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Artikel

Publieke waarden en het gebruik van genetische gegevens

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden technological advances, sequencing DNA, internationalization, commercial use, public values
Auteurs Petra Verhoef, Yayouk Willems en Marc Groenen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Three developments – technological advances in sequencing DNA data, the booming market for commercial DNA tests, and internationalization of collecting and sharing DNA data – are accelerating the use of DNA data worldwide. The authors discuss the impact of the increase in international and commercial use of DNA data and the way it puts public values (like privacy, autonomy, fairness) under pressure. When collecting, analyzing, and translating DNA data, privacy should be guarded, genetic discrimination has to be prevented, digital citizenship could be strengthened, and responsibilities for those applying DNA data should be strongly defined. By doing so, we can thrive for a future in which we make valuable use of DNA data.


Petra Verhoef
Dr. ir. P. Verhoef is themacoördinator bij het Rathenau Instituut. Zij en haar team werken aan verschillende onderwerpen rondom technologie voor gezondheid en landbouw.

Yayouk Willems
Dr. Y.E. Willems is onderzoeker bij het Rathenau Instituut, en zij is gepromoveerd bij het Nederlands Tweelingen Register.

Marc Groenen
M. Groenen MSc werkte tot april 2021 bij het Rathenau Instituut als onderzoeker. Momenteel werkt hij als onderzoeker bij Wageningen Food Safety Research.
Artikel

‘Dirty money, pretty art’

Witwassen en ondermijning in tijden van financialisering van kunst

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden art market, financialization, money laundering, financial crime, jaw enforcement
Auteurs Christoph Rausch, Léonie Bouwknegt, Jeroen Duijsens e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What is the current nature and extent of money laundering on the art market in times of an increasing financialization of art? This article introduces the problem of money laundering through art and reflects on the associated risks of financial crime. Drawing on two recently published research reports the article describes art market and art financialization practices that may facilitate money laundering. It presents an overview of relevant rules and regulations and points to the challenges of preventing art-based financial crimes.


Christoph Rausch
Dr. C. Rausch is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan het Maastricht Centre for Arts and Culture, Conservation and Heritage (MACCH) van de Universiteit Maastricht.

Léonie Bouwknegt
Mr. L. Bouwknegt is operationeel specialist bij de Politie Limburg en adviseur Ondermijning & Internationale Samenwerking, taakaccent Kunstgerelateerde Criminaliteit.

Jeroen Duijsens
Drs. J.M.H. Duijsens is als programmamanager verbonden aan het Platform Veilig Ondernemen Limburg.

Frank Assendelft
Dhr. F. Assendelft is werkzaam bij de afdeling Tactische Opsporing Financieel-Economisch van de Politie Limburg, taakaccent Kunst en Antiek.
Artikel

De aanpak van kunstcriminaliteit in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden art crime, Dutch police, history, size of art crime, forgery
Auteurs Richard Bronswijk en Fons van Gessel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides insight into the approach of the Dutch police to the criminal trade in art, antiques and cultural goods. The authors begin with a brief historical sketch of the development of art crime, before examining the question of how the police in the Netherlands has organized itself in this field. The scope of art crime and how to determine it is also examined. Much information is available from various sources, but a thorough and adequate picture is lacking. Finally, a specific form of art crime is discussed, namely false art. Detecting false art is a tough process, because different parties involved often share the same interests, resulting in ‘walls of silence’.


Richard Bronswijk
R. Bronswijk is teamleider bij het Team Kunst en Antiek van de Landelijke Eenheid.

Fons van Gessel
F. van Gessel is senior beleidsadviseur aan kunst, antiek en cultuurgoederen gerelateerde zware criminaliteit bij het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid.
Artikel

Access_open De slimme stad: grote beloften, weerbarstige praktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden smart lamp posts, public values, data principles, digital entanglement, Quadruple Helix
Auteurs Dr. Bart Karstens, Linda Kool MSc MA en Prof. dr. ir. Rinie van Est
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The smart city is the urban ideal of our time. Yet its high expectations often run counter against the performance of smart city projects in practice. The Rathenau Institute has studied a number of such projects in the municipality of Eindhoven, a leading city with respect to digital innovation in the Netherlands. To ensure that data is used in a proper manner with respect for public values Eindhoven has applied several strategies, such as privacy by design and the active involvement of its citizens. It has also set up a number of principles for the digital society which helped to negotiate contracts with private partners. Yet the authors’ analysis shows that important legal challenges remain. Some of the principles require more detailed specification. The authors also found that the law is not yet fully appropriated to the new digital context and needs to be adjusted accordingly.


Dr. Bart Karstens
Dr. B. Karstens is onderzoeker op het gebied van kunstmatige intelligentie en de digitale samenleving bij het Rathenau Instituut.

Linda Kool MSc MA
L. Kool MSc MA is coördinator binnen het thema Digitale Samenleving verbonden aan het Rathenau Instituut.

