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Artikel

Zorg voor en zorgen om alleenstaande minderjarige vreemdelingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2019
Trefwoorden unaccompanied minor asylum seekers, mental health problems, mental health care, resilience, guardianship
Auteurs Prof. dr. Monika Smit
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Among the asylum seekers arriving in Europe are unaccompanied minors (UMAs). As a result of the often traumatic experiences before and during their flight, many have mental health problems. The question is how they cope in the country of destination. After the flight, the plight is not over: destination countries are often not welcoming in all respects, UMAs may encounter violence in reception facilities, and experience stress related to the asylum procedure and possible family reunification, as well as worries about relatives left behind. Although UMAs are also known to be resilient, and most are supported by family members and/or significant others, there are worries about their transition to adulthood. When they turn 18, they have to deal with the developmental tasks that come with that age, as well as to come to terms with past experiences. At the same time their guardianship ends, and they are supposed to manage on their own in the relatively new country. Many UMAs seem to manage, but it would be helpful if the 18 years age limit could be used flexible when necessary.


Prof. dr. Monika Smit
Prof. dr. M. Smit is hoofd van de Onderzoeksafdeling Rechtsbestel, Wetgeving en Internationale en Vreemdelingenaangelegenheden van het WODC en bijzonder hoogleraar Psychosociale zorg voor alleenstaande minderjarige vreemdelingen aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

Waarom het onderzoek naar veiligheidsbeleving een nieuwe impuls nodig heeft

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of crime, critique, fear reduction, security policy, fear drop
Auteurs Marnix Eysink Smeets
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The security landscape has changed rapidly. New or revived threats have emerged, such as terrorism and cybercrime, bringing new or revived fears and anxieties as well. Actors in security policy feel a need to address these fears, but do not know how. Can the criminological subdiscipline of fear of crime studies provide the knowledge and understanding that is needed? A quick scan of the state of the art in this research domain, gives two reasons why it cannot: (1) fear of crime studies have yielded much knowledge on operationalization, measurement and determinants of fear of crime, but far less in mechanisms, trends, effects and influenceability, whereas insight in the latter issues is what is mostly needed in security policy; and (2) fear of crime studies are still mainly focused on the ‘traditional’ fear of crime, while fear of new crimes and threats remains under-researched. A shift of focus in fear of crime studies is urgently needed.


Marnix Eysink Smeets
M.W.B. Eysink Smeets is lector Publiek Vertrouwen in Veiligheid en hoofd van de Onderzoeksgroep Recht & Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Inholland. Hij is tevens directeur van de Landelijke Expertisegroep Veiligheidspercepties (LEV), een platform voor onderzoek naar veiligheid, veiligheidsbeleid en veiligheidsbeleving. De auteur legt momenteel de laatste hand aan zijn dissertatie Public reactions to crime and insecurity, onder supervisie van prof. Martin Innes en prof. Trevor Jones, beiden verbonden aan Cardiff University.
Artikel

Hybridisering van de zwaardmachten: realiteit of fictie?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden militarization of the police, constabularisation of the military, peace support operations, blurring of police and military functions, high-end policing
Auteurs Dr. Peter Neuteboom en Hans Hovens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    National and international security are becoming increasingly interdependent. The question is whether this leads to a certain level of militarization of the police and constibularisation of the military. In some of their operations and units, the Dutch police apply tactics, technologies and organizational principles that resemble those of the military. The police also contribute to international peace support operations and stability missions to train or monitor police in post-conflict areas. The Dutch army has been involved in some sort of interim policing during several stability missions and increasingly support the Dutch police in law enforcement operations by providing search and analytical support. Finally, as a police force with a military status, the Royal Marechaussee has acquired a structural and strong position in the Dutch police system. Although there is some sort of convergence, the authors conclude that the level of militarization of the police and constabularisation of the military remains limited.


Dr. Peter Neuteboom
Dr. P.C.J. Neuteboom is directeur Duurzaamheid en Opsporing bij de Inspectie Leefomgeving & Transport en research fellow bij de Nederlandse Defensie Academie.

