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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2010 x

    In recent years there is an increasing trend towards semi-public space. This article seeks to explain this trend. As the heterogeneity of society grows, it becomes more difficult to deal with different groups within one's living environment. Residents prefer a sheltering living environment that attracts similar groups and excludes those they would rather avoid. Social engineering through architecture has a long history: municipalities used to combine the design of neighbourhoods and public spaces with a social agenda of community building. Later, as society evolved, the prevention of friction between people and the creation of public meeting places became leading principles, but never exclusion. However, public housing associations and developers are increasingly accommodating preferences for sheltered living environments by the creation of collective space, appropriating public space and the temporary use of undeveloped space. Three cases illustrate this.


L. Bijlsma
Drs. Like Bijlsma is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.

M. Galle
Drs. Maaike Galle is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.

J. Tennekes
Drs. Joost Tennekes is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.
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Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2010
Auteurs M. Schuilenburg
Auteursinformatie

M. Schuilenburg
Gastredacteur mr. drs. Marc Schuilenburg is als docent criminologie verbonden aan de faculteit Rechten van de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Bedrijfsverbetergebieden

Een verkennend onderzoek naar de veiligheidszorg in winkelcentrum Alexandrium

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2010
Auteurs P. Van Calster, M.B. Schuilenburg en R. Guitjens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Where formerly the government had the monopoly on the governing of security, it seems that there has been a shift taking place towards a more horizontal security care. The government has stopped being the only organizer and executor of issues of security. Private companies increasingly take over the government's responsibilities. This is also the case in the Dutch shopping centre Alexandrium. Alexandrium is one of the first examples in the Netherlands of a Business Improvement District. Nowadays entrepreneurs decide which activities are organized and which projects are being set up in order to keep the area ‘clean and safe’. On the basis of 43 in-depth interviews the authors show that not all parties involved are optimistic about this development. Main point of attention is the lack of cooperation between the entrepreneurs and the police. Moreover, they express the feeling that the shopping area has become less safe in the past years.


P. Van Calster
Dr. Patrick Van Calster doceert aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en de Universiteit Leiden.

M.B. Schuilenburg
Mr. drs. Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

R. Guitjens
Renate Guitjens MSc studeerde criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

De opbouw van de rechtsstaat in Afghanistan

Een bezinning op tien jaar buitenlandse hulp

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2010
Auteurs V.L. Taylor
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this essay the author looks back at ten years of rule of law foreign assistance in Afghanistan. She first surveys the elements that make Afghanistan particularly challenging as a development. This is followed by a brief outline of foreign donor-assisted efforts at rule of law reform in the last decade. The features of law and legal systems in Afghanistan that are salient for would-be foreign reformers are analyzed. The concept of judicial independence serves as example of well-intentioned rule of law interventions that have not fared well in this complex environment. The author argues that better prepared international advisors with a better grasp of legal history and comparative law may have produced stronger outcomes. Ultimately, however, a pre-post-conflict setting constrains conventional rule of law programs in important ways and calls for more realism about what can be achieved, within what time frame and with what degree of sustainability.


V.L. Taylor
Prof. Veronica Taylor is als hoogleraar en directeur verbonden aan de School of Regulation, Justice and Diplomacy van de Australian National University. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op de Van Vollenhoven Lezing die zij op 20 mei 2010 uitsprak ter gelegenheid van haar benoeming als The Hague Visiting Professor of Rule of Law aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Leren van Vlaanderen

Kenmerken van de Vlaamse burgemeester ter inspiratie voor het Nederlandse debat

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2010
Auteurs J. van Ostaaijen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the role and functioning of the Flemish mayor is analysed from a Dutch perspective. Three observations are considered noteworthy and discussed elaborately: the role of the mayor in internal local politics, the mayor's relationship with the local community, and the possible combination of several political mandates. The article shows that mayors can be more political without being directly elected (which is the case both in Flanders and the Netherlands) and that there is considerable room for mayors to give meaning to their job. In showing the similarities and differences between Dutch and Flemish mayors, this article is meant to inspire both policy makers and Dutch mayors and to contribute to the debate about the future of the Dutch mayor.


J. van Ostaaijen
Dr. Julien van Ostaaijen (j.j.c.vanostaaijen@uvt.nl) is onderzoeker aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur, Universiteit van Tilburg. Hij heeft een proefschrift geschreven over de impact van Leefbaar Rotterdam op het Rotterdamse lokaal bestuur en werkte onder meer bij de gemeente Antwerpen (als stagiair) en het Kenniscentrum Grote Steden (thans NICIS). In 2005 was hij betrokken bij de visitatie van het Vlaamse Stedenfonds (onder voorzitterschap van Filip De Rynck en Pieter Tops).
Artikel

De verhouding politie-bevolking in historisch perspectief

Wederzijdse afhankelijkheid en stilzwijgende contracten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2010
Auteurs M. De Koster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores police-citizens relations in the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries and attempts to demonstrate that these were not as unequivocal as is commonly assumed. While historians approach the modern police as an instrument of coercive state control imposed ‘from above’ onto a passive population, current policy debates tend to assume that police-citizen relations were friendly and that cops learned from citizens, leading to well-informed and neighbourhood-sensitive policing. The author argues that police-citizen relations were not friendly, but all about the negotiation of ‘tacit contracts’ between both parties, that allowed the police to carry out their duties within the boundaries of public tolerance, and the public to take all sorts of small conflicts and demands for aid and assistance to the police. This explains why police intervention was never merely repressive: in order to preserve these precious ‘contracts’, the police operated selectively, acting only against certain groups and offences, and watching particular city areas.


M. De Koster
Dr. Margo De Koster is post-doctoraal onderzoeker aan de Université catholique de Louvain (Centre d'histoire du droit et de la justice) en universitair docent Historische criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam (afdeling Strafrecht en criminologie).
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