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Titel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Auteurs Dr. Mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Gastredacteur dr. mr. M.B. Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Technologie voor opsporing en handhaving

Kansen, ervaringen en knelpunten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden technology in policing, effectiveness, promising technologies, legal obstacles, success stories
Auteurs Mr. dr. ir. B. Custers en B. Vergouw MSc.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Police forces and law enforcement agencies in many countries are continuously trying to optimize the use of technologies in policing and law enforcement. Efforts are being made to remove existing technological, legal and organizational obstacles to create more opportunities of promising technologies, both existing and new. This contribution describes the results of a survey among 46 police forces and other law enforcement agencies in eleven countries. Their experiences with policing technologies and their needs and preferences in this regard are described. The prevalence and satisfaction of existing technologies, including wiretapping, fingerprints, DNA research, database coupling, data mining and profiling, camera surveillance and network analyses were investigated. Legal, technological and organizational obstacles for the use of technology in policing were mapped and the extent to which policing technologies are evaluated and yield success stories was investigated. The main obstacles, according to the respondents, are insufficient financial resources and insufficient availability of technology. One in four organizations is lacking any clear, appealing success stories and half of the respondents indicated they were not performing any evaluations on the effectiveness of using particular technologies in policing. As a result, the information available on whether technologies in policing are actually working is very limited.


Mr. dr. ir. B. Custers
Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers is universitair hoofddocent en hoofd onderzoek bij eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Eerder was hij hoofd van de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC.

B. Vergouw MSc.
Bas Vergouw MSc. is werkzaam als digitaal onderzoeker bij de Autoriteit Consument en Markt (ACM) en houdt zich voornamelijk bezig met open source intelligence.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Auteurs dr. ir. Bart Custers en drs. Marit Scheepmakers
Auteursinformatie

dr. ir. Bart Custers
Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers is universitair hoofddocent en hoofd onderzoek bij eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Eerder was hij hoofd van de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC.

drs. Marit Scheepmakers
Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen
Artikel

Datagestuurde stedelijke planning en ‘smart cities’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Big Data, data analytics, governance, smart cities, urban science
Auteurs Prof. R. Kitchin
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article provides a critical overview of data-driven urbanism and smart cities focusing in particular on the relationship between data and the city, and critically examines a number of urban data issues, including: the politics of urban data; data ownership and control, data protection and privacy, dataveillance, and data uses such as social sorting and anticipatory governance; and technical data issues such as data quality and veracity of data models and data analytics. Whilst data-driven urbanism provides a set of solutions for urban problems, it does so within limitations and in the service of particular interests.


Prof. R. Kitchin
Prof. Rob Kitchin is als hoogleraar verbonden aan het National Institute of Regional and Spatial Analysis van Maynooth University in Ierland.
Artikel

Big Data in wetenschappelijk onderzoek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Big Data, datafication, data mining, research data, Internet of Things
Auteurs Mr. dr. ir. B.H.M. Custers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Big Data offers a plethora of promising opportunities in different areas of society. This introductory article focuses on the opportunities of Big Data in scientific research. The central question addressed in this article is: ‘What can Big Data offer in the context of scientific research?’ In order to answer this question, the following topics are discussed: what is Big Data, what is new about Big Data, which applications are there for Big Data in scientific research, and what are the pros and cons of the use of Big Data in scientific research? The conclusion is that Big Data offers some opportunities for scientific research that were previously impossible and, therefore, can be useful for researchers. However, the use of Big Data also has its limitations and the added value may depend on the research questions that are addressed.


Mr. dr. ir. B.H.M. Custers
Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers is hoofd van de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC. Daarnaast is hij als onderzoeksmanager werkzaam voor eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De bestrijding van voedselfraude in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden NVWA-IOD, food fraud, food industry, food laundering, criminal cases
Auteurs K.E. Gussow en L.H. Kuiper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Food fraud has recently been recognized as a blind spot among regulators. In Europe, few organizations have experience with large cases of food fraud; also scientific knowledge into this type of crime is limited. This article aims to contribute experience to this gap. The NVWA-IOD is a specialist crime unit in the Netherlands, carrying out criminal investigations into, among other things, food fraud. This article gives insight into numbers of cases dealt with by the NVWA-IOD in the past fifteen years, for different types of food fraud. Nine criminal cases, concentrating on suspects within trade and industry, are analyzed in more detail from a basic criminological perspective. There is looked into, among other things, the motive, the opportunity and the product. The cases discussed relate to products such as meat, eggs, fish and dairy products. The main motive for committing food fraud is making money; the gain makes fraudulent activities attractive and financially beneficial. Opportunities refer mainly to ambiguous laws and regulations and little supervision. Also, evasive behavior was found. To combat food crime, specialist knowledge of tempting opportunities is essential.


