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Artikel

Tussen wal en schip

Etnografische inzichten in lokale havenbeveiliging

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden ethnography, ports of Rotterdam and Hamburg, security personnel, customs, global commerce
Auteurs Dr. Yarin Eski
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This ethnography of everyday policing realities in the European ports of Rotterdam and Hamburg presents an understanding of policing spaces where protecting and supporting global commerce dominate. In undertaking this research, the author participated in the daily activities of 85 participants in Rotterdam (N=52) and Hamburg (N=33), consisting of 30 operational port police officers, 31 security officers, 10 customs officers and 14 others involved in port security-related matters (e.g. shipping agents, port authorities, boatmen and maritime engineers). These participants were collectively responsible for protecting the vulnerability of the just-in-time logistics by becoming the intervention, through which they become the very local threat to global commerce itself. A struggle that reveals itself in their (narrated) policing struggles with management, colleagues and multi-agency partners, as well as with the maritime business community and dangerous others.


Dr. Yarin Eski
Dr. Y. Eski is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschap en Politicologie van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Controle of begeleiding? Ervaringen met reclasseringstoezicht tijdens de voorwaardelijke invrijheidstelling

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden parole, desistance, supervision, Re-entry, risk management
Auteurs Jennifer Doekhie MSc, Dr. Esther van Ginneken, Dr. Anja Dirkzwager e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Little is known about how ex-prisoners’ parole supervision experiences relate to desistance. The aim of this article therefore is to gain insight into the nature of release conditions and parole supervision of ex-prisoners and parolees’ perceptions of their supervision related to the desistance process. A total of 23 Dutch parolees were interviewed in depth at three waves starting in prison up to one year after their release, and the 69 interviews were combined with their parole files containing information about conditions, violations and sanctions. Parole files revealed the practice of highly engaged parole officers, who worked with parolees to strengthen factors known to foster desistance. However, the interviews showed that most parolees found their parole experience predominantly surveillance-oriented and not very helpful for desistance. Parole was experienced as most beneficial when parole officers used their discretionary power to adjust conditions creating ‘space’ for trial-and-error.


Jennifer Doekhie MSc
J.V.O.R. Doekhie MSc is als docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Esther van Ginneken
Dr. E.F.J.C. van Ginneken is als docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving.

Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. P. Nieuwbeerta is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Vrijwillige rechtspraak: rechters op het mediationpad?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden neighbourhood courts, mediation, friendly solutions, voluntary jurisdiction, de-escalation
Auteurs Prof. dr. Dick Allewijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A characteristic difference between administration of justice and mediation so far was the element of voluntariness on the side of the clients. Administration of justice however is, for the citizen who is brought before the courts, not voluntary. Recently pilots have been started in which citizens can turn voluntarily to the Court at low cost, and not far from their neighborhood. Judges will not primarily aim at making a decision in accordance with the law, but at finding friendly solutions. Does this mean that judges are going to mediate? And if so, how should this be appreciated? In this contribution attention is paid to certain aspects of this question. It is argued that differences between jurisdiction and mediation still remain. More than mediators judges must act within the legal framework. The extent to which they can engage in the emotional undercurrent of conflicts is limited. Confidence in the Court is from a different origin than trust in the mediator, and that also makes a difference. And finally, a judge is competent to make a binding judgment, which influences the way he or she is looked at by the parties.


Prof. dr. Dick Allewijn
Prof. dr. D. Allewijn is als bijzonder hoogleraar Mediation verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechten van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Hij is tevens werkzaam als MfN-registermediator en trainer bij het Centrum voor Conflicthantering.
Artikel

Verbanning en uitzetting in Noordwest-Europa sinds de vroegmoderne periode

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden banishment, expulsion, history, early modern period, Northwest Europe
Auteurs Dr. Margo De Koster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To supplement recent debates concerning the expulsion of criminal foreigners and the repelling of poor refugees with longer-term insights, this contribution examines banishment practices in early modern and modern Northwest Europe. It argues that banishment, a sanction involving a person’s geographical and social exclusion, served both to punish deviants and to monitor mobile newcomers. Expulsion practices were shaped mainly by concerns about the regulation of access to the labor market and poor relief. The profile of the expellee displays remarkable continuity across time: the poor unwanted stranger, lacking social bonds and, in the case of female migrants, perceived as being prone to prostitution. Albeit banishment often proved only temporary and thus not effective, authorities continued to rely on it because of its symbolic function, displaying their diligence in purifying and protecting local society. This was much to the detriment of the expellees, who were driven into marginality and illegality.


