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Artikel

Access_open De geografische inrichting van de rechtspraak

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden courts, civil justice, access to justice, judicial map, travel distances
Auteurs Roland Eshuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article relates the geographical allocation of Courts to access to justice. Travel distances within the Dutch system are higher than in surrounding countries, but still not extremely high. The scale of the Dutch Court organizations however, is extreme. On average, a Court location that handles small claims has jurisdiction over a territory with over half a million inhabitants. This large number of inhabitants automatically translates to large numbers of cases, and large bureaucracies, employing 500 to 1,000 people (judges, court staff, support) each. Do travel distances to the Courts actually have an impact on the use of the Court system? Two recent studies find no support for a popular belief that defendants will be less determined to defend themselves when the travel distance to the court is longer. They do show however that the number of cases brought to Court by local plaintiffs drops when ‘their’ local court closes down.


Roland Eshuis
Dr. R.J.J. Eshuis is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Eerste hulp bij emancipatie: waarom we nudging nodig hebben

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden paternalism, Foucault, emancipatory norms, interactive metal fatigue, nudging
Auteurs Dr. G. van Oenen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Both the traditional liberal view of freedom as absence of paternalist state interference and the nonliberal Foucaultian analysis of modern governmentality as fully consisting of behavioural management cannot provide an adequate explanation or justification of the popularity of nudging. Alternatively, the theory of interactive metal fatigue shows why nudging is neither paternalist nor managerial; it is better understood as a much-needed and very contemporary way of assisting the modern individual who is no longer able to carry the full burden of his own emancipation. Nudging is thus found unobjectionable, and even beneficial, as long as it enables individuals to act in accordance with the emancipatory norms they themselves adhere to, but not always manage to act on, due to interactive metal fatigue.


Dr. G. van Oenen
Dr. Gijs van Oenen is als universitair hoofddocent sociale en politieke filosofie verbonden aan de Faculteit der Wijsbegeerte van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam; daarnaast is hij fellow van het Erasmus University College.
Artikel

Wilsvrijheid en strafrechtelijke verantwoordelijkheid

Een rondgang langs fysicalisme, connectionisme en belichaamde cognitie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden free will, criminal responsibility, fysicalism, connectionism, embodied cognition
Auteurs F. de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the author defends two propositions related to the concepts of free will and criminal responsibility. Free will is defined as the capability of distancing oneself from one’s immediate surroundings and reflect on impulses. The first proposition is that it is a mistake to suppose – as do many neuroscientists adhering to objectivist theories on the human mind – that the concept of free will refers to a postulated natural phenomenon, the existence of which could, in principle, be established or falsified. Instead, the concept of free will constitutes a practice; it is a human artefact that is part and parcel of the differing means by which mankind structures intersubjective life. The second proposition is that the criminal law legitimately presupposes that persons normally act out of free will and that they, consequently, are morally responsible and accountable for the wrongful actions they perform. The author claims that his arguments for both propositions are supported by insights from the neuroscientific fields of connectionism and embodied cognition.


F. de Jong
Mr. dr. Ferry de Jong is als universitair docent strafrecht verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: f.dejong1@uu.nl.

    In recent decades the night-time economy has started to play a significant role in city centre regeneration; it has become a vital element of the urban economy, as well as a marketing tool in the competition between cities. Concerns about personal safety and fear of crime determine to a large extent the success of these nightlife districts. Based on an analysis of policy documents, night-time observations and expert interviews with stakeholders in the Safe Nightlife Programmes of Rotterdam and Utrecht, different local safety measures and their legitimizations in different local urban settings will be analysed. The question raised is how surveillance measures in different nightlife districts are legitimized, taking into account the fact that cities' nightlife districts do not only need to be safe, but are also favoured by its visitors for adventure and excitement. What are the social implications of these surveillance measures and what does this mean for the character of cities' nightlife districts?


I. van Aalst
Dr. Irina van Aalst is verbonden aan het Urban and Regional research centre Utrecht (URU) van de Faculteit Geosciences van de Universiteit Utrecht. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op onderzoek dat deel uitmaakt van het door NWO gefinancierde project Surveillance in Urban Nightscapes (SUN), MVi 313-99-140 (www.stadsnachtwacht.nl).

