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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2011 x

    Gold and silver coins were money for centuries. Since the early 17th century there was paper. The gold standard linked the value of the world reserve currencies, first the pound sterling and later the dollar, to gold. Both were ‘as good as gold’. In times of crisis, however, the link was broken. The coins dropped in value and gold rose, as the public continues to see gold as the ultimate money. To counteract this, Roosevelt even decided in 1933 and 1934 to nationalise and prohibit the gold held by the Americans. In 2011, amidst the biggest crisis since the Great Depression, we witness the next attack on gold. This time in the Netherlands, where the glass workers' pension fund (SPVG) was ordered by the Dutch central bank to sell the bulk of its gold assets. The DNB argued that gold is a commodity, but SPVG sees gold as a medium of exchange. What will be next?


E. Mecking
Drs. Eric Mecking studeerde geschiedenis aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en is publicist, spreker en financieel-economisch analist. Hij schreef Deflatie in aantocht. Het einde van een tijdperk - het begin van een gouden toekomst? (Mets & Mets, 2010, zevende druk). Tevens publiceerde hij Het drama van 1918. Over de Spaanse griep en de zoektocht naar virus en vaccin (Mets & Schilt, 2006). Momenteel legt hij samen met mr. Elmer Hogervorst de laatste hand aan een boek over geld, goud en zilver.

    The central question of this article is how situational crime prevention (SCP) might be of help in preventing terrorism. Newman and Clarke's Policing Terrorism is confronted with investigations by the Dutch National Crime Squad, leading to the conclusion that Newman and Clarke have too narrow a scope on policing and preventing terrorism, in particular where it comes to the role of criminal investigation, which they narrow down to the phases immediately before and after a terrorist attack. Case files show that offender-oriented criminal investigation has a central role in the prevention of terrorism in several respects. First, criminal investigators intervene in earlier phases of terrorist preparation. Second, counter-terrorism targets a wide range of terrorist offences (e.g. terrorist financing and jihad travel) which often have no direct link to a terrorist assault plan. ‘Proactive repression’ seems an adequate term to characterise the preventive work of criminal investigators in this field. In turn, this work offers insights that might be of help in developing an SCP-approach to terrorism. Such an approach should start with recognizing that there is a diversity of terrorist offences and that each offence demands a crime specific script.


A.W. Weenink
Dr. Anton Weenink is als senior onderzoeker werkzaam bij het Korps landelijke politiediensten (KLPD). Hij schreef deze bijdrage op persoonlijke titel.

    The fact that the Netherlands have abolished the death penalty in 1870 does not imply that this criminal sanction doesn't affect the Dutch legal order anymore. As a member of the international ‘legal family’ The Netherlands are confronted regularly with the continuing existence of capital punishment abroad, for instance when a Dutch national is sentenced to death in a foreign country. The (threat of a) death penalty is an important factor when Dutch administrative or judicial authorities have to decide on matters concerning the admission or expulsion of foreign citizens or the extradition of suspects to countries where they run the risk of being sentenced to death. In the Netherlands the enforcement of life sentences can get the character of a suspended death sentence when time and again pardon is denied and the convict will die a prisoner. Long-term prisoners suffer a kind of civil death, being cut off from their families, friends and other social contacts. In sum: enough reasons to focus once more on the ultimate criminal sanction.


G. de Jonge
Prof. mr. dr. Gerard de Jonge is als hoogleraar Detentierecht verbonden aan de capaciteitsgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Ontzetting uit beroep of ambt

Herleving van een weinig gebruikte straf?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2011
Auteurs M. Malsch, W.C. Alberts, J.W. de Keijser e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Offenders can be deprived from their profession or office by a court. The Dutch legislator has recently increased possibilities for the judge to disqualify offenders who committed certain crimes within their professional occupation. This article discusses a study on the penalty of expulsion from a profession or an office. It appears that this penalty is not often imposed. Most cases concern sex crime cases and fraud cases. Although it is a penalty, the prosecutors and judges general aim at preventing new crimes when considering a disqualification. It is not known whether convicted persons comply to this penalty. The prosecution does not actively supervise observance. Respondents in this study fear that relapse into new crime within a profession happens, but figures are lacking on this point. Positive and negative sides of the disqualification are discussed in the article.


M. Malsch
Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR te Amsterdam. Daarnaast is zij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Haarlem en in het Hof Den Bosch.

W.C. Alberts
Drs. Wendy Alberts MSc was verbonden aan het NSCR voor het onderzoek naar ontzetting uit beroep of ambt en werkt thans bij de Reclassering.

J.W. de Keijser
Dr. Jan de Keijser werkte eerder bij het NSCR en is nu als universitair hoofddocent criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

J.F. Nijboer
Prof. mr. dr. Hans Nijboer is hoogleraar Bewijs en Bewijsrecht bij dezelfde faculteit en tevens als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR.
Artikel

Misdaad en straf

Bespiegelingen over (de dood)straf vanuit religieus perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2011
Auteurs J.A.A.C. Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What does a religious perspective imply for the justification of the state imposing punishment on perpetrators of criminal offences under criminal law? As religion is experiencing a revival, it is not a strange idea to examine what a religious perspective can teach us in relation to criminal law. What religious fundamentalism and conservatism have to offer in this respect seems quite clear, namely retributive action by the state, as God's representative on earth, against conduct contrary to the dogmas of the Holy Scriptures. Nevertheless, research shows that conventional believers also often recognize the value of forgiveness and reconciliation. What is not clear, however, is what mysticism has to offer in relation to criminal law. In contradiction to conventional criminal law, from a mystical perspective there is no call for intentional infliction of pain in responding to crime. To avenge evil with evil is dismissed for both moral and practical reasons. Encouraging the spiritual awakening of man forms the alfa and omega of a mystical approach to crime.


