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Artikel

Access_open Kenmerken van kunstcriminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden art theft, history of art theft, organized crime, motives for stealing, international networks
Auteurs Noah Charney
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article seeks to provide an introduction to art theft today. It is divided into sections that look at the context in which art is stolen, definitions of key terms, an explanation as to why the field is understudied and under-reported, and a brief history of the phenomenon. It also contains sidelines on actual developments like the theft of a Van Gogh painting from the Singer Laren Museum in the Netherlands as well as on the drop of art theft since the start of the Corona pandemic.


Noah Charney
Dr. N. Charney is als adjunct-professor Kunstgeschiedenis verbonden aan de American University of Rome en de universiteit van Ljubljana. Hij is de oprichter van ARCA, the Association for Research into Crimes against Art (www.artcrimeresearch.org).
Artikel

Access_open Havens en georganiseerde criminaliteit: een historische bespiegeling

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden international harbors, organized crime, history, smuggling, Rotterdam
Auteurs prof. dr. Cyrille Fijnaut
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The structural vulnerability of the port of Rotterdam to organized crime is dealt with in this article from a broader, historical perspective. Using examples from ports in Italy and the United States, among others, the author shows how at the end of the last century local criminal groups managed to gain a dominant position in the handling of good flows. The author discusses various research reports that have been published over the years on the import of drugs into the port of Rotterdam and other European ports. Drug traffickers turn out to respond very flexible to stricter controls by simply moving to alternative ports or opting for transferring drug loads to small fast boats in open water. The author emphasizes that ports should not be studied as isolated transition points, but must be considered as nodes in networks that extend far inland and abroad. This is the only way to see the broader strategic and tactical options for stopping or reducing drug trafficking. In addition, attention must be paid to the problem of corruption among port workers, police and customs officers.


prof. dr. Cyrille Fijnaut
Em. prof. dr. C.J. Fijnaut is emeritus hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Tilburg.
Artikel

Circles of Support and Accountability

Een sociaal netwerk voor zedendelinquenten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden COSA, sex offenders, re-entry, desistance, recidivism
Auteurs Dr. Mechtild Höing en Audrey Alards LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Circles of Support and Accountability (COSA) a group of trained and supervised volunteers support a medium to high-risk sex offender in his process of re-entry after detention. Sex offenders participate on a voluntary basis. Circles have a double aim: the prevention of new sexual offences and the rehabilitation of the sex offender. Circles offer social inclusion and support for behavior change, and monitor risk. They are embedded in the professional network of sex offender after care. Through a professional circle coordinator relevant information is circulated between the circle and professional agencies, to enable adequate support and interventions. Effect studies show that COSA contributes to a reduced risk of reoffending. The model was developed in Canada almost 25 years ago and has been picked up by a growing number of countries in Europe, the America’s, Asia, as well as Australia and New Zealand. Variations in the model become apparent and raise questions about the essentials of COSA.


Dr. Mechtild Höing
Dr. M. Höing is docent en onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Transmuraal Herstelgericht Werken van Avans Hogeschool in Breda. Zij is daar als operationeel projectleider verbonden aan het project Sterktegericht werken met COSA buiten justitieel kader.

Audrey Alards LLM
A. Alards LLM is extern kenniskringlid bij het lectoraat Transmuraal Herstelgericht Werken van Avans Hogeschool in Breda. Ze is verbonden aan het lectoraat als senior cirkelcoördinator en onderzoeker.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2019
Auteurs prof. mr. dr. Miranda Boone en Mr.drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

prof. mr. dr. Miranda Boone
Gastredacteur prof. mr. dr. M.M. Boone is als hoogleraar criminologie en vergelijkende penologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Zij is tevens lid van de redactieraad van Justitiële verkenningen.

Mr.drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr.drs. M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Langdurig extramuraal toezicht op zedendelinquenten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden community supervision, sex offenders, supervision legislation, electronic supervision, re-integration
Auteurs H.J.M. Schönberger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice intends to change legislation enabling long-term community supervision. Since it initially focused on sex offenders, the main focus of this article is on effectiveness of supervision programs and legislation for this group. Supervision programs that combine elements of control and treatment, guidance or social support are found to be the most effective in reducing reoffending. In addition, possible underlying mechanisms of effective supervision, such as social support, electronic supervision and treatment, are elaborated upon. Dutch initiatives are partially shaped by these elements, although up to this date their effects on reoffending have not yet been determined. The effects of legislation that enables supervision are more differentiated than expected, and their practical applicability is found to be crucial. In conclusion, aspects concerning (dynamic) risk assessment, balancing community and offender interests, and tailoring supervision to subgroups are discussed. Study results could be of use to further shape and refine upcoming legislation on long-term supervision.


