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Artikel

Access_open Coronacrisis en fraude: vier mogelijke relaties

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Corona crisis, crime opportunities, fraud, scenarios, future development
Auteurs Dr. Clarissa Meerts en Dr. Wim Huisman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution contains several concrete examples of ‘Corona crime’ thereby showing how the current crisis is creating new opportunities for committing crimes. The authors revert to an analysis framework that was previously used to interpret new forms of crime during the banking crisis. It consists of four scenarios that are briefly described. The future will have to show what effects the corona pandemic has had on fraud and other financial and economic crime.


Dr. Clarissa Meerts
Dr. C. Meerts is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Dr. Wim Huisman
Dr. W. Huisman is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Havens en georganiseerde criminaliteit: een historische bespiegeling

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden international harbors, organized crime, history, smuggling, Rotterdam
Auteurs prof. dr. Cyrille Fijnaut
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The structural vulnerability of the port of Rotterdam to organized crime is dealt with in this article from a broader, historical perspective. Using examples from ports in Italy and the United States, among others, the author shows how at the end of the last century local criminal groups managed to gain a dominant position in the handling of good flows. The author discusses various research reports that have been published over the years on the import of drugs into the port of Rotterdam and other European ports. Drug traffickers turn out to respond very flexible to stricter controls by simply moving to alternative ports or opting for transferring drug loads to small fast boats in open water. The author emphasizes that ports should not be studied as isolated transition points, but must be considered as nodes in networks that extend far inland and abroad. This is the only way to see the broader strategic and tactical options for stopping or reducing drug trafficking. In addition, attention must be paid to the problem of corruption among port workers, police and customs officers.


prof. dr. Cyrille Fijnaut
Em. prof. dr. C.J. Fijnaut is emeritus hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Tilburg.
Artikel

Transitcriminaliteit en logistieke knooppunten in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden Drug trafficking, airports, seaports, security checks, corruption
Auteurs Renushka Madarie MSc en Dr. Edwin Kruisbergen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands functions as an important source and transit country for international organized drug trafficking. This is in part due to its large logistical nodes in the world economy, like the airport and the seaport. Based on in-depth analyses of sixteen cases of the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor, this article explores how drug traffickers operate at logistical nodes, in particular airports. The results demonstrate that organized crime groups deploy mainly three types of tactics to traffic drugs, namely defying, avoiding, and neutralizing security checks. Occupational embeddedness is manifested through several job-related factors. Autonomy, mobility, and the similarity between legitimate duties and criminal activities facilitate discrete engagement in organized crime activities during work time. Port employees are also attractive to organized crime groups because of their job-related social capital and knowledge.


Renushka Madarie MSc
R. Madarie MSc. is als promovendus verbonden aan het NSCR te Amsteram

Dr. Edwin Kruisbergen
Dr. E.W. Kruisbergen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Zwijgen is zilver en spreken is goud

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Auteurs Prof. dr. Bob de Graaff en Dr. Constant Hijzen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Although traditionally, it has been argued that intelligence and security services can barely be discussed in public – a veil of secrecy makes a thorough and informed debate almost impossible, the outside world is ignorant, say the insiders – we argue that today’s mature civil society does not accept that anymore. Although the government has struggled to address social anxiety and political criticism in the past decades, communication and strategic discussions have never received proper attention. Due to the technological changes, affecting the intelligence practice as well as daily life of citizens, the authors argue that the positioning of intelligence and security services in the broader democratic state should receive structural attention and sustainable communication efforts.


Prof. dr. Bob de Graaff
Prof. dr. B.G.J. de Graaff is hoogleraar intelligence and security studies aan de Universiteit Utrecht, www.uu.nl/medewerkers/bgjgraaff/0.

