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Artikel

De best mogelijke rechtspraak

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Legal system, Effectiveness, Legal innovations, Dispute resolution, New technologies
Auteurs Prof.dr. Maurits Barendrecht
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article outlines the need in the Netherlands for socially effective justice that better resolves citizens’ problems. The author argues that new forms of dispute resolution should be integrated in the justice system. The author first describes various types of innovations. Then he outlines the obstacles to innovations. A major obstacle is that many stakeholders in the existing legal system are simultaneously the gatekeepers for the admission of innovations. It is necessary to create an infrastructure that welcomes, reinforces, tests, finances and imports new treatments for legal problems.


Prof.dr. Maurits Barendrecht
Prof. dr. M. Barendrecht is als research director verbonden aan The Hague Institute for Innovation of Law (HiiL).
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Auteurs Roland Eshuis en Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Roland Eshuis
Gastredacteur dr. R.J.J. Eshuis is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.

Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

De vrederechter in historisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden legal history, justice of the peace, Conciliation, small claim courts, access to justice
Auteurs Mr. dr. Emese von Bóné
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is about the history of the justice of the peace, a low profile judge where people easily have access to. The history of the justice of the peace goes back to the seventeenth century. The justice of the peace was reintroduced in the Netherlands in the French period, when the country was annexed by the French Empire under the reign of Napoleon. The justice of the peace was also introduced in Belgium and is still in use. The most important task of the justice of the peace is ‘conciliation’. In the conciliation procedure the justice of the peace has a very active role. The judge tries to mediate between the parties in order to come to an agreement.


Mr. dr. Emese von Bóné
Mr. dr. E.K.E. von Bóné is als universitair docent werkzaam bij de Capgroep Privaatrecht van de Erasmus School of Law (ESL) van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Zij doceert rechtsgeschiedenis en doet rechtshistorisch en rechtsvergelijkend onderzoek naar laagdrempelige rechtspraak.
Artikel

Experimenten in de civiele rechtspraak: een oplossing voor welk probleem?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden court pilots, civil procedure, efficiency, policy analysis, legal protection
Auteurs Mr. dr. Kim van der Kraats
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Dutch courts several pilots are being carried out in order to enhance the quality of civil procedure. The main focus of the pilots is to speed up the procedure and make it more cost-effective, while ensuring the procedure is easily accessible and is overseen by a mediating judge in a nearby court. This focus largely corresponds with aspects of the civil procedure that the courts and the minister of Justice have identified as in need of attention. The courts and the minister have focused on different specific problems and propose different solutions, however, and neither aims to address the quality of civil procedure as a whole. It is doubtful whether the proposals for improvement, put forward by the courts and the minister, can address the concerns they have intended to resolve and whether the overall quality of the civil procedure (for all civil cases instead of the simple ones) will be improved. Solutions to the problems of the civil procedure cannot be devised without first developing a clear picture of the problems people experience with civil procedures and the courts.


Mr. dr. Kim van der Kraats
Mr. dr. K.G.F. van der Kraats is rechter en teamvoorzitter handel en kanton in de Rechtbank Overijssel. In september 2017 is zij gepromoveerd bij prof. mr. Ivo Giesen (UU) en dr. R.J.J. Eshuis (WODC) op een proefschrift onder de titel De eigen(aardig)heid van de kantonrechter.
Artikel

Vrijwillige rechtspraak: rechters op het mediationpad?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden neighbourhood courts, mediation, friendly solutions, voluntary jurisdiction, de-escalation
Auteurs Prof. dr. Dick Allewijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A characteristic difference between administration of justice and mediation so far was the element of voluntariness on the side of the clients. Administration of justice however is, for the citizen who is brought before the courts, not voluntary. Recently pilots have been started in which citizens can turn voluntarily to the Court at low cost, and not far from their neighborhood. Judges will not primarily aim at making a decision in accordance with the law, but at finding friendly solutions. Does this mean that judges are going to mediate? And if so, how should this be appreciated? In this contribution attention is paid to certain aspects of this question. It is argued that differences between jurisdiction and mediation still remain. More than mediators judges must act within the legal framework. The extent to which they can engage in the emotional undercurrent of conflicts is limited. Confidence in the Court is from a different origin than trust in the mediator, and that also makes a difference. And finally, a judge is competent to make a binding judgment, which influences the way he or she is looked at by the parties.


