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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2017 x
Artikel

Begaafdheid en crimineel gedrag

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden IQ-crime relationship, high IQ offenders, white-collar crime, criminological research, self-reporting
Auteurs Dr. J.C. Oleson
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminologists generally regard below-average intelligence as a robust correlate of delinquency and crime. In this article the author argues that the negative association between IQ and crime could be explained at least in part by a lack of research access to gifted adults who possess wealth, power and privileges. Asking these adults about other types of offending (e.g. white-collar crimes) than usual in self-report studies might uncover a positive relationship between IQ and prevalence rates, in accordance with the results of the exploratory study underlying this article. As a consequence different conclusions about the linkages between intelligence and crime might have to be drawn.


Dr. J.C. Oleson
Dr. James C. Oleson is als Associate Professor of Criminology verbonden aan de School of Social Sciences van de University of Auckland.
Artikel

Liquidaties nieuwe stijl

Verruwing en professionalisering bij liquidaties in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2017
Trefwoorden Assassination, homicide, organized crime, violent crime, drugs
Auteurs Dr. B. van Gestel en Dr. M.A. Verhoeven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    While contract killings by organized crime groups are by no means new to the Netherlands (with around twenty to thirty cases a year over the last few decades), there is reason to believe that the nature of the killings has changed. The key question of this article is which recent developments can be identified in relation to the phenomenon of contract killings. The availability of new groups of hitmen and new means has led to a number of changes in modus operandi for contract killings within organized crime. On the one hand, there is a process of professionalization when it comes to methods of observation and counterstrategies, which involves the use of the latest technological tools. The digitization of resources and traces plays a significant part in this. On the other hand, the perpetrators are resorting to much coarser methods for the actual killings. This may be attributed to the abundance of heavy firearms available in the Netherlands and to new inexperienced homegrown hitmen, who are willing to kill in exchange for payment.


Dr. B. van Gestel
Dr. Barbra van Gestel is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.

Dr. M.A. Verhoeven
Dr. Maite Verhoeven is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Liquidatie van een Solid Soldier?

Het ‘niet-zeker-weten’ en de ‘realness’ rondom de dood van Sin

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2017
Trefwoorden violence, murder, gangs, street culture, ethnography
Auteurs Dr. R.A. Roks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During an ethnographic research on the Rollin 200 Crips, a Dutch ‘gang’, Sin – one of the author’s informants – was shot and killed in Amsterdam. In this article, the author focuses on the ways in which the Rollin 200 Crips interpreted and made sense of Sin’s death. Several narratives of interpretation could be discerned in the aftermath of his death. Firstly, speculations and rumors about the motives brought feelings of uncertainty and suspicion to the fore, contrasting the otherwise instrumental logic of violence the Rollin 200 Crips communicated during the author’s fieldwork and in the media. In addition, Sin’s death produced a number of narratives about the ‘realness’ of Dutch gang life. For these reasons, Sin’s death represents an impressive, important and meaningful moment during the author’s fieldwork and, more generally, in the history of the Rollin 200 Crips.


Dr. R.A. Roks
Dr. Robby Roks is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Het subversieve Brabant

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Dutch province of North Brabant, regional history, subversive culture, crime, drugs production
Auteurs Dr. P. Klerks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Various forms of organized crime are concentrated in the Dutch province of North Brabant, bordering Belgium. In this essay it is argued that specific historic, geographic, social economic, cultural and social psychological factors created an enduring window of opportunity in which criminality can flourish. Brabant is portrayed as a marginalized province that suffered from war, exploitation by the central government, rural gangs, a lack of law enforcement, extreme poverty as well as from discrimination because of its mainly catholic population. Against this background the population developed a mentality of solving problems on their own. Their survival strategies implied not only legal activities like agriculture and small-scale production in private houses, workplaces and factories, but also smuggling and illegal alcohol production. In more recent times the production of synthetic drugs, growing cannabis and transport criminality became widespread.


Dr. P. Klerks
Dr. Peter Klerks is werkzaam bij het Parket-Generaal van het Openbaar Ministerie en de Politieacademie.
Artikel

Onmaatschappelijkheidsbestrijding en de cultuur van volksbuurten in Brabant

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Noord-Brabant, marginal neighborhoods’ culture, antisocial behavior, Crime, government policy
Auteurs Prof. dr. P. Tops
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    ‘Volksbuurten’ (marginal neighborhoods) in Brabant emerged from poverty and backwardness, but have developed their own way to deal with it. ‘Deviant behavior’, including forms of illegal and criminal activity, is important in there. That behavior gradually gets sustainable features. These neighborhoods are usually the result of conscious and active government policy; in particular the approach of ‘antisocial behavior’ in the forties and fifties of the last century has been important. In this article the author first sketches the outlines of this particular ‘volksbuurten’ culture, to focus then on the history of a particular street in one of those neighborhoods and its culture around 1960: the Ruisvoornstraat in Tilburg. Knowledge of the history of these neighborhoods is one of the keys to understanding the specifics of the history of Brabant and its partial intertwining with a culture of acting illegally and criminally.


Prof. dr. P. Tops
Prof. dr. Pieter Tops is hoogleraar bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit van Tilburg en lector ‘politie en openbaar bestuur’ aan de Politieacademie.
Artikel

Verdampende jeugdcriminaliteit

Verklaringen van de internationale daling

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden youth crime, crime decline, technology, crime prevention, police registration
Auteurs Drs. A.C. Berghuis en J. de Waard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Registered youth crime figures in the Netherlands show a spectacular downward trend from 2007 (minus 60%). In this article the authors show that this trend can be observed in a lot of other countries. They argue that a number of international developments has created a climate favorable for juvenile crime reduction: more (situational) crime prevention, less use of alcohol, more commitment to schooling, more satisfaction with living conditions, and changing activity patterns during leisure time. For the Netherlands this coincides with a diminished willingness of the Dutch police to follow up on suspicions that a youngster has committed a minor offense. The authors discuss the worldwide dissemination of smartphones and online games that started in 2006/2007, as well as the subsequent changes in the use of free time, which might have contributed to juvenile crime reduction.


