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Artikel

Access_open De slimme stad: grote beloften, weerbarstige praktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden smart lamp posts, public values, data principles, digital entanglement, Quadruple Helix
Auteurs Dr. Bart Karstens, Linda Kool MSc MA en Prof. dr. ir. Rinie van Est
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The smart city is the urban ideal of our time. Yet its high expectations often run counter against the performance of smart city projects in practice. The Rathenau Institute has studied a number of such projects in the municipality of Eindhoven, a leading city with respect to digital innovation in the Netherlands. To ensure that data is used in a proper manner with respect for public values Eindhoven has applied several strategies, such as privacy by design and the active involvement of its citizens. It has also set up a number of principles for the digital society which helped to negotiate contracts with private partners. Yet the authors’ analysis shows that important legal challenges remain. Some of the principles require more detailed specification. The authors also found that the law is not yet fully appropriated to the new digital context and needs to be adjusted accordingly.


Dr. Bart Karstens
Dr. B. Karstens is onderzoeker op het gebied van kunstmatige intelligentie en de digitale samenleving bij het Rathenau Instituut.

Linda Kool MSc MA
L. Kool MSc MA is coördinator binnen het thema Digitale Samenleving verbonden aan het Rathenau Instituut.

Prof. dr. ir. Rinie van Est
Prof. dr. ir. Q.C. van Est is als coördinator binnen het thema Slimme Samenleving werkzaam bij het Rathenau Instituut. Hij is tevens hoogleraar Technology Assessment and Governance aan de Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.
Artikel

Publieke waarden of publiek conflict: democratische grondslagen voor de slimme stad

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden public values, smart city, citizen participation, anti-technological protest, democratic legitimacy
Auteurs Prof. dr. Liesbet van Zoonen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Public values and citizen participation are key terms in smart city discourse that are propagated by all its actors, from governments to corporations and civil society. Nevertheless, the design and development of smart cities are hardly ‘public’ as some publics and some forms of participation are never included. This is particularly visible in current protests against a key enabling technology for smart cities, 5G. These contestations tend to be considered ill-informed and irrational, while their methods are seen as conflictual rather than helpful. In this article the author argues that the public value approach to smart cities is rooted in a deliberative perspective of democracy, while the tensions that are produced by 5G and other forms of anti-technological protest are better understood as part of agonistic democracy. Such conflicts about the new smart technologies that are currently hidden from public sight need to be articulated and constructed as contentious issues for electoral politics, in order for the smart city to acquire its democratic legitimacy.


Prof. dr. Liesbet van Zoonen
Prof. dr. E.A. van Zoonen is academisch directeur van het LDE Centrum voor Bold Cities van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, www.bold-cities.nl.
Artikel

Over het recht op de smart city

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden smart city, right to the city, technological solutionism, participation, disorder
Auteurs Dr. Maša Galič
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    While smart city initiatives claim to be ‘citizen-focused’ or ‘citizen-centric’, there are several troubling aspects of how citizenship and social relations are produced within them. First, they prioritize technological solutions to social and urban problems from the perspective of businesses and states, rather than serving local communities. With a focus on digital technology, they also exclude a wide range of marginalized publics from the possibility to participate in the smart city and only rarely address issues of social differences in cities. The smart city thus creates new or exacerbates existing challenges to the possibility of all city dwellers to fully enjoy urban life with all of its services and advantages, as well as taking direct part in the management of cities – in other words, it creates challenges for ‘the right to the city’. In this article, the author thus explores the notion of the right to the city in order to inform and recast the smart city in emancipatory and empowering ways, one that would work for the benefit of all citizens and not just selected populations.


Dr. Maša Galič
Dr. M. Galič is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology and Society (TILT) van de Universiteit Tilburg.
Titel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Auteurs Dr. Mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Gastredacteur dr. mr. M.B. Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Psychomacht: hoe sturen data en algoritmen de veiligheid in smart cities?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden psychopower, smart cities, Bernard Stiegler, Michel Foucault, security
Auteurs Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article deals with the relationship of smart security technologies to broader modes of exercising power and subjugating individuals. It claims that the notion of psychopower is precisely what is missing from post-Foucaultian accounts of the smart city. In the article psychopower is defined as the manipulation of our consciousness in order to channel our desires toward ‘normal’ social behavior, drawing a line between what is ‘acceptable’ and what is ‘unacceptable’. Psychopower raises a series of concerns related to its democratic legitimacy and accountability as behaviorally informed conditioning of the mind runs the risk of constant surveillance, where human agency is diluted in a techno-utopian vision that promises to improve city-wide efficiency, decision-making, and security.


Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. M.B. Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Voorbij het polderen in de slimme stad

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden smart city, public values, civil servants, public involvement, anchored pluralism
Auteurs Dr. Jiska Engelbert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Steering on public values in Dutch smart cities, let alone their regulation, is complicated. This article situates this difficulty in the vested interests that Dutch local authorities have in public-private smart city projects, and in the fact that public values are narrowly defined in relation to the technology; not in relation to a vision for the city in which its communities thrive. A way out of this deadlock, the article proposes, is to understand smart cities in the Netherlands beyond the typically Dutch consensus politics (the ‘polder’) and, instead, as part of a broader (urban) governance tendency to push urban technologies through the recital of fixed urban problems and public values. Consequently, state regulation of the (Dutch) smart city should principally enable (local) public and political involvement in defining urban problems and urban dreams, and thus in deciding the public values that are at stake.


Dr. Jiska Engelbert
Dr. J. Engelbert is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Centre for BOLD Cities van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Van de gesloten smart city naar een open slimme stad

Lessen uit Quayside, Toronto

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Toronto, Quayside, Sidewalk Labs, open data, open smart city
Auteurs Saskia Naafs MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The recently cancelled Quayside smart city project in Toronto by Sidewalk Labs is an example of a top-down, tech-driven, intransparant model of a smart city, where government and citizens got sidetracked in the planning process. This article analyses what went wrong and proposes an alternative approach. Experts in the field – from data scientists to philosophers, sociologists and activists – propose a different kind of smart city. The open smart city is based on principles of open data, public digital infrastructure, and civic participation. It uses technology to strengthen public values, civic participation and human rights, instead of undermining them.


Saskia Naafs MSc
S. Naafs MSc is stadssocioloog en strategisch adviseur bij het Atelier Rijksbouwmeester in Den Haag.

    In this article, the authors draw on a netnographic study conducted between May and July 2019 on phishing on Telegram Messenger. The results indicate that Telegram, just like cryptomarkets and online forums, seems to function as a criminal marketplace. In the groups analyzed the authors see users who both offer and are looking for specific goods and services related to the crime script of phishing. Furthermore, the information on Telegram contains specific modi operandi that are offering comprehensive and step-by-step guides to successfully complete specific financial cybercrimes. Therefore, based on this explorative study the authors argue that Telegram can be seen as a digital offender convergence setting.


Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R.A. Roks is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Nahom Monshouwer MSc
R.N. Monshouwer MSc is CCD Analist bij Rabobank.
Artikel

Social engineering: digitale fraude en misleiding

Een meta-analyse van studies naar de effectiviteit van interventies

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden awareness, cybercrime, intervention, meta-analysis, social engineering
Auteurs Dr. Jan-Willem Bullée en Prof. dr. Marianne Junger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The prevalence of online crime increases. Social engineering, such as email phishing, is often an important element in an attack. Several interventions have been developed to reduce the success of these types of attacks. The current study investigates whether interventions can help reduce vulnerability to social engineering attacks. The authors investigate which types of interventions and specific elements are most successful. They selected studies with an experimental design that tested at least one intervention. A total of 19 studies with 37 effect sizes, based on a total sample of N=23,146 subjects, were found. The available training courses, intervention materials and effect sizes were analysed. Overall, positive effects of interventions were found. However, there are substantial differences in effect for the different types of interventions. Effective interventions are relatively intensive and have a specific focus. The authors conclude with the design of the best possible intervention given the results of their research.


Dr. Jan-Willem Bullée
Dr. J.-W. Bullée is werkzaam bij Awareways, Computer & Network Security. Hij promoveerde in 2017 op het proefschrift Experimental social engineering aan de Universiteit Twente.

Prof. dr. Marianne Junger
Prof. dr. M. Junger is hoogleraar Cyber Security en Business Continuity aan de Universiteit Twente.
Artikel

Vissen met een nieuwe hengel: een onderzoek naar betaalverzoekfraude

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden payment request fraud, online advertisement platforms, modus operandi, cybercrime, spearphishing
Auteurs Joke Rooyakkers MSc. en Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Online fraudsters seem to adapt to new digital opportunities. While the academic literature about phishing mainly focuses on phishing through emails, fraudsters also appear to use new means of communication and platforms to find and deceive their victims. Based on analysis of 728 police reports from the period from June 20th to August 20th 2019, this article provides a descriptive study on the new phenomenon of payment request fraud on the Dutch advertisement platform Marktplaats.nl (similar to eBay). The article will provide a thorough description of the crime script and its success factors. As fraudsters now use new means of communication, it will also be assessed to what extent they use new persuasion techniques, and to what extent victims may have different characteristics. The research, therefore, focuses on the modus operandi, persuasion techniques used by the fraudsters, and victim characteristics.