Prof. dr. Dick Allewijn
Prof. dr. D. Allewijn is als bijzonder hoogleraar Mediation verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechten van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Hij is tevens werkzaam als MfN-registermediator en trainer bij het Centrum voor Conflicthantering.
Artikel

De Rijdende Rechter als rolmodel

Hoe reality televisie het beeld van de rechtspraak beïnvloedt

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden The Iterant Judge, Dutch television, American tv judges, Low threshold courts, Binding dispute solution
Auteurs Mr. Annerie Smolders
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The tremendously popular television programme De Rijdende Rechter (The Itinerant Judge) has an uncomfortable relationship with official legal practice. Many people indeed think that the itinerant judge who arrives in their street to personally check neighbourly grievances has come as a representative of the Law with a capital L. It is not clear where reality TV stops and current legal practice begins. Things have become more complicated because the itinerant judge has become a symbol of the ‘close-to-the-people’ judge that is embraced by legal practice today. In this article the murky boundary between TV judges and official judiciary is investigated, taking into account the cult status of the itinerant judge, the effect of imagination on reality, similar phenomena in the United States and the current situation in the Netherlands.


Mr. Annerie Smolders
Mr. A. Smolders is publicist en voormalig rechter. Zij richt zich, onder meer als gastonderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), op de verhouding tussen rechter en algemeen publiek, met als doel het publieke debat hierover te verbreden en van meer context te voorzien.
Artikel

De afnemende rol van de rechtspraak: is vervanging van de rechter mogelijk en wenselijk?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden judges, marginalization, administrative bodies, truth finding, legal protection
Auteurs Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The last decades have shown a tendency in which tasks are transferred from the judge to other authorities, such as the police and public prosecutor, administrative bodies, administrative procedures, or private parties. The central question in this article is whether these authorities can really replace the court. A comparison is made between legal proceedings and procedures for other authorities on the following aspects: truth finding, openness and legal protection of the (vulnerable) citizen. The author also discusses a recent legislative proposal for an own budget for the Judiciary, which aims to strengthen the independence of the judge towards the two other state powers. It is argued that the courts should be also accessible in the case of relatively small offenses and for vulnerable citizens.


Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch
Mr. dr. M. Malsch is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), raadsheer-plaatsvervanger in het Hof ’s-Hertogenbosch en rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Noord-Holland.
Artikel

Jongerenrechtbanken: oplossingsgerichte lekenrechtspraak voor en door leerlingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden youth courts, restorative justice, active citizenship, schools, community
Auteurs Drs. Gert Jan Slump en Prof. dr. Jessica Asscher
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the backgrounds, the development and first findings on youth courts in the Netherlands. A Dutch version of the USA youth courts was developed and piloted in 4 Amsterdam schools. Cases referred are small (partly illegal) incidents committed in the school environment. The Dutch youth court practice is described against the background of transformational change in society and the development of restorative justice and (peer oriented) development of citizenship. Although the model is still in development and schools are somewhat reluctant to deliver and refer cases, practice is growing.


Drs. Gert Jan Slump
Drs. G.J. Slump is criminoloog en landelijk projectleider voor de Stichting Jongerenrechtbanken Nederland. Hij heeft een eigen adviespraktijk voor projecten op strafrechtelijk gebied en geeft trainingen op het terrein van herstelrecht en herstelgericht werken.

Prof. dr. Jessica Asscher
Prof. dr. J. Asscher is hoogleraar Forensische Orthopedagogiek aan de Universiteit Utrecht en hoofddocent aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Zij is lid van de Raad van Advies van de stichting Jongerenrechtbanken.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Auteurs Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Empirisch-juridisch onderzoek – toekomstmuziek of werkelijkheid?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden empirical legal studies, law in action, law in the real world, evidence-based law
Auteurs Dr. N.A. Elbers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Empirical Legal Studies (ELS) are studies investigating the law in the real world, using empirical methods. Internationally, ELS is on the rise. However, not much is known about what is being done around ELS in the Netherlands. This article describes the results of a systematic review, investigating how many PhD researchers who defended their thesis at a Dutch law faculty in 2015 have collected empirical data, what topic they investigated, which method they used and what background they have. The findings are that 33% of the PhD theses could be labelled as ELS. The majority of ELS were conducted by researchers who have a social science degree. Some of the (only few) lawyers collecting empirical data did not aim to conduct ELS, even though their research questions were very empirical. It is concluded that more empirical education and research funding are needed to stimulate lawyers to conduct more ELS.