Dr. Constant Hijzen
Dr. C.W. Hijzen is als universitair docent verbonden aan de vakgroep Intelligence & Security van het Institute of Security and Global Affairs en aan het Instituut Geschiedenis (Universiteit Leiden).
Artikel

De verschuiving van illegale drugsmarkten van Nederland naar België

Perceptie of realiteit?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden drug policy, drug markets, Displacement, the Netherlands, Belgium
Auteurs Dr. F. De Middeleer en Dr. B. De Ruyver
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recent figures indicate that certain drug markets, or at least parts of it, shift from the Netherlands to Belgium. However, it is still unclear whether it is a displacement of some parts of the illicit drug markets or whether it should be seen as a diversification of certain parts of some illicit drug markets in terms of spreading of risks and taking profit of new opportunities. In this respect, this article contributes to an ongoing research (DISMARK) by providing an overview of drug policy measures most recently taken by the Netherlands, from a Belgian point of view, and by trying to link these developments to drug-related trends in Belgium. It is clear that both countries will have to invest in a common approach of their common drug problems. However, it is not yet possible to draw any profound conclusions on the actual displacement of illicit drug markets.


Dr. F. De Middeleer
Freja De Middeleer MSc. is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP) van de Universiteit Gent.

Dr. B. De Ruyver
Dr. Brice De Ruyver is als hoogleraar Strafrecht verbonden aan de Universiteit Gent en directeur van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP) aldaar.
Artikel

Het subversieve Brabant

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Dutch province of North Brabant, regional history, subversive culture, crime, drugs production
Auteurs Dr. P. Klerks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Various forms of organized crime are concentrated in the Dutch province of North Brabant, bordering Belgium. In this essay it is argued that specific historic, geographic, social economic, cultural and social psychological factors created an enduring window of opportunity in which criminality can flourish. Brabant is portrayed as a marginalized province that suffered from war, exploitation by the central government, rural gangs, a lack of law enforcement, extreme poverty as well as from discrimination because of its mainly catholic population. Against this background the population developed a mentality of solving problems on their own. Their survival strategies implied not only legal activities like agriculture and small-scale production in private houses, workplaces and factories, but also smuggling and illegal alcohol production. In more recent times the production of synthetic drugs, growing cannabis and transport criminality became widespread.


Dr. P. Klerks
Dr. Peter Klerks is werkzaam bij het Parket-Generaal van het Openbaar Ministerie en de Politieacademie.
Artikel

Continuïteit en verandering in het Nederlandse gezinsleven

Gezinsvormen, arbeidsmarktparticipatie en tijdsbesteding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden divorce, father involvement, female labor force participation, nuclear family, parent-child time
Auteurs Dr. A. Roeters en Dr. F. Bucx
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyses continuity and change in family life in the Netherlands over the last decades. The authors consider three characteristics of families: (1) family types, (2) maternal employment, and (3) parent-child time. Analyses are based on data from the Central Bureau of Statistics and the Dutch Time Use Study. The results indicate that there is both continuity and change. Although two married individuals giving care to their children is still the most common family type, alternative family forms have become more popular, including unmarried cohabiting parents and single-parent families. Furthermore, the division of labor is still strongly gendered: Dutch mothers’ participation on the labor market is limited and they still hold the main responsibility for children. Moreover, children are still most likely to grow up in a household with both a father and mother. There are also indicators of change. Maternal employment is much more prevalent than in the 1970s and fathers’ involvement with children increases.


Dr. A. Roeters
Dr. Anne Roeters is wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau. Haar expertise ligt op het gebied van tijdsbestedingsonderzoek en de combinatie van arbeid en zorg.

Dr. F. Bucx
Dr. Freek Bucx is wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau. Hij doet daar onderzoek naar jeugd en gezin.
Artikel

Wereldbeelden en weerbaarheid van Turks-Nederlandse jongeren

De twee gezichten van een sterke interne gerichtheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden radicalization, Turkish-Dutch migrants, social exclusion, Islamic State, resilience
Auteurs Dr. mr. F. Geelhoed en Prof. dr. R.H.J.M. Staring
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Many of the common academic explanations for radicalization and extremism are present among Turkish-Dutch youngsters. Based on qualitative research among 150 youngsters with a Turkish background, the authors describe how these youngsters are catching up with their disadvantaged socioeconomic position in the areas of education and labor. These Muslim youngsters feel that they and Islam are increasingly met with distrust and exclusion in mainstream society. In the sociocultural domain of incorporation, Turkish-Dutch youngsters are very diverse, but within this diversity focussed on their own ethnic group. Although these characteristics as deprivation, exclusion and strong internal orientation are commonly used as risks for radicalization, these Turkish-Dutch youngsters seem not to be attracted to Islamic radicalism nor extremism. The authors explain this through the opportunities for political participation within their communities and the specific Turkish secular Islam that offers room for a more individualized religious interpretation. In addition the strong internal focus of these youngsters and the solidity of the Turkish communities create strain between different Turkish religious or political groups, but also offer them a very strong, positive identity and feelings of belonging.


