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Over undercoverbevoegdheden op internet

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden undercover operations, investigative powers, infiltration, Internet, jurisdiction
Auteurs Mr.dr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article investigates which online undercover investigative methods are applied in practice and how they fit in the Dutch legal framework. In particular, the three special investigative powers of a pseudo purchase, systematic information gathering and infiltration are examined. Investigative powers cannot be applied unilaterally (across state borders). When law enforcement officials cannot reasonably determine the location of the suspect, the online unilateral application of undercover investigative powers is allowed. However, there is still a risk that diplomatic tensions arise with the involved state. States should agree in treaties under which circumstances cross-border online undercover operations are allowed.


Mr.dr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans
Mr. dr. J.J. Oerlemans is als onderzoeker verbonden aan eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Surveilleren en opsporen in een internetomgeving

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2012
Trefwoorden Policing, Internet, open-source intelligence, iColumbo, police power
Auteurs J.J. Oerlemans en B.J. Koops
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Publicly available information on the Internet about people or criminal acts can be relevant to criminal investigations. This article analyses to what extent Dutch criminal procedure law allows open source intelligence for law-enforcement purposes. When more than ‘minor’ privacy interferences arise, an explicit investigatory power in the criminal procedure code is required. Minor infringements are allowed under the general task description in the Police Act 1993. It is unclear however when ‘substantial’ privacy infringements arise. On the basis of ECHR jurisprudence on foreseeability and the Dutch criteria for ‘systematic observation’, the authors conclude that Internet data-gathering will often require an explicit investigatory power and can only be used for criminal investigation with an order from the public prosecutor, but not, except for small-scale and ad hoc searches, for general police practice purposes. Because the Internet is much different in its nature from a decade ago and the investigatory powers are not in all respects easily applicable to Internet surveillance, the authors argue that the Dutch legislator must take action and make clear under which conditions information on the Internet can be gathered by law enforcement.


J.J. Oerlemans
Mr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans is promovendus bij eLaw@Leiden, Centrum voor Recht in de Informatiemaatschappij van de Universiteit Leiden. Daarnaast is hij juridisch adviseur bij Fox-IT.

B.J. Koops
Prof. dr. Bert-Jaap Koops is hoogleraar regulering van technologie bij TILT – Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology and Society van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Opsporingsbevoegdheden en privacy

Een internationale vergelijking

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2012
Auteurs J.B.J. van der Leij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch regulation of phone tapping has a great deal of safeguards built in to ensure that this investigation method isn't used flippantly. Despite this, it appears that phone tapping is far more commonly used in The Netherlands than in any other western nation, including England, Sweden and Germany. This study shows that, due to differences in registration of phone tapping statistics, it is difficult to compare various countries' practices. However, it does appear that the Dutch authorities don't perceive to have viable alternatives to phone tapping. The limited alternatives that they do (perceive themselves to) have, such as infiltration, pose even greater ethical considerations, making them less attractive. Authorities in England, Sweden and Germany appear to use alternative investigation methods much more frequently than those in The Netherlands. Some examples of the types of alternatives more often resorted to in other countries are the use of traffic data, (intrusive) surveillance and various forms of infiltration. A comparison of the regulations in all four countries showed differences in the degree to which phone tapping is perceived to pose ethical considerations (posing a threat to the privacy of citizens) as an investigatory method.


J.B.J. van der Leij
Mr. dr. Bas van der Leij is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Cybercrime en politie

Een schets van de Nederlandse situatie anno 2012

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs W.Ph. Stol, E.R. Leukfeldt en H. Klap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2004 the main problem of the Dutch police concerning cybercrime was a lack of knowledge, for example about how to act in a digital world, about the character of cybercrime and about the effectiveness of measures. The main question in this article is if this situation has changed, and if so, how. Although the legislator has given the police special powers to fight crime in a digital world, the police still struggle with questions about what exactly are the powers they have. Although the police have invested in pilot projects and in the recruitment of digital experts, knowledge about ‘policing a digital society’ is not yet common in the police organisation - which is a shortcoming since ‘digital is normal’ in the lives of the common people. Although the police established digital aspects in police training, digital is not yet a common feature in police education. In sum, although the police in various ways pay attention to digital aspects of policing, digital is not yet a regular part of the police organisation, police training and/or everyday police practice.


W.Ph. Stol
Prof. dr. Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit.

E.R. Leukfeldt
E.R. Leukfeldt Msc is onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie.

H. Klap
Drs. Henk Klap MPM is programmamanager van het landelijke politiële Programma Aanpak Cybercrime (PAC).
Artikel

Cyberwar? What war?

Meer in het bijzonder: welk recht?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs A.R. Lodder en L.J.M. Boer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an overview of cyberwar from an international law perspective, in particular from the framework of the laws of war. It discusses some of the difficulties in applying these laws to cyberattacks, further complicated by the characteristics of the Internet. A distinction is made between cyberwar, -crime, -espionage and -terrorism, and the different fields of law that apply to these distinct ‘cyberevents’. Next to discussing several historic cyberattacks, the question is raised whether cyberwar is merely a hype or whether we should be taking this threat seriously. Rather than answering this question, the authors feel that the actual threat posed by ‘cyber’ is less important than the political and military prominence gained by this phenomenon in these past few years. The authors conclude by stating that a lot of work has yet to be done to address the issues raised by the occurrence of cyberwar.


A.R. Lodder
Prof. Arno Lodder is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de afdeling Transnational Legal Studies van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

L.J.M. Boer
Lianne Boer is als promovendus verbonden aan de afdeling Transnational Legal Studies van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

    This article focuses on the current measure for persistent offenders (ISD-measure), by taking into account three equivalent penal sanctions that have been developed in the Netherlands from 1886 onwards. First, the penalty of a labour colony for vagrants and the like for three years at most. Second, the measure to keep the habitual offenders in additional, preventive custody for five to ten years. Finally, the measure of two-year detention for drug addicted offenders. In the article it is argued that in spite of the differences in (judicial) elaboration, all three former existing sanctions have the same legitimating fundamental principle as the ISD-measure. That is, the notion that certain offenders are a danger to society, due to their persistent criminality and nuisance causing lifestyle. The primary objective of all these penal sanctions is therefore a long term protection of society from this danger. In this sense, the ISD-measure makes clear that present state-policy is above all one of sheer deprivation of freedom.


S. Struijk
Mr. Sanne Struijk is wetenschappelijk docent strafrecht aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Zij schrijft een proefschrift over de strafrechtelijke aanpak van veelplegers, bezien vanuit de (historische) mogelijkheden van het Nederlands wettelijk sanctiestelsel tot recidive- en overlastbestrijding.
Titel

De elastiekjes van Docters van Leeuwen: Het O.M. tussen rechtspraak, politie, politiek en bestuur

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 06 2007
Trefwoorden Politie, Bestuurder, Rechtspraak, Aanwijzing, Handhaving, Minister van justitie, Openbaar ministerie, Aanwijzingsbevoegdheid, Arts, Burgemeester
Auteurs Wijkerslooth, J.L. de

Wijkerslooth, J.L. de
Interface Showing Amount
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