Dr. N.A. Elbers
Dr. Nieke Elbers is postdoc-onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en projectleider voor de stimuleringsactie Empirical Legal Studies. Zij is als sociale wetenschapper (MSc (neuro)psychologie) gepromoveerd bij de rechtenfaculteit van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (afdeling privaatrecht).
Artikel

Toepassing van rechtssociologisch en rechtspsychologisch onderzoek in de rechtspraktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden Sociology of law, Legal psychology, Legal practice, Policy, Empirical research
Auteurs Mr. dr. M. Malsch, L. ten Hove MSc en Prof. dr. H. Elffers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Findings of empirical research may have direct or indirect relevance to legal practice and policy. This article investigates the relevance of findings from both research in sociology of law and legal psychology and law for legal practice and policy. It then discusses an empirical study in the Netherlands among scholars from these two disciplines into actual use in practice of empirical findings. A distinction is made between direct and indirect application of empirical findings. Both a survey and face-to-face interviews have been conducted. Findings suggest that, although the criminal justice system and policymakers do apply empirical knowledge to a certain degree, the actual use of empirical results seems defective.


Mr. dr. M. Malsch
Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam.

L. ten Hove MSc
Leonie ten Hove MSc heeft als stagiaire bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam meegewerkt aan het in dit artikel beschreven onderzoek.

Prof. dr. H. Elffers
Prof. dr. Henk Elffers is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam en emeritus hoogleraar aan de Vrije Universiteit aldaar.
Artikel

Bescherm het slachtoffer, begin bij de verdachte

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2015
Trefwoorden victimhood, Christ, art history, Enlightenment, secularization
Auteurs W.J. Veraart
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article argues that the notion of ‘victim’ primarily refers to the position of the person who, in the course of a (sacred, religious, legal, etc.) procedure, is ritually sacrificed to avert the wrath of the gods or to preserve peace in the community. In early modernity the Latin victima (sacrificial animal) was also used as a reference to Jesus Christ. Christ was seen as the Lamb of God, the innocent sacrificial lamb which, after an unfair trial, was crucified and died for the sins of the world. In the eighteenth century, under influence of the Enlightenment, the victim concept has been secularized and come to refer to every casualty of bad luck, crime, or disaster. Art history, however, offers interesting examples of pictures of mythical figures such as Sisyphus and Prometheus, representing early images of secularized victimhood in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In the present day, the concept of victimhood is often used to define the position of the injured party in criminal proceedings. In this frame, the injured victim, looking for legal recognition, is juxtaposed against the position of the accused who is characterized as the possible culprit. However, reflection on the history of the victim concept reveals that it primarily refers to the position of the wrongly or falsely accused or condemned in the course of legal (or pseudolegal) proceedings. A state governed by the rule of law (‘rechtsstaat’) can be defined as a legal form of society which does its utmost to avoid the justice system producing its own victims. In this approach, a victim-oriented criminal justice system is fully aware of the need to protect precisely those who are threatened by the power of the state and public opinion because they are in the dock.


W.J. Veraart
Prof. mr. Wouter Veraart is hoogleraar Encyclopedie der Rechtswetenschap en Rechtsfilosofie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

De toegang tot de rechter in een moderne rechtsstaat

IJkpunten voor een concrete vormgeving

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden access to justice, rule of law, ADR, law enforcement, checks and balances
Auteurs G. Corstens en R. Kuiper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    As a core element of the ‘rechtsstaat’ (a country under the rule of law) the importance of the principle of access to justice is widely agreed upon. Nevertheless it is complicated to reach an agreement on subjects that are pivotal to the implementation of this principle in practice. The needs of society change over time and the factors that influence the concrete accessibility are many (costs, length, complexity of procedures, etc.). Furthermore, as a result of the coming into being of ADR and new forms of law enforcement the use of the civil and criminal trial has declined. To evaluate the current state of access to justice against the backdrop of these factors and developments the central question should be whether the judge is still able to fulfil his function in a rechtsstaat of providing legal protection, whilst functioning as a counterbalance to the executive and law-making powers of the state.