Dr. mr. F. Geelhoed
Dr. mr. Fiore Geelhoed is universitair docent bij de Afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Prof. dr. R.H.J.M. Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring is bijzonder hoogleraar mobiliteit, toezicht en criminaliteit aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Particuliere beveiligers als publieke handhavers

De inzet van private boa’s door gemeenten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2012
Trefwoorden private security officers, public surveillance, public private partnership, local government, police work
Auteurs J. Terpstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch local governments increasingly decide to contract private security officers for surveillance and enforcement tasks in the public space. This article presents an analysis of the daily work of these private security officers. Local governments contract these private workers because they are faced with problems of social disorder and crime. Although the police should formally manage the work of these private security workers, in practice this task is hardly realized. These private workers are faced with four problems: their work is boring, they are uncertain about what they are expected to do, don’t know exactly what their formal powers are, and are unsatisfied about their lack of means for self-defence. Although they don’t differ in their work style from their public colleagues, their position as private worker and the flexible job they have, are hard to reconcile with what they are expected to do (like reassuring citizens).


J. Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

    This article describes the main security threats in cyberspace as well as the various types of actors behind these threats. The author discusses the reaction of existing and new state security agencies towards the new cyber threats. After analyzing the main obstacles in tracing cybercriminals he gives some recommendations for a more effective strategy against cybercrime.


R. Prins
ir. Ronald Prins is cybersecurity-specialist en directeur en medeoprichter van Fox-IT. Hij studeerde Technische Wiskunde aan de TU Delft en heeft zich daarna gespecialiseerd als cryptograaf. Bij het Nederlands Forensisch Instituut was hij werkzaam als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker.

    Teenagers between twelve and eighteen years of age are protected by Dutch criminal law against sexual encounters that cannot be qualified as non-consensual. If these teenagers are approached without force they are thus protected against such a contact, but they could have played a sexual active role nevertheless. This paper deals with how officials of the police and justice departments value sexual contacts between youngsters as lewd and in what circumstances these interactions are possibly permissible. What is the motivation for initiating criminal law and how to explain the distinction between the alleged offender and the alleged victim? The juridical valuation of the professionals dealing with criminal law is analysed followed by some critical remarks regarding the protection of sexual active youngsters against other sexual active youngsters as well as the act of sex as transgression.


J.C.W. Gooren
Mr. drs. Juul Gooren is verbonden aan de Haagse Hogeschool voor de opleiding Integrale Veiligheidskunde. Het onderzoek waarop dit artikel is gebaseerd, is mogelijk gemaakt door financiering van het Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Seksualiteit (FWOS).

    In recent years there is an increasing trend towards semi-public space. This article seeks to explain this trend. As the heterogeneity of society grows, it becomes more difficult to deal with different groups within one's living environment. Residents prefer a sheltering living environment that attracts similar groups and excludes those they would rather avoid. Social engineering through architecture has a long history: municipalities used to combine the design of neighbourhoods and public spaces with a social agenda of community building. Later, as society evolved, the prevention of friction between people and the creation of public meeting places became leading principles, but never exclusion. However, public housing associations and developers are increasingly accommodating preferences for sheltered living environments by the creation of collective space, appropriating public space and the temporary use of undeveloped space. Three cases illustrate this.


