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Artikel

Graven naar de wortels van onveiligheidsgevoelens

Resultaten van een onderzoek in twaalf buurten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of crime, tailor-made policy, neighborhoods, avoidance behavior, social stability
Auteurs Dr. Remco Spithoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of this article is to search for a more focused approach of fighting back against ‘the fear of crime’. It is based on a study of the backgrounds of risen levels of fear of crime in twelve neighborhoods in the regions of Utrecht and Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Eight central themes could be identified in the stories of 240 respondents: specific locations, avoidance behavior, social stability, social quality, superdiversity, negative neighborhood images, burglary, and societal pessimism. Despite the fact that these central themes appeared in the overall analysis, every neighborhood showed another mix of factors explaining risen levels of fear of crime. This means that policies to reduce ‘the fear of crime’ should focus on specific, local explanations and should always be tailor-made.


Dr. Remco Spithoven
Dr. R. Spithoven is als lector Maatschappelijke Veiligheid verbonden aan de Academie voor Bestuur, Recht en Ruimte van de Hogeschool Saxion. Hij is tevens research-fellow bij de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en redacteur van Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.
Artikel

Hét gevoel van onveiligheid bestaat niet

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of victimization, risk perception, feelings of unsafety, measurement, policy
Auteurs Dr. Lonneke van Noije en Dr. Jurjen Iedema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There is no such thing as the feeling of unsafety. The trend in feelings of unsafety is measured using a standard question that has figured in the successive Safety Monitors (Veiligheidsmonitors) for many years: ‘Do you occasionally feel unsafe?’ This general question formulation elicits information on how uneasy the Dutch feel about safety. The nature and burden of this unease may vary greatly among them. The authors’ analysis shows that crime-specific measures of fear of victimization differ fundamentally from both cognitive assessments (risk perception) and general measures of feelings of unsafety. Hence, people who occasionally feel unsafe do not automatically think or fear that they will fall victim to crime and vice versa. Consequently, the authors identify four main constellations of subjective safety which emerge in different population groups, some more burdened by fear of victimization than others. The authors argue that policy should at least seek to reduce the most serious problems. They propose personal fear of victimization as an alternative for general feelings of safety.


Dr. Lonneke van Noije
Dr. L. van Noije is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau te Den Haag.

Dr. Jurjen Iedema
Dr. J. Iedema is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau te Den Haag.
Artikel

Waarom het onderzoek naar veiligheidsbeleving een nieuwe impuls nodig heeft

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of crime, critique, fear reduction, security policy, fear drop
Auteurs Marnix Eysink Smeets
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The security landscape has changed rapidly. New or revived threats have emerged, such as terrorism and cybercrime, bringing new or revived fears and anxieties as well. Actors in security policy feel a need to address these fears, but do not know how. Can the criminological subdiscipline of fear of crime studies provide the knowledge and understanding that is needed? A quick scan of the state of the art in this research domain, gives two reasons why it cannot: (1) fear of crime studies have yielded much knowledge on operationalization, measurement and determinants of fear of crime, but far less in mechanisms, trends, effects and influenceability, whereas insight in the latter issues is what is mostly needed in security policy; and (2) fear of crime studies are still mainly focused on the ‘traditional’ fear of crime, while fear of new crimes and threats remains under-researched. A shift of focus in fear of crime studies is urgently needed.


Marnix Eysink Smeets
M.W.B. Eysink Smeets is lector Publiek Vertrouwen in Veiligheid en hoofd van de Onderzoeksgroep Recht & Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Inholland. Hij is tevens directeur van de Landelijke Expertisegroep Veiligheidspercepties (LEV), een platform voor onderzoek naar veiligheid, veiligheidsbeleid en veiligheidsbeleving. De auteur legt momenteel de laatste hand aan zijn dissertatie Public reactions to crime and insecurity, onder supervisie van prof. Martin Innes en prof. Trevor Jones, beiden verbonden aan Cardiff University.
Artikel

Overheidsparticipatie in burgerprojecten

Over Buurt Bestuurt, Hillesluis en Schrödingers kat

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2016
Trefwoorden ‘Community Governs’, security and safety management, performance theory, procedural justice, Rotterdam
Auteurs Dr. mr. M.B. Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article is an ethnographical study of a program called ‘Community Governs’ (Buurt Bestuurt) in Rotterdam’s neighborhood Hillesluis. ‘Community Governs’ is a community-based program which goal is to solve crime and disorder problems. The article investigates the role of the local government in this program. Three different roles are discerned: (1) performance, (2) procedural justice, and (3) participation. The results indicate that to the residents of Hillesluis the performance by the local government is the cornerstone of ‘Community Governs’.


Dr. mr. M.B. Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Politie en beeldtechnologie: gebruik, opbrengsten en uitdagingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden CCTV, bodycams, ANPR, smart cameras, police
Auteurs Drs. S. Flight
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch National Police deploys video technology, for instance body-worn video camera (bodycams), drones, helicopters with cameras, and mobile units for surveillance. Four types of video technology are discussed: CCTV, bodycams, smart cameras and automatic number plate recognition (ANPR). These four types will be the most prominent applications of visual technology in the coming years, according to ‘Vision on sensing’, published in 2015 by the National Police. The potential benefits of video images for prosecution and in the courtroom are discussed in a separate paragraph, followed by a survey of recent changes in the laws regulating this technology.