Dr. Margo De Koster
Dr. Margo De Koster is als universitair docent Historische Criminologie verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Artikel

Amerikaans rechtsrealisme en empirisch-juridisch onderzoek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden American Legal Realism, Empirical Legal Studies, New Deal Policy, Research program, Lakatos
Auteurs Prof. dr. F.L. Leeuw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The American Legal Realism movement, which originated in the beginning of the twentieth century and was active until the Fifties, can be seen as one of the founders of current Empirical Legal Studies because of the importance it attached to social scientific knowledge on behavior of – for instance – judges and others involved in the judiciary. The author sketches several characteristics of Legal Realism at that time. Exploring their range of thought he also examines whether Legal Realism’s studies can be seen as a research program. The recent emergence of New Legal Realism in the US and elsewhere leads to the question what characterizes this (re)new(al) movement. Finally it is argued that American Legal Realism especially contributed to scientific progress by posing new questions, changing focus and by stressing the importance of empirical evidence.


Prof. dr. F.L. Leeuw
Prof. dr. Frans Leeuw is directeur van het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie en daarnaast hoogleraar Recht, openbaar bestuur en sociaal-wetenschappelijk onderzoek aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Tussen Heumensoord en Winschoten

Over de tegenstrijdige betekenis van burgerparticipatie in de veiligheidszorg

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2016
Trefwoorden community crime prevention, public security, instrumental perspective, social polarization, social diversity
Auteurs Prof. dr. ir. J. Terpstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the concluding article of this special issue on civilian participation in public security it is argued that this term covers many different phenomena, from neighborhood watchers cooperating with the police to extremist militia. Much of the literature on civilian participation implicitly and wrongfully has an instrumental perspective. The participation of civilians in public security however, is much more than just an instrument of public administration or the police. Not all activities of citizens in the field of public security are decent or according to the perspective of the administration and the police. Moreover, there is no consensus on what public security exactly means, while the motives of people to get involved in public security activities differ greatly. Mobilizing citizens on the basis of fighting crime bears the risk of producing differences and conflicts in society instead of creating open, tolerant and inclusive communities.


Prof. dr. ir. J. Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra is als hoogleraar criminologie verbonden aan de faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen.
Artikel

Witwasonderzoeken zonder aantoonbaar gronddelict

Het rechterlijk toetsingskader en efficiënt opsporen in zes stappen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden Criminal investigations money laundering, Prosecution, Jurisprudence, Burden of proof, Administration of justice
Auteurs J.P. Rozemeijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Dutch criminal money laundering investigations there is no need to fully proof the predicate offence. When a criminal suspicion of money laundering exists without a direct connection to the predicate offence it’s the suspect who must prove the legal origin of his income or possessions. If the suspect doesn’t succeed in this, the judge will rule that the origin has to be criminal. This article shows in six steps how judges rule in this kind of cases and how an investigation can be done. These six steps are combined with examples from recent jurisprudence. The goal of this article is to raise awareness on this subject in order to operate more efficiently and effectively in money laundering investigations.


J.P. Rozemeijer
Mr. Joris Rozemeijer is werkzaam als beleidsmedewerker witwassen bij het bureau van de Landelijk Officier van Justitie (LOvJ) Witwassen en Terrorisme Financiering van het Functioneel Parket.
Artikel

Het veranderende mensbeeld in het strafrecht

Een bespiegeling op basis van ervaringen in de rechterlijke macht

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2015
Trefwoorden administration of justice, cynicism, optimism, pondering interests, forgiving
Auteurs G.J.M. Corstens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author explains his optimistic view of humanity. He argues that a judge, like he was before, should always keep in mind that defendants and convicted people deserve a positive approach, even if this seems to be contrary to the general experience of recidivism. Criminal judges should never adopt an attitude of cynicism and being merciless. However, criminal justice has to take into account the interests of society in general, of victims and of accused and convicted people. Sometimes severe punishment is required in order to underline the rules we have to obey. But even then the judge has to consider whether there is hope. Pondering all the interests concerned is necessary. Sometimes pardoning is appropriate.


