to facilitate a much wider access to the courts for a clean slate in the case of personal insolvency. This access was provided by the 1998 Dutch law on debt rescheduling Wsnp. After explaining the relapse of the law and the problems of the present system, an overview is given of the societal activities to turn the tide. The judiciary has started several local experiments to help overindebted citizens. Using the concept of societally effective courts the Council of the judiciary has backed this development. In the concluding part the author discusses several paths to improve the situation. First, the courts should organize themselves in such a way that debt collection and debt help are coordinated. Second, the courts must abandon their strict attitude towards the formalities for access that are now in place. The municipal assistance institutions should be given the possibility to suggest to the courts that their clients are ripe for a fresh start.


Prof. mr. Nick Huls
Prof. mr. N.J.H. Huls is emeritus hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open Hoe de onvrede over het schuldhulpstelsel ontstond

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden overindebtedness, legislation, debt recovery, policy change, coronacrisis
Auteurs Dr. Nadja Jungmann
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands a large number of households is overindebted. Despite the economic prosperity, 20% of the households has to deal with large debts. Dissatisfaction with the position of debtors has grown in recent years. Numerous initiatives are being launched to improve their position. New legislation is provided for and municipalities are starting up all kinds of pilots. There is momentum for improvement. It is important that all initiatives are coordinated. In addition, it is also important to investigate what the legislation and initiatives yield.


Dr. Nadja Jungmann
Dr. N. Jungmann is lector Schulden & Incasso aan de Hogeschool Utrecht. Zij is tevens eigenaar van trainings- en adviesbureau Social Force.
Artikel

Zorg voor en zorgen om alleenstaande minderjarige vreemdelingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2019
Trefwoorden unaccompanied minor asylum seekers, mental health problems, mental health care, resilience, guardianship
Auteurs Prof. dr. Monika Smit
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Among the asylum seekers arriving in Europe are unaccompanied minors (UMAs). As a result of the often traumatic experiences before and during their flight, many have mental health problems. The question is how they cope in the country of destination. After the flight, the plight is not over: destination countries are often not welcoming in all respects, UMAs may encounter violence in reception facilities, and experience stress related to the asylum procedure and possible family reunification, as well as worries about relatives left behind. Although UMAs are also known to be resilient, and most are supported by family members and/or significant others, there are worries about their transition to adulthood. When they turn 18, they have to deal with the developmental tasks that come with that age, as well as to come to terms with past experiences. At the same time their guardianship ends, and they are supposed to manage on their own in the relatively new country. Many UMAs seem to manage, but it would be helpful if the 18 years age limit could be used flexible when necessary.


Prof. dr. Monika Smit
Prof. dr. M. Smit is hoofd van de Onderzoeksafdeling Rechtsbestel, Wetgeving en Internationale en Vreemdelingenaangelegenheden van het WODC en bijzonder hoogleraar Psychosociale zorg voor alleenstaande minderjarige vreemdelingen aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

De afnemende rol van de rechtspraak: is vervanging van de rechter mogelijk en wenselijk?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden judges, marginalization, administrative bodies, truth finding, legal protection
Auteurs Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The last decades have shown a tendency in which tasks are transferred from the judge to other authorities, such as the police and public prosecutor, administrative bodies, administrative procedures, or private parties. The central question in this article is whether these authorities can really replace the court. A comparison is made between legal proceedings and procedures for other authorities on the following aspects: truth finding, openness and legal protection of the (vulnerable) citizen. The author also discusses a recent legislative proposal for an own budget for the Judiciary, which aims to strengthen the independence of the judge towards the two other state powers. It is argued that the courts should be also accessible in the case of relatively small offenses and for vulnerable citizens.


Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch
Mr. dr. M. Malsch is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), raadsheer-plaatsvervanger in het Hof ’s-Hertogenbosch en rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Noord-Holland.
Artikel

Enkele kanttekeningen bij de Wiv 2017

De uitbreiding van bevoegdheden getoetst aan mensenrechten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Dutch Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017, Snowden disclosures, Dilemma’s, Checks and balances, Human rights
Auteurs Prof. dr. Nico van Eijk en Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The new Dutch Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017 extends the (special) powers of the intelligence and security services and introduces a new system of checks and balances. In this article several of the most impactful changes and underlying issues are discussed. They include the technology neutral approach, the new bulk surveillance powers, oversight (its role, tasks, independence and the use of outside experts), complaints and whistleblowers procedure, the lack of appeal procedures and the exchange of information with foreign agencies.


Prof. dr. Nico van Eijk
Prof. dr. N.A.N.M. van Eijk is hoogleraar informatierecht verbonden aan het Instituut voor Informatierecht (IViR, Universiteit van Amsterdam), www.ivir.nl/employee/eijk.

Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman
Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman is ondervoorzitter van het College voor de Rechten van de Mens en lector Toegang tot het Recht bij de Hogeschool Utrecht. Deze bijdrage is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.
Artikel

‘Slimme Don’: de intelligente maffiabaas van Rusland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden intelligent criminals, Russian Mafia, Semjon Mogilevitsj, organized crime, financial crimes
Auteurs Prof. dr. D. Siegel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Drawing on material from her extensive study of Russian organized crime, the author sketches a portrait of Semjon Mogilevitsj. This Russian ‘godfather’ enjoys the reputation of being the smartest and highest educated mafia boss worldwide. Indeed Mogilevitsj obtained a master’s degree in Economics with good results, but this alone doesn’t explain his phenomenal successes in criminal as well as in legal business. Describing the steady expansion of his criminal activities from Russia into Israel, the United States, Eastern Europa, Italy and Canada, the author suggests that the social and economic circumstances in Russia just before and during the collapse of the Soviet Union might have served as an ideal playing ground for Mogilevitsj to develop the specific social intelligence and skills needed to successfully run a criminal organization.


Prof. dr. D. Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Over toekomstbestendige policing

De dilemma’s van veiligheidsregimes in grote steden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden policing, security, urban regimes, police strategies, risk management
Auteurs Dr. E. Devroe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we identify the political agency and discretion available to metropolises to define and accomplish their own policing agendas and to question what the role of public police forces can be in executing such agendas. Results of a comparative case study of 24 metropolises illustrate a major focus on risk management strategies like environmental opportunity oriented measures, hot spot hot time predictive policing actions and preventative community oriented policing. Also programs like Top 600 in Amsterdam and other early intervention efforts oriented towards ‘groups at risk’ (youngsters, nomads and criminal careers) find a place in the risk assessment regime. This article classifies all urban programs in 5 different ‘urban regimes’ and sheds light on the role the police should take in order to execute stated policy goals, summarized in urban policy coalition plans and security plans.


Dr. E. Devroe
Dr. Elke Devroe is als Associate professor verbonden aan het Institute of Security and Global Affairs, Faculty of Governance and Global Affairs van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Tussen zorg en hoop

De ontwikkeling van de nationale politieorganisatie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden national police force, police reform, change, organizational dynamics, leadership
Auteurs Dr. W. Landman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2013, the government of the Netherlands established a national police force, replacing a system of largely autonomous regional police organizations. This led to an extensive police reform. In this article, I explore the effects of this police reform on the internal dynamics within the police organization. I describe five ‘negative’ effects: anonymization, decoupling, formalization, confusion and de-owning. These effects lead to alienation between police offers and the police organization and hinder the development of the national police force. Beside these negative effects, there are also positive forces that shape the development of the national police force. The top leadership is changing the strategic leadership style and there are many innovative initiatives on the local level contributing to the goals of the reform. However, to make the ambitions of the reform feasible there are adjustments needed in the organizational structure and change approach. The operational core of the organization needs to be the central point of reference for these adjustments.


Dr. W. Landman
Dr. Wouter Landman is als onderzoeker en adviseur werkzaam bij Twynstra Gudde. De auteur schreef dit artikel op persoonlijke titel.
Artikel

Over waargenomen onrechtvaardigheid en radicalisering

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Injustice, perceptions, radicalization, horizontal and vertical deprivation, cognitive capacities
Auteurs Dr. M. Bal en Prof.dr. K. van den Bos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The authors propose that perceptions of injustice play a central role in radicalization toward violent extremism and terrorism. Perceptions of unfair disadvantage in comparison with other groups (horizontal deprivation) or by societal authorities (vertical deprivation) will elicit strong emotional and behavioral reactions. In combination with feelings of personal uncertainty and a lack of cognitive capacities to control justice-related emotions, this increases the pull and attraction of radical ideologies. Furthermore, when people join a radical organization, a vicious circle of identification with and justification of radical ideology and illegitimization and rejection of the status quo follow, possibly resulting in the justification of violence to achieve social change. Injustice perceptions are difficult to change, but a better understanding of the basic processes involved allows for the development of prevention and deradicalization programs, which should focus on full and just societal integration of groups and individuals that have a high potential to radicalize.


Dr. M. Bal
Dr. Michèlle Bal is als universitair docent Algemene Sociale Wetenschappen verbonden aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Prof.dr. K. van den Bos
Prof. dr. Kees van den Bos is hoogleraar Empirische Rechtswetenschap en hoogleraar Sociale Psychologie aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Drugsafval in Brabant

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden synthetic drug waste, synthetic drugs, organized crime, environmental crime, criminal networks
Auteurs Drs. Y.M.M. Schoenmakers en S.L. Mehlbaum MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Synthetic drug waste dumpings are a growing concern in the Netherlands, particularly in the southern region. During the production process of ecstasy (MDMA) and speed (amphetamine), large quantities of chemical residue are released, that the illegal manufacturers need to get rid of. According to police statistics the chemical waste is mostly dumped in barrels in rural areas, and recovered as such by authorities. However, an unknown quantity of synthetic drug waste is also directly being discharged into sewer, soil or natural surface waters. The phenomenon embodies environmental crime as well as organized crime. From the viewpoint of environmental crime, both ecological and social harm are evident. The article also illustrates the operations of serious organized crime groups behind the scenes.