Drs. A.C. Berghuis
Drs. Bert Berghuis was voorheen raadadviseur op het terrein van rechtshandhaving bij het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

J. de Waard
Jaap de Waard is als senior beleidsmedewerker verbonden aan het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Artikel

Vijf jaar Aanpak Top600: waar staan we nu?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Amsterdam, Top600 criminals, high-impact crimes, integral approach, individual programs
Auteurs Mr. S. van Grinsven en Drs. A. Verwest
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    More than forty organizations in security, healthcare and social services work together in the ‘Top600 Project’, aimed at those committing ‘high-impact crimes’. The goal is to improve safety in and around Amsterdam by achieving a permanent change in the behavior of these perpetrators. This includes both a reduction in recidivism of high-impact crimes and an increase in their self-reliance in order to decrease their reliance on crime. To achieve this, special case managers strive to get a clear perspective on the (often complex) lives of these Top600 persons. These managers (‘regisseurs’) can connect to all the organizations concerned and ensure that their efforts are coordinated, aligned and mutually strengthening. The project includes preventing the Top600 persons’ (younger) brothers and sisters from following their siblings on a path of crime. It works through a collective focus and a tailor-made approach for each person, by exercising control on three levels (administrative, civil, and case level), by central monitoring of the results and - from there - by resolving structural flaws in the system.


Mr. S. van Grinsven
Mr. Sanneke van Grinsven is jurist en als projectleider aanpak Top600 werkzaam bij het regionale Actiecentrum Veiligheid en Zorg, dat is ondergebracht bij de gemeente Amsterdam.

Drs. A. Verwest
Drs. Aniek Verwest is criminoloog en werkzaam bij onderzoek- en adviesbureau DSP-groep en als extern adviseur betrokken bij het Actiecentrum Veiligheid en Zorg.
Artikel

Alcoholgebruik bij jongeren in Nederland

Van zuipschuit van Europa tot het braafste kind van de klas

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Adolescents, Alcohol, the Netherlands, sociocultural norms, peer context
Auteurs Dr. M. De Looze en Dr. I. Koning
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Alcohol use and adolescents: they are inevitably connected. At least, this was the case up until the early 2000s in the Netherlands. After a peak in the prevalence of alcohol use in 2003, the percentage of adolescents in the Netherlands who drank alcohol decreased enormously. This decline co-occurs with a dramatic shift in sociocultural norms on adolescent alcohol use among parents. Since the peak in 2003, a variety of national and local prevention and intervention programs have been implemented, aiming to stimulate parents to adopt stricter parenting practices related to the alcohol use of their child. In other Western countries, however, similar decreases in adolescent alcohol use have been observed. On the basis of recent societal developments, the authors describe potential explanations for the observed declines. Moreover, they discuss how youngsters actively create peer contexts in which behaviors like alcohol use take place.


Dr. M. De Looze
Dr. Margreet de Looze is universitair docent bij de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Dr. I. Koning
Dr. Ina Koning is universitair docent bij de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Social media en smartphones als verklaring voor de daling in jeugdcriminaliteit?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden juvenile crime, Delinquency, social media, Smartphones, time use
Auteurs Prof. dr. F. Weerman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution explores the hypothesis that the rise of social media use and smartphone possession since 2007 contributed substantially to the international decrease in juvenile crime. The author addresses three processes that aid in understanding how social media and smartphones may have contributed to decreasing juvenile crime statistics. First, activity patterns of young people may have been altered in such a way that substantial less time is spent with unstructured socializing in public places. Second, the rise of social media may have led to additional and alternative possibilities to fulfill psychological and social needs of adolescents, taking away many immaterial motivations for juvenile crime. Third, it is possible that social media and smartphone use have facilitated a shift from offline to online juvenile crime, which is less detected and visible in official crime figures. While these theoretical arguments make the hypothesis plausible, research is needed to provide empirical evidence on the role of social media and smartphones in juvenile crime.


Prof. dr. F. Weerman
Prof. dr. Frank Weerman is bijzonder hoogleraar Jeugdcriminologie binnen de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus School of Law in Rotterdam. Hij is tevens senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Trends in de overrepresentatie van jongens en jongemannen met een Marokkaanse achtergrond in de verdachtenstatistiek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden crime trend, recorded crime, Moroccans, the Netherlands, cultural dissonance
Auteurs Dr. R. Jennissen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Similar to the total youth crime, the share of Moroccan boys and men who are suspected of committing a crime is decreasing. The percentage of suspects among male Moroccan teens and early twenties declined with as much as 35% in the period from 2005 to 2015. However, the share of 12- to 24-year-old males with a Dutch background who were suspected of committing a crime, declined even more sharply. Therefore, the overrepresentation of Moroccans increased. The increased amount of cultural dissonance among Moroccan boys and young adults seems to be the most probable explanation for the increased overrepresentation of this group in recorded crime. Cultural dissonance is where migrants have to steer a middle course between two highly contrasting cultures, namely the culture of their country of origin (of their parents) and that of the country in which they are residing.


Dr. R. Jennissen
Dr. Roel Jennissen is als senior wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid. Hij schreef dit artikel op persoonlijke titel.
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