Hans Hovens
J.L. Hovens is kolonel b.d. van de Koninklijke Marechaussee.
Artikel

Opgeruimd staat netjes

Over de sociologie van gebiedsverboden en de praktijk van het Collectief Winkelverbod

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden collective shopping ban, shoplifting, public space, purification, Mary Douglas
Auteurs Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author reports on an ethnographic research conducted on the Collective Shopping Ban, a measure taken in the Netherlands in an effort to make shopkeepers co-responsible for maintaining safety and security. By describing the practice of the Collective Shopping Ban in The Hague, he investigates how the involved shopkeepers are dealing with offenses like theft, nuisance, intimidation, and vandalism. The author describes the sociological background of banning orders and what the banning of people means in terms of purification of public space.


Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. M. Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

De relatie tussen islam en terrorisme

Een empirische benadering

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Islam, terrorism, jihadists, Salafism, fundamentalism
Auteurs Dr. M.T. Croes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution the author focuses on the relationship between Islam and terrorism. Based on data from the Global Terrorism Database he argues that Islamic terrorism dominates worldwide since 2002. Paying attention to the creed of the jihadists, Salafism, he argues that it is a continuation of the puritanical tradition within Sunni Islam.


Dr. M.T. Croes
Dr. Marnix Croes is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Het subversieve Brabant

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Dutch province of North Brabant, regional history, subversive culture, crime, drugs production
Auteurs Dr. P. Klerks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Various forms of organized crime are concentrated in the Dutch province of North Brabant, bordering Belgium. In this essay it is argued that specific historic, geographic, social economic, cultural and social psychological factors created an enduring window of opportunity in which criminality can flourish. Brabant is portrayed as a marginalized province that suffered from war, exploitation by the central government, rural gangs, a lack of law enforcement, extreme poverty as well as from discrimination because of its mainly catholic population. Against this background the population developed a mentality of solving problems on their own. Their survival strategies implied not only legal activities like agriculture and small-scale production in private houses, workplaces and factories, but also smuggling and illegal alcohol production. In more recent times the production of synthetic drugs, growing cannabis and transport criminality became widespread.


Dr. P. Klerks
Dr. Peter Klerks is werkzaam bij het Parket-Generaal van het Openbaar Ministerie en de Politieacademie.
Artikel

De evaluatie van digitaal beleid: een Big Data case study

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Big Data, digital piracy, methodology, policy, evaluation
Auteurs H.B.M. Leeuw LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Online search behavior, stored by search engines such as Google, is a type of Big Data that allows researchers and policymakers to screen and scan the effects of implemented (e)interventions. This contribution uses the implementation of a specific anti-piracy intervention as a case study in order to test the usability of online search behavior as an indicator of the effects of an intervention. The data demonstrates that changes in online search behavior have occurred following implementation. The main issue that emerges is the attribution of the findings presented. One way to approach this attribution issue is by performing a counterfactual. Though this alleviates the attribution issue somewhat, it does not solve it in its entirety. Overall, it is suggested that the described usage of Big Data serves as a novel tool to quickly and easily screen the potential effects following the implementation of policy before selecting more resource-consuming methods.


H.B.M. Leeuw LLM
Bastiaan Leeuw, LLM, MCrim is als PhD-onderzoeker verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Systeemmishandeling: recht doen aan de zienswijzen van ouderen zelf

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2015
Trefwoorden Definitions of elder abuse, System abuse, Societal norms, Institutional reforms, Discrimination of the elderly
Auteurs Dr. J. Lindenberg, Dr. Y. Mysyuk en Prof.dr. R.G.J. Westendorp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Two approaches have dominated the way elder abuse is explained and defined: the intrapersonal and interpersonal approaches. More recently, an environmental approach is emerging that takes into account contextual factors. This approach also meets the perspectives of older individuals themselves better. They describe how they feel abused or neglected by the system – by the way in which we organize our institutions. Institutions mirror our society and are shaped in interaction with societal norms and expectations. This influences the way in which older individuals are looked upon, are being approached, and how they see themselves within these institutions. This system abuse is currently beyond the scope of the most commonly used definitions and approaches of elder abuse. However, it is important to acknowledge system abuse, because it makes explicit how older individuals feel abused by and within our institutions. The distress and harm that they experience can therewith be acknowledged and prevented.


Dr. J. Lindenberg
Dr. Jolanda Lindenberg is wetenschappelijk stafmedewerker bij de Leyden Academy on Vitality and Ageing en tevens verbonden aan het Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum (LUMC).