G. Corstens
Mr. dr. Geert Corstens is president van de Hoge Raad der Nederlanden.

R. Kuiper
Mr. Reindert Kuiper is gerechtsauditeur bij de Hoge Raad der Nederlanden.
Artikel

Toegang tot recht in beweging

Over burgers en hun oplossingsstrategieën

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden access to justice, civil justice, administrative law, dispute resolution, legal assistance
Auteurs M. ter Voert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Both in public policy and in scientific research, the concept of access to justice has been subject to change. In the seventies access to justice was mainly understood as access to a lawyer and a judge. In the nineties the perspective widens to alternative forms of dispute resolution, self-help and juridification of problems. The present article focuses on access to justice for citizens who experienced civil and administrative problems. Firstly, it illustrates the change in public policy with respect to dispute resolution. Secondly, it describes the shifting views on access to justice in empirical research. Furthermore it presents the results of socio-legal research into the dispute resolution of citizens and discusses what these results tell us about access to justice.


M. ter Voert
Dr. Marijke ter Voert is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Het stelsel van gesubsidieerde rechtsbijstand in roerige tijden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden legal aid, certificate, Legal Services Counters, Roadmap to Justice, cutbacks
Auteurs S.L. Peters en L. Combrink-Kuiters
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For years it has been stated that the Dutch legal aid system is balanced and performs well. Supply and demand seem to be matched and the quality of the system is judged as good. Serious problems seem to be lacking, although there is a constant increase in the number of certificates issued. The most important threat to the system are the ever shrinking government budgets together with the increasing use of the system. To date, the Dutch legal aid system has utilised open-end-financing. The Ministry of Security and Justice is in search of measures in order to contain the number of certificates, and thereby also the ever increasing costs. At the moment it is discussed if vital system changes are necessary. Will the system as we know still exist in the near future? Or will major changes need to be made? However, changes can also lead to improvement of the system.


S.L. Peters
Mr. Susanne Peters is verbonden aan de Raad voor Rechtsbijstand.

L. Combrink-Kuiters
Mr. Lia Combrink-Kuiters is verbonden aan de Raad voor Rechtsbijstand.
Artikel

De wisselwerking tussen het beroep en de persoon van rechter

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden judgeship, decision-making, truth finding, tunnel vision, collegial relations
Auteurs J.G. Tielenius Kruythoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article former judge Jaap Tielenius Kruythoff tries to answer the question how being a judge influenced his personality and vice versa. Decision-making is both a rational and emotional process. Judges are susceptible for being manipulated by litigants and colleagues as well as acknowledgements from others. The author stresses the importance of having the possibility to express doubts in the course of the decision-making process between judges. Trying to erase doubts – for instance when one judge is dominating discussions in the judge’s chambers – interferes in finding the real truth in a case. Also, colleagues can help creating awareness of tunnel vision. According to the author there is no such a thing as a general sense of just punishment. Discussions about reasonable punishments are influenced by previous decisions. Being a judge gave the author a lot of fulfilment in his work and a higher social status.


J.G. Tielenius Kruythoff
Mr. Jaap Tielenius Kruythoff is gepensioneerd rechter.
Artikel

Private rechtspraak: online én offline een realiteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2012
Trefwoorden E-courts, alternative dispute resolution, online dispute resolution, eBay, Paypal
Auteurs C.N.J. de Vey Mestdagh en T. van Zuijlen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Private administration of justice is an online and offline reality. In this article the reality of online dispute resolution (ODR) is explored, using the example of eBay (60 million conflicts taken on each year). The issue of jurisdiction in online cases is clarified and an analysis is made of the causes of the propagation of ODR. Finally the new phenomenon of online dispute prevention (ODP) is examined. This leads to the conclusion that ODR started as an alternative form of dispute settlement, but more and more becomes a substitute for the public administration of justice.


C.N.J. de Vey Mestdagh
Dr. mr. Kees de Vey Mestdagh is hoofd van het Centrum voor Recht & ICT, Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Groningen, www.rechtenict.nl, e-mail c.n.j.de.vey.mestdagh@rug.nl.

T. van Zuijlen
Tim van Zuijlen is student van de master Recht & ICT van het Centrum voor Recht & ICT.
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