K.E. Gussow
Dr. Karen Gussow is als senior inspecteur verbonden aan de Inlichtingen- en Opsporingsdienst (IOD) van de Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit (NVWA).

L.H. Kuiper
Loes Kuiper studeerde af aan de Hogeschool Van Hall Larenstein te Leeuwarden en loopt stage bij de Inlichtingen- en Opsporingsdienst (IOD) van de Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit (NVWA).
Artikel

Surveilleren en opsporen in een internetomgeving

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2012
Trefwoorden Policing, Internet, open-source intelligence, iColumbo, police power
Auteurs J.J. Oerlemans en B.J. Koops
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Publicly available information on the Internet about people or criminal acts can be relevant to criminal investigations. This article analyses to what extent Dutch criminal procedure law allows open source intelligence for law-enforcement purposes. When more than ‘minor’ privacy interferences arise, an explicit investigatory power in the criminal procedure code is required. Minor infringements are allowed under the general task description in the Police Act 1993. It is unclear however when ‘substantial’ privacy infringements arise. On the basis of ECHR jurisprudence on foreseeability and the Dutch criteria for ‘systematic observation’, the authors conclude that Internet data-gathering will often require an explicit investigatory power and can only be used for criminal investigation with an order from the public prosecutor, but not, except for small-scale and ad hoc searches, for general police practice purposes. Because the Internet is much different in its nature from a decade ago and the investigatory powers are not in all respects easily applicable to Internet surveillance, the authors argue that the Dutch legislator must take action and make clear under which conditions information on the Internet can be gathered by law enforcement.


J.J. Oerlemans
Mr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans is promovendus bij eLaw@Leiden, Centrum voor Recht in de Informatiemaatschappij van de Universiteit Leiden. Daarnaast is hij juridisch adviseur bij Fox-IT.

B.J. Koops
Prof. dr. Bert-Jaap Koops is hoogleraar regulering van technologie bij TILT – Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology and Society van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Terrorismebestrijding en securitisering

Een rechtssociologische verkenning van de neveneffecten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2011
Auteurs B.A. de Graaf en Q. Eijkman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article offers an analysis of the side effects caused by the increased counterterrorism measures adapted in Dutch law and public policy after 9/11. Taking clues from Foucault's thinking on securitisation and Beck's risk society, it is argued that focus, referent subject and object of security measures and deployment of counterterrorism laws have shifted from the concrete individual to society and risk prevention as a whole (1), that this shift induces function creep (2) and a much quicker deployment of measures, resulting in an increasing suspect population (3). Rather than arguing against the legality and legitimacy of these measures, the authors analyse the epistemological shift in reasoning and unpack the various probabilistic arguments (as opposed to evidence-based arguments) behind the wave of securitisation after 9/11 - resulting in a lack of knowledge about, transparency and accountability of the generated side effects.


B.A. de Graaf
Dr. Beatrice de Graaf (universitair hoofddocent) is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Terrorisme en Contraterrorisme van de Universiteit Leiden (Campus Den Haag).

Q. Eijkman
Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman (senioronderzoeker) is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Terrorisme en Contraterrorisme van de Universiteit Leiden (Campus Den Haag).

    It is now well established that both the ‘war on terror’ and its descendents have been heavily constituted through highly urban discourses, materialities and practices. This article - deliberately transdisciplinary, synthetical and polemical in scope - seeks to demonstrate that new ideologies of permanent and boundless war are radically intensifying the militarization of urban life in the contemporary period. By engaging with Michel Foucault's concept of the ‘boomerang effect’, this paper delineates the ways in which contemporary processes of militarisation - which surround what I label the ‘new military urbanism’ - raise fundamental questions for critical urban and political scholarship because of the ways in which they work to normalise the permanent targeting of everyday urban sites, circulations, and populations. Focusing primarily on US military security and military doctrine, culture and technology, this paper explores four of the new military urbanism's inter-related foundations in detail. These are: the deep Foucauldian boomerangs linking experimentation with new architectures and technologies of control in war-zone and domestic cities; the emerging urban political economies of the ‘security’ industries; the ways in which practices and discourses of political violence and securitisation permeate the everyday infrastructures of cities; and the cultural performances of militarised media consumption. The paper concludes by identifying emerging counter-political and countergeographic activism as it seeks to challenge the normalization of the new military urbanism.


S. Graham
Prof. Stephen Graham is verbonden aan de School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape van Newcastle University. Hij is auteur van o.a. Splintering urbanism (2001) en Cities under siege (2010).
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