Dr. Y. Mysyuk
Dr. Yuliya Mysyuk is recent gepromoveerd op haar proefschrift over perspectieven op ouderenmishandeling in Nederland en verbonden aan de Leyden Academy on Vitality and Ageing.

Prof.dr. R.G.J. Westendorp
Prof. dr. Rudi Westendorp is hoogleraar ouderengeneeskunde aan de afdeling publieke gezondheidszorg van de Universiteit van Kopenhagen en tevens verbonden aan het Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum (LUMC).
Artikel

De Arabische Lente en artikel 1F Vluchtelingenverdrag

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden Article 1F, Islamic State, Syria, Arab Spring, refugees
Auteurs M. Bolhuis MSc en Dr. mr. J. van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the authors discuss in general terms the relevance of Article 1F Refugee Convention in relation to the recent increased asylum influx and the ‘Arab Spring’. More specifically, they answer the question to what extent it can be expected that the application of Article 1F is an appropriate means for identifying potential IS sympathizers and thus possibly for removing the threat of future terrorist attacks. With regard to countries like Syria it is more likely that relatively low-level persons who have been employed as a soldier or officer in a repressive state apparatus are excluded on the basis of Article 1F, than IS sympathizers with future terrorist plans. When the situation in Syria does not improve, it is likely that those 1F-excluded individuals will end up in a limbo situation for a prolonged period of time. This not only has significant negative consequences for the individuals involved, but also means that every 1F-exclusion today creates a political problem for the future.


M. Bolhuis MSc
Maarten Bolhuis MSc werkt bij het Center for International Criminal Justice (www.cicj.org) en is als promovendus verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

Dr. mr. J. van Wijk
Dr. mr. Joris van Wijk werkt bij het Center for International Criminal Justice (www.cicj.org) en is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

De terugkeer van de ‘kinderlijke delinquent’?

Wisselende kindbeelden in een eeuw jeugdstrafrecht

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2015
Trefwoorden juvenile justice, minor offenders, childhood, childlike nature, history
Auteurs I. Weijers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article gives a historical sketch of a century of juvenile justice in the Netherlands. It focuses on the development of the concept of childhood from the beginning of the twentieth century to the present. Starting from the notion of degeneration and the idea of the neglected child, in the thirties a psychologization process emerged. Crucial was the notion of the childlike nature of the behavior of minor offenders, which was clearly inspired by new insights coming from pedagogy, developmental psychology and child psychiatry. The author argues that recently, after some decades showing a trend towards more toughness on crime, there are indications of a reemergence of the notion of the childlike nature of young delinquents, again inspired by knowledge and insights from the behavioral sciences but also from neurology and brain research.


I. Weijers
Prof. dr. Ido Weijers was als hoogleraar Jeugdrechtspleging verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen (Universiteit Utrecht). Sinds 2011 is hij als hoogleraar Jeugdbescherming verbonden aan de opleiding Pedagogiek van dezelfde universiteit (www.idoweijers.nl). Hij blogt op www.pedagogiek.nu.
Artikel

Blik naar het Noorden?

Een kenschets van het justitiële beleid in Scandinavië

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2013
Auteurs P. Kruize
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the question whether Dutch policy makers and researchers ought to look more often to Scandinavia for inspiration and less to the West (UK and USA). Scandinavian countries are also influenced by Anglo-American ideas about crime and justice, but at the same time the number of incarcerated persons has not changed dramatically while recidivism rates are low. Dutch policy makers and researcher do sometimes look at initiatives and practices in Scandinavian countries, most often Sweden. Dutch society shares many similarities with the Scandinavian welfare states and therefore it should be natural – according to the author – to benefit more often from Scandinavian experiences. Some suggestions are discussed in the article.


P. Kruize
Dr. Peter Kruize is associate professor bij de Juridische Faculteit van de Universiteit van Kopenhagen. Daarnaast is hij partner bij Ateno – bureau voor criminaliteitsanalyse – in Amsterdam.
Artikel

Discriminatie van transgenders door politie en justitie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2013
Trefwoorden transgender discrimination, violence against transgender, justice, police treatment, equal rights
Auteurs I. Pohlkamp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    While reflecting on gender issues transgender persons and their issues are often neglected. Government institutions on various levels don’t know how to handle their gender nonconformity as neither male nor female. Also they are often targets of inappropriate police and judicial measures. Transgender persons are often sceptical and cautious when interacting with those professionals: a fair and respectful treatment is not to be expected. In this article the author takes on to explore this blind spot. She presents the results of a survey on the transgender discrimination and violence by police and judicial institutions in Germany. The author points out that this is a result of the ongoing structural discrimination of gender non-conform persons in a binary gender system. This topic is part of her PhD thesis on the experience of discrimination and violence of gender non-conform persons in general. Her qualitative study is based on narrative interviews and a group discussion with gender non-conform persons in Germany.