Prof. dr. ir. Rinie van Est
Prof. dr. ir. Q.C. van Est is als coördinator binnen het thema Slimme Samenleving werkzaam bij het Rathenau Instituut. Hij is tevens hoogleraar Technology Assessment and Governance aan de Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.
Titel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Auteurs Dr. Mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Gastredacteur dr. mr. M.B. Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Psychomacht: hoe sturen data en algoritmen de veiligheid in smart cities?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden psychopower, smart cities, Bernard Stiegler, Michel Foucault, security
Auteurs Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article deals with the relationship of smart security technologies to broader modes of exercising power and subjugating individuals. It claims that the notion of psychopower is precisely what is missing from post-Foucaultian accounts of the smart city. In the article psychopower is defined as the manipulation of our consciousness in order to channel our desires toward ‘normal’ social behavior, drawing a line between what is ‘acceptable’ and what is ‘unacceptable’. Psychopower raises a series of concerns related to its democratic legitimacy and accountability as behaviorally informed conditioning of the mind runs the risk of constant surveillance, where human agency is diluted in a techno-utopian vision that promises to improve city-wide efficiency, decision-making, and security.


Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. M.B. Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Het verlies van geld, geluk en gezicht

Romance scams, datingfraude en ‘sweetheart swindles’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden cybercrime, victimization, romance scam, dating fraud, cybervictimology
Auteurs Raoul Notté MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Romance scams have seen a worldwide increase and are one of the most financially damaging forms of cybercrime. In addition, victims suffer strong emotional impact and are confronted with victim blaming. Research shows how the combination of various emotional and financial impact can induce a ‘double-hit’ on victims. Knowledge and possibilities for law enforcement are insufficient, which leads to a lack of financial compensation and support for victims.


Raoul Notté MSc
R.J. Notté MSc is als researcher/lecturer verbonden aan The Hague University of Applied Sciences (Faculteit IT & Design/Centre of Expertise Cyber Security). Hij is tevens promovendus bij het International Victimology Institute (INTERVICT) van Tilburg University.
Artikel

Access_open Havens en georganiseerde criminaliteit: een historische bespiegeling

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden international harbors, organized crime, history, smuggling, Rotterdam
Auteurs prof. dr. Cyrille Fijnaut
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The structural vulnerability of the port of Rotterdam to organized crime is dealt with in this article from a broader, historical perspective. Using examples from ports in Italy and the United States, among others, the author shows how at the end of the last century local criminal groups managed to gain a dominant position in the handling of good flows. The author discusses various research reports that have been published over the years on the import of drugs into the port of Rotterdam and other European ports. Drug traffickers turn out to respond very flexible to stricter controls by simply moving to alternative ports or opting for transferring drug loads to small fast boats in open water. The author emphasizes that ports should not be studied as isolated transition points, but must be considered as nodes in networks that extend far inland and abroad. This is the only way to see the broader strategic and tactical options for stopping or reducing drug trafficking. In addition, attention must be paid to the problem of corruption among port workers, police and customs officers.


prof. dr. Cyrille Fijnaut
Em. prof. dr. C.J. Fijnaut is emeritus hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Tilburg.

    Trendwatching is a tool to get a better grip on what happens next and as such it is used by the Dutch Financial and Fiscal Investigation Service (FIOD) to explore possible futures of financial crime with a time lap of two years. The author describes how trendwatching works. In this case a platform Trends4fi (www.trends4fi.org) was created with a website, a mobile app and trend groups to generate foresights in cooperation with connected networks from public and private organisations. This is called network trendwatching, in fact a social intelligence tool designed to generate as much new information and new insights on developments which might have an impact on financial crime and the fight against it.


Drs. Andrea Wiegman
Drs. A.K. Wiegman is projectleider van Trends4fi bij de FIOD en auteur van De Tijdgeest ontrafeld. Van Snapshots naar Trends (Boom/Nelissen 2014).
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2019
Auteurs Bob van der Vecht en Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Bob van der Vecht
Gastredacteur dr. B van der Vecht is als senior researcher verbonden aan TNO. Hij is tevens lid van de redactieraad van Justitiële verkenningen.

Marit Scheepmaker
Mr.drs. M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.

    This article focusses on the question whether quantitative modelling and simulation is useful for judicial forecasting, ex-ante testing of judicial policies, and (re)designing chains of organisations like the judicial chain. Specific attention is given to methods that can be used in the face of complexity and deep uncertainty. That is, when facing many substantial uncertainties. Complexity and uncertainty are first of all focused on. Subsequently, modelling methods for dealing with complexity and uncertainty are discussed in more detail, examples are given, and the process needed to build such models in a participatory way is discussed.


