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Artikel

Compliance analyseren met behulp van het Willen-Kunnen-Durven-model

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden compliance, Willing-being Able-daring framework, tendency to transgress, opportunity, deterrence
Auteurs Prof. dr. H. Elffers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The ‘Willing-Being Able-Daring’ (WBAD) framework for analysing rule compliance is introduced and explained. It models rule transgression as the result of climbing a three step staircase: people first have to form a will to not-comply, then see whether they can find an opportunity to transgress the rule without being caught for certain, and finally have to decide to take the risk, facing the consequences of being caught and issued an informal or formal reaction in terms of social disapproval or juridical prosecution. The WBAD framework proposes to identify which of these steps is (too) low, using expert meetings or surveys. It advocates to ponder on ways to increase the heights of the steps. It is claimed that the approach is simpler and hence more parsimonious than the Table-of-Eleven-approach commonly used in The Netherlands. The approach is illustrated with an example from the realm of tax compliance. The article concludes with sketching a perspective when to apply WBAD.


Prof. dr. H. Elffers
Prof. dr. Henk Elffers is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam en emeritus hoogleraar aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

De bestrijding van voedselfraude in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden NVWA-IOD, food fraud, food industry, food laundering, criminal cases
Auteurs K.E. Gussow en L.H. Kuiper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Food fraud has recently been recognized as a blind spot among regulators. In Europe, few organizations have experience with large cases of food fraud; also scientific knowledge into this type of crime is limited. This article aims to contribute experience to this gap. The NVWA-IOD is a specialist crime unit in the Netherlands, carrying out criminal investigations into, among other things, food fraud. This article gives insight into numbers of cases dealt with by the NVWA-IOD in the past fifteen years, for different types of food fraud. Nine criminal cases, concentrating on suspects within trade and industry, are analyzed in more detail from a basic criminological perspective. There is looked into, among other things, the motive, the opportunity and the product. The cases discussed relate to products such as meat, eggs, fish and dairy products. The main motive for committing food fraud is making money; the gain makes fraudulent activities attractive and financially beneficial. Opportunities refer mainly to ambiguous laws and regulations and little supervision. Also, evasive behavior was found. To combat food crime, specialist knowledge of tempting opportunities is essential.


K.E. Gussow
Dr. Karen Gussow is als senior inspecteur verbonden aan de Inlichtingen- en Opsporingsdienst (IOD) van de Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit (NVWA).

L.H. Kuiper
Loes Kuiper studeerde af aan de Hogeschool Van Hall Larenstein te Leeuwarden en loopt stage bij de Inlichtingen- en Opsporingsdienst (IOD) van de Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit (NVWA).
Artikel

Zwarte kaviaar

Over criminele netwerken, illegale handel en de bedreiging van de steur

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden black caviar, Caspian Sea, sturgeon population, illegal fishing, illegal trading
Auteurs D. Siegel en D. van Uhm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The trade in caviar has a rich and colorful history, influenced over thousands of years by many cultures, societies and in the last decades by regulation. Based on qualitative research, including literature, media analysis and interviews, this article presents the first preliminary results of the authors’ ongoing research. The value of caviar is historically discovered in the context of social change, political relationships and environmental change and the role of organized crime is described, as the scarcity of caviar has offered the unique opportunity to fish illegally, smuggle and trade contraband to mainly European countries with millions in profits. Although due to overexploitation ‘wild caviar’ is increasingly difficult to obtain, the demand in the context of exclusivity and scarcity remains intact by the upper class society desire for edible gold.


D. Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.

D. van Uhm
Drs. Daan van Uhm is als promovendus en junior universitair docent werkzaam bij het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.
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