I. Pohlkamp
Ines Pohlkamp MSc promoveert aan de universiteit van Hamburg op seksueel non-conforme vijandige discriminatie en geweld. Zij is verbonden aan het Gender Instituut in Bremen. Contact: pohlkamp@genderinstitut-bremen.de.
Artikel

De levenslange vrijheidsstraf internationaal vergeleken

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden life sentences, whole life imprisonment, human rights, European Court of Human Rights, release prospect
Auteurs D. van Zyl Smit
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Life imprisonment is difficult to define. Sentences that are not called life imprisonment may also be indefinite sentences of detention which may result in the detention of offenders in prison until they die there. Even where a sentence is called ‘life imprisonment’ it may be difficult to ascertain for how long the offender will actually be held and what criteria will be applied to considering his eventual release. This paper sketches some recent developments in respect of indeterminate sentences that are not called life imprisonment, even though they amount to it in practice. It then turns to the question of life sentences that are imposed without provision for any fixed period after which they should be reconsidered. Questions are raised about the extent to which such sentences are acceptable in Europe, the United States and elsewhere, particularly in instances where at sentence there is an indication that the offenders may not be considered for release at all. It is argued that human rights law is moving towards requiring that all persons sentenced to life imprisonment should have a reasonable prospect of release. Given the widespread support for life imprisonment this paper seeks to raise some human rights concerns that arise with the use of this sentence. The concerns are essentially twofold. First, the sentence may be imposed in instances where it would be disproportionate punishment to do so. Secondly, the procedures for its implementation, in particular those that relate to the potential release of persons serving life sentences, may not be adequate to meet the requirement of a realistic prospect of release.


D. van Zyl Smit
Prof. Dirk van Zyl Smit is als hoogleraar vergelijkend internationaal en penitentiair recht verbonden aan de University of Nottingham.
Artikel

Perspectief voor levenslanggestraften?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden life imprisonment the Netherlands, High Court jurisprudence, parole procedures, reducing life sentences, judicial verdict
Auteurs T. de Bont en S. Meijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the ‘de iure’ and ‘de facto’ possibilities in Dutch penal law to reduce a life sentence. The question is whether the current legal framework offers sufficient perspective to life prisoners as required by the European Court of Human Rights. It also addresses the disadvantages of the current procedures. The authors argue that it is desirable that a legal possibility for release on probation of life prisoners is introduced in the Netherlands. They will set out a bill written by the NGO ‘Forum Levenslang’ that would make this possible.


T. de Bont
Mr. Tim de Bont is als advocaat werkzaam bij Cleerdin & Hamer Advocaten.

S. Meijer
Mr. dr. Sonja Meijer is universitair docent straf(proces)recht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Undercoveroperaties: een noodzakelijk kwaad?

Heden, verleden en toekomst van een omstreden opsporingsmiddel

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2012
Auteurs E.W. Kruisbergen en D. de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An important part of the scientific literature looks upon undercover policing from a normative, critical point of view. These studies frequently problematize undercover operations as a necessary evil. Yet what do we actually know about the practice of the execution of undercover operations and about the results they yield for criminal investigations? Not much. Little empirical research has been done on this subject. This article analyses the implementation and results of undercover operations in the Netherlands. The empirical data consist of all covert policing operations in the Netherlands in 2004. The authors address the following questions: how often is this method of investigation deployed; what different types of undercover operations exist; and what results have these operations produced? Furthermore, they examine the history of undercover policing and look into the legislative debate. Finally, they explore some possible future developments in the use of undercover operations.


E.W. Kruisbergen
Drs. Edwin Kruisbergen werkt als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het WODC.