J.A.A.C. Claessen
Mr. dr. Jacques Claessen is als universitair docent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht. Tevens is hij mederedacteur van de Nieuwsbrief Strafrecht.

    This article is based on the author's recent doctorate thesis Working their way into adulthood, which analyses the role of employment in delinquent development in 270 high-risk males from age 18 to 32. Prior to age 18 all men had undergone residential treatment for serious problem behaviour in a juvenile justice institution in the Netherlands. Although recidivism is high, most juveniles desist in their mid-20s, and even high-frequency chronic offenders show declined levels of criminality around age 30. Why do some offenders desist from offending, while others continue? Part of this variation is explained by personality and background characteristics. Over and above these factors, employment is significantly related to a decrease in offending. This paper further analyses the relationship between employment and crime.


V. van der Geest
Dr. Victor van der Geest is universitair docent bij de sectie criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VU) en onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR). Hij promoveerde afgelopen mei op het proefschrift Working their way into adulthood. Voor dit onderzoek, waarop dit artikel is gebaseerd, volgde hij een groep van 270 jongens in de leeftijd van 12 tot 32 jaar, die begin jaren negentig behandeld werden in een justitiële jeugdinrichting.
Artikel

Actief volwassen worden

Een verklaring voor de daling in criminaliteit onder jonge volwassenen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2011
Auteurs A.E. Bottoms
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses some initial findings from the qualitative part of the Sheffield Desistance Study. The aim of the study was to explain the crime drop in early adulthood by tracking the progress of 113 young male offenders towards desistance from crime. The author stresses the importance of getting a better understanding of how criminal careers are shaped by the broader aspects of the experience of young adulthood. The findings are illustrated by four different case studies, followed by some theoretical reflections on the concept of ‘active maturation’. This is clarified by a model categorising some of the processes that individuals go through as they start taking steps towards desistance.


A.E. Bottoms
Prof. Anthony Bottoms is emeritus hoogleraar criminologie aan de universiteiten van Cambridge en Sheffield. Dit essay is een bewerkte versie van een plenaire lezing die tijdens het NVK Congres in Leiden in juni 2011 is gegeven. De auteur is de NVK zeer erkentelijk voor de uitnodiging om het congres toe te spreken.
Artikel

Stoppen met crimineel gedrag

Een kwalitatief, longitudinaal onderzoek naar Marokkaanse en Nederlandse mannen met een crimineel verleden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2011
Auteurs H. Werdmölder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is a first report on the longitudinal study of forty Moroccan and Dutch criminal men. The research was started in 1982. The author returned to the subject in 1988. In 2008, the author started a new research project with the same men.
    The focus of this article is on the process of desistance. Ten men already ended their criminal period in the late eighties (the ‘early desisters’). In between time, two of them relapsed. Nine men can be called ‘late desisters’. They had many more obstacles to face in their re-integration, such as long-term employment and addiction to hard drugs. The combination of getting regular work, marriage and a permanent place of living is very effective in the process of desistance. But in the end, personal qualities, such as discipline, taking up responsibility and motivation, will be decisive.


H. Werdmölder
Dr. Hans Werdmölder is als lector Jeugd en Veiligheid werkzaam aan het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van de Avans Hogeschool in Brabant en als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de Universiteit van Utrecht. Dit artikel kwam mede tot stand dankzij een verblijf van een half jaar aan het Netherlands Institute for Advanced Studies (NIAS) te Wassenaar en een subsidiëring van het Fonds Bijzondere Journalistieke Producties (www.fondsbjp.nl).
Artikel

Terrorismebestrijding en securitisering

Een rechtssociologische verkenning van de neveneffecten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2011
Auteurs B.A. de Graaf en Q. Eijkman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article offers an analysis of the side effects caused by the increased counterterrorism measures adapted in Dutch law and public policy after 9/11. Taking clues from Foucault's thinking on securitisation and Beck's risk society, it is argued that focus, referent subject and object of security measures and deployment of counterterrorism laws have shifted from the concrete individual to society and risk prevention as a whole (1), that this shift induces function creep (2) and a much quicker deployment of measures, resulting in an increasing suspect population (3). Rather than arguing against the legality and legitimacy of these measures, the authors analyse the epistemological shift in reasoning and unpack the various probabilistic arguments (as opposed to evidence-based arguments) behind the wave of securitisation after 9/11 - resulting in a lack of knowledge about, transparency and accountability of the generated side effects.


B.A. de Graaf
Dr. Beatrice de Graaf (universitair hoofddocent) is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Terrorisme en Contraterrorisme van de Universiteit Leiden (Campus Den Haag).

Q. Eijkman
Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman (senioronderzoeker) is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Terrorisme en Contraterrorisme van de Universiteit Leiden (Campus Den Haag).
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