G.J.M. Corstens
Mr. Geert Corstens is oud-president van de Hoge Raad der Nederlanden en oud-hoogleraar straf- en strafprocesrecht aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Hij is tegenwoordig Appointing Authority bij het Iran US Claims Tribunal en lid van de Ethische Commissie van het Internationaal Olympisch Comité.
Artikel

Pot, crack en Obama’s ‘third way’

Liberalisering van drugsbeleid in de Verenigde Staten?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2013
Auteurs I. Haen Marshall
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This essay describes the most important recent events in the field of American drugs legislation covering the liberalization of cannabis policies in several states as well as the reduction of penalties for the possession of crack at the federal level. These developments are situated in a broader context of a complicated and big country with plenty of room for extreme moral views and a very punitive justice policy that targets Blacks and Latino’s much more than the white middle class. The disproportionate impact of the punitive drugs legislation is an important driving force behind the trend towards liberalization, next to the high costs of maintaining an overcrowded prison system.


I. Haen Marshall
Ineke Haen Marshall, PhD is Professor bij het Department of Sociology & Anthropology and School of Criminology and Criminal Justice van de Northeastern University in Boston.
Artikel

De psychiater en toerekeningsvatbaarheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden forensic psychiatrists, criminal responsibility, administration of criminal justice, legal insanity, legal insanity standard
Auteurs G. Meynen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Currently, there is a vivid debate in the Netherlands about the possible non-existence of free will and its implications for criminal law, in particular for the concept of ‘criminal responsibility’. Especially forensic psychiatrists who advise the court on a defendant’s legal insanity feel uneasiness because of this discussion on free will. In this contribution the author suggests to reconsider the current practice in the Netherlands in which psychiatrists explicitly advise the court on legal insanity and to consider the option to leave the judgment on legal insanity entirely to the judge. Meanwhile, of course, psychiatrists will have to inform the judge about the defendant’s mental condition at the time of the crime and its influence on the defendant’s behaviour. If needed, in order to optimize communication between the medical domain (psychiatrist) and the legal domain (judge), a legal insanity standard could be developed and introduced.


G. Meynen
Prof. dr. Gerben Meynen is als bijzonder hoogleraar forensische psychiatrie verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Private rechtspraak: online én offline een realiteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2012
Trefwoorden E-courts, alternative dispute resolution, online dispute resolution, eBay, Paypal
Auteurs C.N.J. de Vey Mestdagh en T. van Zuijlen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Private administration of justice is an online and offline reality. In this article the reality of online dispute resolution (ODR) is explored, using the example of eBay (60 million conflicts taken on each year). The issue of jurisdiction in online cases is clarified and an analysis is made of the causes of the propagation of ODR. Finally the new phenomenon of online dispute prevention (ODP) is examined. This leads to the conclusion that ODR started as an alternative form of dispute settlement, but more and more becomes a substitute for the public administration of justice.


C.N.J. de Vey Mestdagh
Dr. mr. Kees de Vey Mestdagh is hoofd van het Centrum voor Recht & ICT, Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Groningen, www.rechtenict.nl, e-mail c.n.j.de.vey.mestdagh@rug.nl.

T. van Zuijlen
Tim van Zuijlen is student van de master Recht & ICT van het Centrum voor Recht & ICT.
Artikel

Omstreden gelijkheid

Over de constructie van (on)gelijkheid van vrouwen en mannen in partnergeweld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs R. Römkens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) changed from a private problem to a public concern over the last decades. It has become subject of various discourses in different domains. In the social sciences the gender-based discriminatory nature of IPV is contested by some researchers who claim a gender equality in IPV. They call for a gender-neutral approach to IPV as a family problem, de-contextualized from gender-based inequalities. In the Netherlands this degendering is reflected in current policy discourse. However, in the international legal human rights domain, IPV is unequivocally considered to be an issue that affects women disproportionately as a form of women's discrimination that is the result of unequal power relations. Both international binding human rights law and recent ruling of the ECHR impose binding duties to acknowledge this. This article addresses the paradox that is reflected in these two positions and how to get beyond it.