I. van Liempt
Drs. Ilse van Liempt is verbonden aan het Urban and Regional research centre Utrecht (URU) van de Faculteit Geosciences van de Universiteit Utrecht. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op onderzoek dat deel uitmaakt van het door NWO gefinancierde project Surveillance in Urban Nightscapes (SUN), MVi 313-99-140 (www.stadsnachtwacht.nl).

    There is a strange contradiction in the history of Dutch criminal justice. On the one hand, until well into the 20th Century, it was peculiarly backward in terms of criminal procedure that remained based on principles deriving essentially from the era of the first Dutch republic (17th and 18th Century) or even earlier. On the other, The Netherlands was one of the first countries in Europe to lastingly abolish capital punishment without the intermediate phase of continuing executions out of public view. In this, Dutch criminal justice was decidedly ahead of its times. This contribution examines this apparent contradiction that cannot be entirely explained by existing theories on (the abolition of) capital punishment. It must also be seen in the light of the historical role of publicity/transparency for the legitimacy of criminal justice in the Netherlands, its link to a legal culture of public confidence in the criminal justice authorities and the relatively late reception of Enlightenment ideals.


C.H. Brants
Prof. dr. Chrisje Brants is als hoogleraar straf- en strafprocesrecht verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.

    In recent years there is an increasing trend towards semi-public space. This article seeks to explain this trend. As the heterogeneity of society grows, it becomes more difficult to deal with different groups within one's living environment. Residents prefer a sheltering living environment that attracts similar groups and excludes those they would rather avoid. Social engineering through architecture has a long history: municipalities used to combine the design of neighbourhoods and public spaces with a social agenda of community building. Later, as society evolved, the prevention of friction between people and the creation of public meeting places became leading principles, but never exclusion. However, public housing associations and developers are increasingly accommodating preferences for sheltered living environments by the creation of collective space, appropriating public space and the temporary use of undeveloped space. Three cases illustrate this.


L. Bijlsma
Drs. Like Bijlsma is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.

M. Galle
Drs. Maaike Galle is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.

J. Tennekes
Drs. Joost Tennekes is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.
Titel

Verschil en ongelijkheid: Een lofzang

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 08 2007
Trefwoorden Aansprakelijkheid, Democratie, Keuzevrijheid, Voorwaarde, Rechtsstaat, Arrangement, Klassieke grondrechten, Redenering, Verdrag, Autonomie
Auteurs Frissen, P.H.A.

Frissen, P.H.A.
Titel

Slachtoffer-dadergesprekken als vorm van rechtshandhaving

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 03 2007
Trefwoorden Slachtoffer, Bemiddeling, Delinquent, Strafvordering, Strafbaar feit, Strafrecht, Schikking, Openbaar ministerie, Mediation, Minister van justitie
Auteurs Blad, J.R.

Blad, J.R.

    There is a growing consensus among practitioners that independent peer review is the preferred approach to furthering trust in the legal professions. The article draws on experience abroad, as reported in the professional literature, and lessons from comparable arrangements at home, in academia and the medical professions. It formulates an institutional design in which an autonomous agency, independent of the Lawyers' Association and at arms' length from the Minister of Justice, develops methodology and organizes peer reviews by fellow-practitioners. Since professionals, everywhere, like to share experience, it is argued that making site-visits, sampling case-files, and discussing a self-evaluation of the practice under review promotes open innovation and creates scope for shaping rather than controlling professional excellence. It also allows for discretion in catering to the widely diverging needs of large international law firms and small local practices that a system of command and control could not deliver.


D.J. Wolfson
Prof. dr. Dirk Wolfson is verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit en werkzaam als visitator, onder andere bij woningcorporaties.

    This article deals with chapter 13 of the CEPEJ report European judicial systems on the execution of court decisions. Unfortunately the report doesn't answer the question how far court decisions are being executed. The report does give information on organisations and agents involved in the enforcement of court decisions. The author gives an impression of the big differences existing between European countries in this field. Most important is the distinction between states where the responsibility for enforcement lies with public authorities and those where this responsibility is left to private agencies. The CEPEJ report seems to suggest that various European countries do a lot more than the Netherlands to guarantee that the law actually takes its course. In the Netherlands state responsibility is limited to the maintenance of means which can be used by parties - for their own cost and risk - in order to compel the execution of a court decision.


R.J.J. Eshuis
Dr. Roland Eshuis is werkzaam als onderzoeker bij het WODC. Hij was wetenschappelijk adviseur bij de eerste CEPEJ-studie en verzorgde daarvan de analyse en rapportage.
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