Drs. Y.M.M. Schoenmakers
Drs. Yvette Schoenmakers is werkzaam als zelfstandig onderzoeker en adviseur (www.yvetteschoenmakers.nl).

S.L. Mehlbaum MSc
Shanna Mehlbaum MSc is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Verwey-Jonker Instituut in Utrecht en daarnaast werkzaam als zelfstandig onderzoeker.
Artikel

Alcoholgebruik bij jongeren in Nederland

Van zuipschuit van Europa tot het braafste kind van de klas

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Adolescents, Alcohol, the Netherlands, sociocultural norms, peer context
Auteurs Dr. M. De Looze en Dr. I. Koning
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Alcohol use and adolescents: they are inevitably connected. At least, this was the case up until the early 2000s in the Netherlands. After a peak in the prevalence of alcohol use in 2003, the percentage of adolescents in the Netherlands who drank alcohol decreased enormously. This decline co-occurs with a dramatic shift in sociocultural norms on adolescent alcohol use among parents. Since the peak in 2003, a variety of national and local prevention and intervention programs have been implemented, aiming to stimulate parents to adopt stricter parenting practices related to the alcohol use of their child. In other Western countries, however, similar decreases in adolescent alcohol use have been observed. On the basis of recent societal developments, the authors describe potential explanations for the observed declines. Moreover, they discuss how youngsters actively create peer contexts in which behaviors like alcohol use take place.


Dr. M. De Looze
Dr. Margreet de Looze is universitair docent bij de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Dr. I. Koning
Dr. Ina Koning is universitair docent bij de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Amerikaans rechtsrealisme en empirisch-juridisch onderzoek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden American Legal Realism, Empirical Legal Studies, New Deal Policy, Research program, Lakatos
Auteurs Prof. dr. F.L. Leeuw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The American Legal Realism movement, which originated in the beginning of the twentieth century and was active until the Fifties, can be seen as one of the founders of current Empirical Legal Studies because of the importance it attached to social scientific knowledge on behavior of – for instance – judges and others involved in the judiciary. The author sketches several characteristics of Legal Realism at that time. Exploring their range of thought he also examines whether Legal Realism’s studies can be seen as a research program. The recent emergence of New Legal Realism in the US and elsewhere leads to the question what characterizes this (re)new(al) movement. Finally it is argued that American Legal Realism especially contributed to scientific progress by posing new questions, changing focus and by stressing the importance of empirical evidence.


Prof. dr. F.L. Leeuw
Prof. dr. Frans Leeuw is directeur van het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie en daarnaast hoogleraar Recht, openbaar bestuur en sociaal-wetenschappelijk onderzoek aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Big Data in wetenschappelijk onderzoek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Big Data, datafication, data mining, research data, Internet of Things
Auteurs Mr. dr. ir. B.H.M. Custers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Big Data offers a plethora of promising opportunities in different areas of society. This introductory article focuses on the opportunities of Big Data in scientific research. The central question addressed in this article is: ‘What can Big Data offer in the context of scientific research?’ In order to answer this question, the following topics are discussed: what is Big Data, what is new about Big Data, which applications are there for Big Data in scientific research, and what are the pros and cons of the use of Big Data in scientific research? The conclusion is that Big Data offers some opportunities for scientific research that were previously impossible and, therefore, can be useful for researchers. However, the use of Big Data also has its limitations and the added value may depend on the research questions that are addressed.


Mr. dr. ir. B.H.M. Custers
Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers is hoofd van de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC. Daarnaast is hij als onderzoeksmanager werkzaam voor eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Motieven voor decentralisatie

Schipperen tussen normativiteit en pragmatiek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden administrative organization, constitutional law, decentralization, government, Thorbecke
Auteurs Dr. L. Raijmakers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the administrative relation between the levels of authority in the Netherlands while paying special attention to the distribution of administrative tasks and legislative power between government tiers. How has this process developed since the constitutional reform in 1848? Which motives have underpinned the fluctuating ways in which responsibilities and powers were divided? The constitutional reform of 1848 laid the foundation for the current administrative structure. A three-tier system forms the basis of its organization: national government, regional government (provinces) and local governments (municipalities). This article shows that in the Netherlands the leitmotiv for decentralization is to improve the governmental performance; efficiency, standardization and simplification are recurring objectives. Decentralization is also often used as an instrument to resolve specific policy issues. The article describes a discrepancy between the motives for decentralization, which can be explained by the differences between fundamental legislation involving the administrative structure on the one hand and legislation aimed at policy-making on the other hand.