R. Römkens
Prof. dr. Renée Römkens is als hoogleraar Huiselijk geweld verbonden aan het International Victimology Institute (Intervict) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Bedrijfsverbetergebieden

Een verkennend onderzoek naar de veiligheidszorg in winkelcentrum Alexandrium

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2010
Auteurs P. Van Calster, M.B. Schuilenburg en R. Guitjens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Where formerly the government had the monopoly on the governing of security, it seems that there has been a shift taking place towards a more horizontal security care. The government has stopped being the only organizer and executor of issues of security. Private companies increasingly take over the government's responsibilities. This is also the case in the Dutch shopping centre Alexandrium. Alexandrium is one of the first examples in the Netherlands of a Business Improvement District. Nowadays entrepreneurs decide which activities are organized and which projects are being set up in order to keep the area ‘clean and safe’. On the basis of 43 in-depth interviews the authors show that not all parties involved are optimistic about this development. Main point of attention is the lack of cooperation between the entrepreneurs and the police. Moreover, they express the feeling that the shopping area has become less safe in the past years.


P. Van Calster
Dr. Patrick Van Calster doceert aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en de Universiteit Leiden.

M.B. Schuilenburg
Mr. drs. Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

R. Guitjens
Renate Guitjens MSc studeerde criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

    Using the concept of chronocentrism, the doctrine that what is current must somehow be superior to what went on before, that ideas, scholars and scholarship inevitably become stale and discredited over time, the author argues the rise and attraction of nodal governance and nodal security fits the definition of chronocentrism. The recent ‘discovery’ of a multitude of (semi-)public agencies and private sector actors performing police functions neglect the fact that many of these agencies and actors have a long standing history (sometimes more than a century) and have been subject of many academic studies. Moreover, these studies are richer in their theoretical foundations because of the explanations they give for different functions, goals, interests, cultures and operational styles of public policing, administrative policing and private policing than much of the current language. In many ways nodal governance and nodal security are new labels for ongoing processes of gradual interweaving of different forms of policing. For this reason the use of these concepts is useful in two ways. First, for policy makers and practitioners. For them the new concepts seem to have a function as a motivational strategy. For instance, what was called increasing cooperation in the justice system (ketensamenwerking) and public-private cooperation in the eighties and nineties are revitalized using new labels. Second, nodal governance and nodal security, in the academic community ‘forces’ us to rethink the very notion of policing. Policing increasingly takes place in hybrid organizations and processes in which boundaries between public administration, public policing, regulatory agencies and private security are blurring.


A.B. Hoogenboom
Prof. dr. Bob Hoogenboom is hoogleraar Politiestudies en Veiligheidsvraagstukken aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en hoogleraar Forensic Business Studies aan Nyenrode.

    This article focuses on the growing need internationally for accountability of the administration of justice. The CEPEJ report European judicial systems compares the judiciary in the member states of the Council of Europe showing how this justification takes place. Accounting for the administration of justice still involves a lot of attention for the input and the procedures, while accountability for the results is most important. New methods for measuring the experiences of users of the administration of justice are developing. This fits a trend in which hierarchic and internal accountability, for instance through appeal procedures, are becoming less important in favour of horizontal accountability towards stakeholders, colleagues and users of state services.


M. Barendrecht
Prof. mr. dr. Maurits Barendrecht is als hoogleraar privaatrecht verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.

    In this article the author explores - on the basis of Mitchel Lasser's book Judicial deliberations - the possibilities of enlarging the legitimacy of the Dutch Cassation Court (Hoge Raad). After a broad theoretical analysis of several concepts of legitimacy he describes the societal position of de Hoge Raad as highest court vis-à-vis rivals, such as the European Courts, the Council of State (Raad van State) and the Council of the Judiciary (Raad voor de rechtspraak). He argues that the cassation institute has to innovate itself and suggest new ways of exerting judicial leadership.


N.J.H. Huls
Prof. mr. dr. Nick Huls is hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en de Universiteit Leiden. Tot 1 januari 2009 was hij programmaleider van het onderzoeksprogramma Rechtspleging van de EUR.
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