Drs. S. Flight
Drs. Sander Flight is zelfstandig adviseur en onderzoeker op het terrein van veiligheid en criminaliteit.
Artikel

Zal ik je eens wat laten zien?

Over visuele onderzoeksmethoden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden visual methods, visual data, visual sociology, visual criminology, photo-elicitation
Auteurs Dr. G. Vanderveen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Visual research methods aren’t magic. Yet, they do work. In this article, different reasons and methods are described, based on the author’s own experiences as well as on the literature. Visual methods refer to the visual as a data source, employing visuals in the data collection or using visuals when presenting and expressing social scientific knowledge. The reasons to use visual methods can be divided into two broad categories. First, visual methods enhance the data and the data collection and second, they can facilitate the participation of and collaboration with research participants. Examples of visual methods are presented, such as the use of photographs in interviews as well as some dilemmas a researcher (similar to legal professionals) can face when employing them. Visual methods are still developing, and the author concludes that there’s still a lot to learn.


Dr. G. Vanderveen
Dr. Gabry Vanderveen is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Erasmus School of Law van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Daarnaast is zij eigenaar van Recht op Beeld, dat onderzoek, training en advies verzorgt op het gebied van visuele data en methoden in het algemeen en beeldmateriaal in de strafrechtsketen in het bijzonder.
Artikel

In de h200d: een eigentijdse etnografie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden ethnography, social media, online, street culture, ethics
Auteurs Drs. R.A. Roks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article draws on three years of ethnographic research into the embeddedness of crime and identity of the Rollin 200 Crips, a Dutch ‘gang’ from the city of The Hague. During the course of this fieldwork the possibilities of social media were explored. Posts and pictures on social media can be used by criminologists as a relative easy way to collect data, but social media can also be used as a platform to communicate and contact informants. The central argument in this article is that ethnographers should somehow try to incorporate these offline practices in their fieldwork to better deal with the fact that boundaries between being online and offline are becoming increasingly interwoven and blurred. But like forms of offline ethnography, there is also a need to reflect on the usage of this data, particularly in terms of selectivity and ethics.


Drs. R.A. Roks
Drs. Robby Roks is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

    The use of visual material in Dutch criminal proceedings has become more prominent in recent years. This development has important consequences in regard to the trial procedure and judicial decision-making. Despite the possible influence on our criminal procedure, Dutch criminal law lacks specific standards for the use of visual material in court. In the United States the use of visual technology is more established and better regulated. This article sets out the standards applicable to the use of visual evidence in the American criminal law system by exploring the Federal Rules of Evidence and relevant case law. These standards can be used as frame of reference when putting forward recommendations for possible standards in the Dutch criminal justice system.


J. Roosma
Drs. mr. Jaitske Roosma heeft als projectmedewerker gewerkt bij de politie Rotterdam-Rijnmond en bij de afdeling Digitale Technologie en Biometrie van het Nederlands Forensisch Instituut. Zij start in oktober 2012 met de RAIO-opleiding.

M.J. Dubelaar
Mr. Marieke Dubelaar is werkzaam als docent en onderzoeker bij de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2011
Auteurs G.N.G. Vanderveen en M.P.C. Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

G.N.G. Vanderveen
Dr. Gabry Vanderveen, gastredacteur van dit themanummer, is als docent en onderzoeker criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

M.P.C. Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.

    The use of images is burgeoning in the criminal justice system and will continue to do so, mainly because of the introduction of the electronic file. Digital technologies and images have become more important in every phase of the system: images are collected and created to gather, analyze and present evidence. Besides mug shots and fingerprints, current images range from CCTV footage to 3D reconstructions and MRI scans. The question is whether these technological advancements and the increasing use and presence of image in the Dutch criminal justice system is revolutionary. This article discusses differences between the ‘old’ and ‘new’ images, focusing on form and content. The increase in types of formats and the highly specialized contents of today raises many empirical questions about the influence of images. Most of these questions have not been conclusively answered so far. The three most convincing findings underline the possible far-stretching, perhaps even revolutionary, consequences.


G.N.G. Vanderveen
Dr. Gabry Vanderveen is als docent en onderzoeker verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

J. Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek bij het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eergerelateerd Geweld, dat is ondergebracht bij politie Haaglanden. Daarnaast is zij geïnteresseerd in de positie van dieren in de criminologie.

    This article examines the historically inverse relationship between the incidence of interpersonal violence and the level of tolerance for the occurrence of violence. The Middle Ages witnessed high homicide rates, but people accepted violent conflicts as belonging to daily life. Homicide rates declined during the early modern period which resulted in a relatively peaceful nineteenth century. Precisely in this century new concerns and fears are visible over youth gangs and street robbery, which in reality were rarely lethal. The inverse relationship persisted until the mid-twentieth century, but then disappeared. While the 1950s and 1960s had low homicide rates and low concern, thereafter both homicide rates and public concern increased. The paper ends with a preliminary explanation for the historical trends observed.


P. Spierenburg
Prof. dr. Pieter Spierenburg is als hoogleraar Historische Criminologie verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit te Rotterdam.
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