Dr. L. Raijmakers
Dr. Laurens Raijmakers is adviseur Kabinetszaken & Openbare Orde en Veiligheid van de commissaris van de Koning in Zuid-Holland. Hij promoveerde in 2014 aan de Universiteit Leiden op het proefschrift Leidende motieven bij decentralisatie. Discours, doelstelling en daad in het Huis van Thorbecke.
Artikel

Zwarte kaviaar

Over criminele netwerken, illegale handel en de bedreiging van de steur

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden black caviar, Caspian Sea, sturgeon population, illegal fishing, illegal trading
Auteurs D. Siegel en D. van Uhm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The trade in caviar has a rich and colorful history, influenced over thousands of years by many cultures, societies and in the last decades by regulation. Based on qualitative research, including literature, media analysis and interviews, this article presents the first preliminary results of the authors’ ongoing research. The value of caviar is historically discovered in the context of social change, political relationships and environmental change and the role of organized crime is described, as the scarcity of caviar has offered the unique opportunity to fish illegally, smuggle and trade contraband to mainly European countries with millions in profits. Although due to overexploitation ‘wild caviar’ is increasingly difficult to obtain, the demand in the context of exclusivity and scarcity remains intact by the upper class society desire for edible gold.


D. Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.

D. van Uhm
Drs. Daan van Uhm is als promovendus en junior universitair docent werkzaam bij het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Stroomverleggingen in de Nederlandse geschilbeslechtingsdelta

Terugblikken en vooruitkijken met twee gesprekspartners

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden history legal aid, sixties, lawyer collectives, cutbacks, modernization
Auteurs A. Klijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What do citizens do when they think they have a problem that involves the law? Just like 40 years ago the main bottleneck in such a situation is where to find good advice on which steps to take. However, the difference compared to 40 years ago is the existence of more and a greater variety of organisations offering legal advice. This article describes the evolution of legal aid in the Netherlands, supplemented by comments of two people who have been personally involved in this development, Peter van den Biggelaar and Maurits Barendrecht. Mr Van den Biggelaar is director of the Dutch Board for Legal Aid, while Mr Barendrecht is research director of Hiil Innovating Justice and law professor at the University of Tilburg.


A. Klijn
Dr. Albert Klijn is parttime wetenschappelijk adviseur bij SSR, Studiecentrum Rechtspleging. Hij was voorheen o.a. werkzaam bij het WODC en de Raad voor de rechtspraak.
Artikel

Het stelsel van gesubsidieerde rechtsbijstand in roerige tijden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden legal aid, certificate, Legal Services Counters, Roadmap to Justice, cutbacks
Auteurs S.L. Peters en L. Combrink-Kuiters
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For years it has been stated that the Dutch legal aid system is balanced and performs well. Supply and demand seem to be matched and the quality of the system is judged as good. Serious problems seem to be lacking, although there is a constant increase in the number of certificates issued. The most important threat to the system are the ever shrinking government budgets together with the increasing use of the system. To date, the Dutch legal aid system has utilised open-end-financing. The Ministry of Security and Justice is in search of measures in order to contain the number of certificates, and thereby also the ever increasing costs. At the moment it is discussed if vital system changes are necessary. Will the system as we know still exist in the near future? Or will major changes need to be made? However, changes can also lead to improvement of the system.


S.L. Peters
Mr. Susanne Peters is verbonden aan de Raad voor Rechtsbijstand.

L. Combrink-Kuiters
Mr. Lia Combrink-Kuiters is verbonden aan de Raad voor Rechtsbijstand.
Artikel

Pionieren en formaliseren

De internationale vervlechting van het politiewerk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2012
Trefwoorden European police cooperation, formalisation, institutionalisation, security entrepeneurs, international policework
Auteurs J. van Buuren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    International police cooperation is characterised by sometimes conflicting dynamics between informal security entrepreneurship and formal institutionalisation and centralisation. In spite of claims in governance literature that states are losing their commanding heights due to internationalisation, experience shows that states are in fact able and willing to control and steer international police networks. Whether matching processes of politicisation and bureaucratisation conflict with operational effectiveness remains to be seen. Both in politics and science the institutional approach is dominant in describing, explaining and evaluating international police cooperation. This runs the risk of losing sight of the ‘logic of practicality’ that in reality is very important for innovations and developments regarding cross-border cooperation. In the logical of practicality, dimensions like intuition, creativity, trust and perseverance are more important than rules, policy preferences or organisational charts.


J. van Buuren
Drs. Jelle van Buuren is als promovendus en universitair docent verbonden aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde, Faculteit Campus Den Haag van de Universiteit Leiden.
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