Dr. Erik Pruyt
Dr. E. Pruyt is als universitair hoofddocent Policy Modelling verbonden aan de Technische Universiteit Delft. Hij is tevens founding partner van het Center for Policy Exploration Analysis and Simulation en directeur van het Institute for Grand Challenges.
Artikel

Voorspellen met big-datamodellen

Over de valkuilen voor beleidsmakers

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Big data, predictive analytics, challenges, data quality, interpretation
Auteurs Dr. Susan van den Braak en Dr. Sunil Choenni
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the field of policymaking, there is a growing need to take advantage of the opportunities that big data predictions offer. A strong point of big data is that the large amounts of data that are collected nowadays can be re-used to find new insights. However, for effective use in policymaking it is also important to take into account the relating limitations and challenges. For example, the quality of the data used can be a problem. Outdated data and data of which the semantics have changed, may result in predictions that are no longer correct. In addition, it is difficult to apply predictions to individual cases or people. In this article authors provide various practical recommendations for dealing with these problems. As long as people are aware of the limitations and handle the results with care, big data models can be a useful addition to traditional methods in the field of policymaking.


Dr. Susan van den Braak
Dr. S.W. van den Braak is als senioronderzoeker verbonden aan de afdeling Statistische Informatievoorziening en Beleidsanalyse (SIBa) van het WODC.

Dr. Sunil Choenni
Dr. S. Choenni is als hoofd van de afdeling Statistische Informatievoorziening en Beleidsanalyse (SIBa) werkzaam bij het WODC. Hij is tevens lector Future Information & Communication Technology aan de Hogeschool Rotterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Technologische hulpmiddelen bij toezicht op delinquenten in de samenleving

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden supervising offenders, reintegrating offenders, technological tools, smartphone and sensor technology, GPS tracking
Auteurs Dr. Katy de Kogel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How can technological tools contribute to supervising and reintegrating offenders in society? Globally, technological tools for supervision are broken down into so-called first generation (GPS tracking) and second generation (smartphone and sensor technology). An overview is given of what is globally known about the effectiveness and assumed mechanisms of action of first-generation technical tools. Then it is explored what added value second-generation technical aids can have and to which working mechanisms they could connect. Smartphone and sensor technology have the potential to contribute to the rehabilitation functions of the supervision, inter alia because they offer possibilities for more personalized supervision and for the combination of supervision and treatment. Although initiatives have been started in this regard and research is ongoing, hardly anything is known yet about the effectiveness of these new technological applications. The reliability and safety of IT, as well as ethical and legal aspects also require attention.


Dr. Katy de Kogel
Dr. C.H. de Kogel is senior wetenschappelijk medewerker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid en senior onderzoeker bij de Capaciteitsgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechten van de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Access_open De geografische inrichting van de rechtspraak

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden courts, civil justice, access to justice, judicial map, travel distances
Auteurs Roland Eshuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article relates the geographical allocation of Courts to access to justice. Travel distances within the Dutch system are higher than in surrounding countries, but still not extremely high. The scale of the Dutch Court organizations however, is extreme. On average, a Court location that handles small claims has jurisdiction over a territory with over half a million inhabitants. This large number of inhabitants automatically translates to large numbers of cases, and large bureaucracies, employing 500 to 1,000 people (judges, court staff, support) each. Do travel distances to the Courts actually have an impact on the use of the Court system? Two recent studies find no support for a popular belief that defendants will be less determined to defend themselves when the travel distance to the court is longer. They do show however that the number of cases brought to Court by local plaintiffs drops when ‘their’ local court closes down.


Roland Eshuis
Dr. R.J.J. Eshuis is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Hybridisering van de zwaardmachten: realiteit of fictie?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden militarization of the police, constabularisation of the military, peace support operations, blurring of police and military functions, high-end policing
Auteurs Dr. Peter Neuteboom en Hans Hovens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    National and international security are becoming increasingly interdependent. The question is whether this leads to a certain level of militarization of the police and constibularisation of the military. In some of their operations and units, the Dutch police apply tactics, technologies and organizational principles that resemble those of the military. The police also contribute to international peace support operations and stability missions to train or monitor police in post-conflict areas. The Dutch army has been involved in some sort of interim policing during several stability missions and increasingly support the Dutch police in law enforcement operations by providing search and analytical support. Finally, as a police force with a military status, the Royal Marechaussee has acquired a structural and strong position in the Dutch police system. Although there is some sort of convergence, the authors conclude that the level of militarization of the police and constabularisation of the military remains limited.


Dr. Peter Neuteboom
Dr. P.C.J. Neuteboom is directeur Duurzaamheid en Opsporing bij de Inspectie Leefomgeving & Transport en research fellow bij de Nederlandse Defensie Academie.

Hans Hovens
J.L. Hovens is kolonel b.d. van de Koninklijke Marechaussee.
Redactioneel

Access_open Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Auteurs dr. Marc Schuilenburg en Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

dr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr.mr. M.B. Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Hij is tevens lid van de redactieraad van Justitiële verkenningen.

Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
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