D. de Jong
Deborah de Jong, MSc werkt als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het WODC.
Artikel

De exfiltratie van verdachte en veroordeelde criminelen

Over de onmisbaarheid van een effectieve regeling voor coöperatieve criminele getuigen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2012
Auteurs C. Fijnaut
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure and the related guidelines of the College of Procurators-General are for all sorts of historical and ideological reasons heavily restrictive when it comes to the use of cooperative witnesses in criminal proceedings. What strikes most is that even in very serious cases it is not possible to grant a witness complete or partial immunity in exchange for his important cooperation. This contribution describes the problems arising sometimes in criminal cases wherein prosecutors, despite the existing narrow framework, make a deal with such a witness. The article outlines not only the historical and international background of the use of cooperative witnesses, but also its contemporary legal framework in the United States, Italy, the United Kingdom and Germany. The outcome of this comparative exercise is that at least the current legal provisions should be evaluated and that this evaluation should take into account the system and experiences in other countries as well as the problems of serious crime in the Netherlands and the leniency policies that govern the efforts to contain serious white collar crime like e.g. cartels.


C. Fijnaut
Prof. dr. em. Cyrille Fijnaut was tot voor kort als hoogleraar internationaal en vergelijkend strafrecht verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Hij is thans voorzitter van de Toegangscommissie van de Commissie Evaluatie Afgesloten Strafzaken (CEAS).

    As a contribution to literature drawing together green criminology and studies of organized and corporate crime, this paper provides a case study of crimes and public health harms linked to the Naples garbage disposal crisis. The context is the inability of modern consumer society to cope with the problem of mass production of waste. In turn this leads to opportunities for both legal and criminal entrepreneurs to offer services that promise but fail to ‘dispose’ of the problem. The analysis draws upon environmental law and classic studies of organised crime.


V. Ruggiero
Prof. Vincenzo Ruggiero is als hoogleraar sociologie verbonden aan de Middlesex University in Londen.

N. South
Prof. Nigel South is hoogleraar sociologie aan de University of Essex.

    The gold industry in the (former) Soviet Union has always been vulnerable to criminality, such as large-scale smuggling from the gold mines in the north of the country, to the sale of fake gold by Russian migrants in Western Europe. Gold and golden jewels are smuggled and counterfeited; corrupt customs and police officials participate directly or indirectly in gold-related criminal activities. Customers in Russia and other former Soviet republics are constantly being warned about the risk of buying counterfeit gold jewellery, which is sold even in legal shops. This article describes the ‘criminal gold market’ in Russia and analyses the motives and modus operandi of the offenders.


D. Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is als hoogleraar criminologie verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

    The main difference between various forms of prevention of organised crime is between primary and secondary prevention on the one hand and tertiary prevention on the other. The latter is directed at diminishing an already existing problem. This article deals with social conditions which promote the arising of organised crime and with relevant specifically vulnerable factors and sectors (primary and secondary prevention). The authors argue that in a way every society gets the organised crime it deserves. Organising and regulating society often has the side effect of creating opportunities for individuals and groups which gain profit by exploiting the illegal markets that arise as a consequence of regulations. Whether the desire for regulation or the prevention of (organised) crime should prevail is a topic for political and social debate.


A.C. Berghuis
Drs. Bert Berghuis is als raadadviseur verbonden aan de Directie Rechtshandhaving & Criminaliteitsbestrijding van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie te Den Haag.

J. de Waard
Mr. drs. Jaap de Waard is als senior beleidsmedewerker verbonden aan de Directie Rechtshandhaving & Criminaliteitsbestrijding van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie te Den Haag.

    There is a strange contradiction in the history of Dutch criminal justice. On the one hand, until well into the 20th Century, it was peculiarly backward in terms of criminal procedure that remained based on principles deriving essentially from the era of the first Dutch republic (17th and 18th Century) or even earlier. On the other, The Netherlands was one of the first countries in Europe to lastingly abolish capital punishment without the intermediate phase of continuing executions out of public view. In this, Dutch criminal justice was decidedly ahead of its times. This contribution examines this apparent contradiction that cannot be entirely explained by existing theories on (the abolition of) capital punishment. It must also be seen in the light of the historical role of publicity/transparency for the legitimacy of criminal justice in the Netherlands, its link to a legal culture of public confidence in the criminal justice authorities and the relatively late reception of Enlightenment ideals.


C.H. Brants
Prof. dr. Chrisje Brants is als hoogleraar straf- en strafprocesrecht verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.
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