H.J.M. Schönberger
Drs. Hanneke Schönberger was tot medio februari 2013 werkzaam bij het WODC als junior onderzoeker.
Artikel

De exfiltratie van verdachte en veroordeelde criminelen

Over de onmisbaarheid van een effectieve regeling voor coöperatieve criminele getuigen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2012
Auteurs C. Fijnaut
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure and the related guidelines of the College of Procurators-General are for all sorts of historical and ideological reasons heavily restrictive when it comes to the use of cooperative witnesses in criminal proceedings. What strikes most is that even in very serious cases it is not possible to grant a witness complete or partial immunity in exchange for his important cooperation. This contribution describes the problems arising sometimes in criminal cases wherein prosecutors, despite the existing narrow framework, make a deal with such a witness. The article outlines not only the historical and international background of the use of cooperative witnesses, but also its contemporary legal framework in the United States, Italy, the United Kingdom and Germany. The outcome of this comparative exercise is that at least the current legal provisions should be evaluated and that this evaluation should take into account the system and experiences in other countries as well as the problems of serious crime in the Netherlands and the leniency policies that govern the efforts to contain serious white collar crime like e.g. cartels.


C. Fijnaut
Prof. dr. em. Cyrille Fijnaut was tot voor kort als hoogleraar internationaal en vergelijkend strafrecht verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Hij is thans voorzitter van de Toegangscommissie van de Commissie Evaluatie Afgesloten Strafzaken (CEAS).

    Using the script approach, this article analyses the different stages that characterise the infiltration of organised crime groups in the public construction industry. Three different Italian local contexts with a high presence of organised crime groups (Sicily, Calabria and Campania) are considered. The Sicilian case is analysed by detail using the script approach and following the dynamic of organised crime action: preparation, enabling conditions, target selection, the acts (of violence and corruption) or ‘the doing’, and the post-conditions or aftermath. The script approach helps in a micro-analysis of organised crime that draws on general knowledge on the topic deriving from the macro-analysis currently undertaken in the literature. Because to date this analysis has mainly produced crime control remedies, the author hopes that the microapproach may help in developing more concrete situational crime prevention measures.


E.U. Savona
Prof. dr. Ernesto Savona is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Milaan. De auteur dankt Marco Zanella, PhD-kandidaat in het International PhD Programme in Criminology van dezelfde universiteit, voor zijn bijdrage aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.
Titel

De culturele erfenis van Don Corleone

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 04 2005
Trefwoorden Film, Georganiseerde misdaad, Politie, Nalatenschap, Auteur, Drug, Speelfilm, Voeging, Illegaal, Liquidatie
Auteurs Bovenkerk, F. en Husken, M.

Bovenkerk, F.

Husken, M.
Artikel

De ‘politiek-criminele nexus’ in Italië

150 jaar betrekkingen tussen maffia en politiek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2009
Auteurs L. Paoli
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyzes the so-called political-criminal nexus in Italy, that is, the relationships of exchange and collusion between politicians and civil servants, on the one hand, and members of organised crime - and specifically Southern Italian mafia - groups on the other. Its main thesis is that the political-criminal nexus in Italy finds nowadays no parallel in any other Western, developed nation, with the possible exception of Japan. The extraordinary intensity of Italy's political-criminal nexus is related to the specificity of Italy's organised crime. This is discussed in the first section of the article. The following ones briefly sketch the evolution of the political-criminal nexus since Italy's Unification in 1861 and then focus on the last thirty years. The recognition of the recent law enforcement successes is complemented by a discussion of the factors that favour the perpetuation of mafia organisations and the political-criminal nexus in the future.


L. Paoli
Prof. dr. Letizia Paoli is als gewoon hoogleraar verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

    The writings of Cesare Lombroso reflect to a high degree the crime problems being discussed in his time. This is certainly true for the phenomenon of the Italian mafia. Inspired by others writers, press reports and his own observations he came to the conclusion that criminal associations belonging to the Sicilian mafia and the ‘Ndrangheta, in particular consisted of professional criminals and were quite often headed by an intelligent born criminal. In a quite detailed manner he described the ways in which these organizations were structured and the initiation rites that were applied to youngsters who wanted to join them. Lombroso made no secret of the political role the mafia groupings played in Italy, but he warned at the same time that one should take into account that these groupings also disguised themselves as political organizations in order to cover up their true nature: nothing else than criminal organisations. This warning gives room for the idea that - like in the United States - the Italian mafia could also take root in other European countries than Italy itself and not only use them as places to hide from the Italian police and judicial authorities or as market places to trade in illegal goods and services.


C.J.C.F. Fijnaut
Prof. dr. Cyrille Fijnaut is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

André Cools en Agusta

Een Belgische affaire

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2009
Auteurs M. Cools
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the relation between the murder on the Walloon social-democratic politician André Cools on 18th July 1991 at Liege and the corruption case Agusta - dealing with the purchase of army helicopters - in order to reflect on typical Belgian criminological issues in this political organized crime topic. The murder committed by Tunisian hit-men was ordered through the influence of the personal cabinet of Van der Biest, a former minister. During the murder investigation a link with the Agusta corruption case was discovered and would tear down several ministers as well as the former NATO Secretary-General Willy Claes. Due to the existence of especially journalistic sources and a lack of scientific criminological material, the conclusions of this article are strictly personal. The murder and the corruption prove the fact that political organized crime was a reality in Belgium. This case can stand as a scholarly example in the study of political organized crime in Belgium.


M. Cools
Dr. Marc Cools is hoofddocent aan de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent en docent aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
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