L. Bijlsma
Drs. Like Bijlsma is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.

M. Galle
Drs. Maaike Galle is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.

J. Tennekes
Drs. Joost Tennekes is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.
Artikel

Winning the hearts and minds in Nederlands-Indië

Koloniale politie als opbouwmissie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2010
Auteurs M. Bloembergen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This essay is a tentative exercise to compare ideals and practices of daily colonial policing, in particular in the late colonial state of the Dutch East-Indies, to those of present-day international peace and police development missions in post-conflict societies. In both cases we see foreign powers, represented by a minority of experts and professionals, aiming to control (or to assist in controlling) local security problems, out of care and fear; they do so by training indigenous recruits for professional (civil and military) police forces, build on western models of policing which they presume superior. But the most import thing the colonial police and international peace and developmental missions share is their actual weak base of power: both institutions have to operate in states that are characterized by fragmentation of power, by fragile authority and by lack of security control. Both institutions have a problem of legitimacy: the mandate they get from the local population is doubtful. This explains why both the police and international peace missions, whether consciously or not, often fail to solve local power struggles, or to grasp the point of local security problems, sometimes with very dramatic effects.


M. Bloembergen
Dr. Marieke Bloembergen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde te Leiden. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op de onlangs van haar hand verschenen studie over de geschiedenis van de politie in Nederlands-Indië (Bloembergen, 2009).
Artikel

De burgemeester in crisistijd

Schakelen tussen bestuurlijke moed en terughoudendheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2010
Auteurs R. Bron en M. Zannoni
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article aims to illustrate the importance of the mayor in times of disaster and crisis management. The mayor plays a crucial role, even though he is merely one link in the crisis management process. In the Netherlands, the organization and coordination of crisis management is subdivided into 25 safety regions. Recently there has been a strong development towards professionalization of these safety regions and their partners. However, in the case of a local crisis all attention goes to the mayor, whose decisions and actions are critically followed by the media and the public. In order to identify what would constitute a good mayor in times of crisis, the article lists essential points and qualities. In sum, a good mayor in times of crisis should be critical and show managerial courage.


R. Bron
Mr. drs. Roland Bron is als managing senior werkzaam bij het COT Instituut voor Veiligheids- en Crisismanagement.

M. Zannoni
drs. Marco Zannoni is als managing senior werkzaam bij het COT Instituut voor Veiligheids- en Crisismanagement.
Titel

Het O.M. beschikt tot straf: Een strafrechtelijk novum

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 06 2005
Trefwoorden Voorstel van wet, Executie, Geldboete, Strafvordering, Strafrechter, Taakstraf, Openbaar ministerie, Onherroepelijkheid, Beschikking, Bestuursorgaan
Auteurs Zijl, J. van

Zijl, J. van
Titel

Convergerende technologieën, verschuivende verantwoordelijkheden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 01 2008
Trefwoorden Aansprakelijkheid, Handhaving, Idee, Strafrecht, Privacy, Legitimiteit, Menselijke gedraging, Noodzakelijkheid, Observatie, Technische ontwikkeling
Auteurs Vedder, A.

Vedder, A.
Titel

Identiteitsfraude en overheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 07 2006
Trefwoorden Identiteitsfraude, Identiteitscontrole, Identiteit, Identiteitsbewijs, Politie, Burgerservicenummer, Delinquent, Privacy, Slachtoffer, Persoonsgegeven
Auteurs Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

Grijpink, J.H.A.M.
Titel

De vele gezichten van corruptie: Een antropologische kijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 07 2005
Trefwoorden Ambt, Legaliteit, Omkoping, Ambtenaar, Gewoonterecht, Idee, Gift, Legitimiteit, Onwettigheid, Beheerder
Auteurs Sissener, T.K.

Sissener, T.K.
Artikel

Een gevaarlijke driehoeksverhouding?

Falende staten, georganiseerde misdaad en transnationaal terrorisme

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2009
Auteurs Tanja E. Aalberts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years it has become popular in political discourse and academic literature to talk about the blurring boundaries between transnational terrorism and organized crime. In addition, the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 have instigated a debate on the link between transnational terrorism and state failure. This article scrutinizes this so-called ‘black hole’ thesis and its relationship to the crime-terror nexus by addressing the political significance of such conceptual blurring within an international context that is increasingly characterized by uncertainty and uncontrollable risks.


Tanja E. Aalberts
Dr. Tanja E. Aalberts is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Leiden (taalberts@fsw.leidenuniv.nl).
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