Joke Rooyakkers MSc.
I.J.M. Rooyakkers MSc. is analist cybercrime bij de Nationale Politie, eenheid Limburg.

Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg
Dr. M. Weulen Kranenbarg is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Persoonlijke pagina: https://research.vu.nl/en/persons/marleen-weulen-kranenbarg.
Artikel

Invordering schulden: van eigenbelang naar gezamenlijk belang

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden debt recovery, seizing wage, seizing bank account, multiple creditors, legislation
Auteurs Mr. André Moerman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution treats debt recovery as an important cause for the emergence and worsening of the debt problem. It is explained that when a bailiff seizes wage, the debtor often has too little left to live on. In addition to seizure of wage, the bailiff can also seize the bank account or seize household goods in order to sell these. The author describes how this can lead to new debts and what legislation is being prepared to modernize this situation. In case of problematic debts, multiple creditors are collecting from the same debtor, which requires coordination. The recovery by creditors facilitated by the current rules focuses on the claims of individual creditors. However, as soon as problematic debts are involved, an integrated approach is necessary, in which the common interest, the interest of all creditors and that of the debtor, takes precedence over self-interest.


Mr. André Moerman
Mr. A.J. Moerman is manager bij Bindkracht10, voorzitter van de signaleringscommissie van de Landelijke Organisatie Sociaal Raadslieden en eigenaar van www.schuldinfo.nl.
Artikel

Financiële problematiek als belemmering voor re-integratie van ex-delinquenten

Een onderzoek onder reclasseringswerkers en hun cliënten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden financial problems, debts, delinquency, risk factors, probation
Auteurs Gercoline van Beek MA, Dr. Vivienne de Vogel en Prof. dr. Dike van de Mheen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In order to improve the effectiveness of offender supervision many studies have been conducted into risk factors for delinquency. Evidence was found that debts and crime are interrelated. However, understanding of potential underlying risk factors in this relationship is limited. Results of an analysis of client files (N=250) show that debts among probation clients are highly prevalent and problems with respect to education, work and mental and physical health seem to be important underlying factors in the relationship between debts and crime. In addition, interviews were conducted with both probation workers (N=33) and clients (N=16) to get insight into the possibilities to adequately support clients with regard to debts in order to stimulate successful resocialization. Results underline the importance of paying attention to possible underlying factors to effectively supervise clients.


Gercoline van Beek MA
G. van Beek MA is onderzoeker en docent aan de Hogeschool Utrecht. Zij doet momenteel promotieonderzoek naar financiële problematiek onder reclasseringscliënten (zie www.hu.nl/onderzoek/onderzoekers/gercoline-van-beek).

Dr. Vivienne de Vogel
Dr. V. de Vogel is lector Werken in Justitieel Kader aan de Hogeschool Utrecht en onderzoeker bij De Forensische Zorgspecialisten in Utrecht (zie www.hu.nl/onderzoek/onderzoekers/vivienne-de-vogel).

Prof. dr. Dike van de Mheen
Prof. dr. H. van de Mheen is hoogleraar Transformaties in de Zorg bij Tranzo, het wetenschappelijk centrum voor zorg en welzijn van de Universiteit van Tilburg (zie www.tilburguniversity.edu/nl/medewerkers/h-vdmheen).
Artikel

Voorspellen met big-datamodellen

Over de valkuilen voor beleidsmakers

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Big data, predictive analytics, challenges, data quality, interpretation
Auteurs Dr. Susan van den Braak en Dr. Sunil Choenni
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the field of policymaking, there is a growing need to take advantage of the opportunities that big data predictions offer. A strong point of big data is that the large amounts of data that are collected nowadays can be re-used to find new insights. However, for effective use in policymaking it is also important to take into account the relating limitations and challenges. For example, the quality of the data used can be a problem. Outdated data and data of which the semantics have changed, may result in predictions that are no longer correct. In addition, it is difficult to apply predictions to individual cases or people. In this article authors provide various practical recommendations for dealing with these problems. As long as people are aware of the limitations and handle the results with care, big data models can be a useful addition to traditional methods in the field of policymaking.


Dr. Susan van den Braak
Dr. S.W. van den Braak is als senioronderzoeker verbonden aan de afdeling Statistische Informatievoorziening en Beleidsanalyse (SIBa) van het WODC.

Dr. Sunil Choenni
Dr. S. Choenni is als hoofd van de afdeling Statistische Informatievoorziening en Beleidsanalyse (SIBa) werkzaam bij het WODC. Hij is tevens lector Future Information & Communication Technology aan de Hogeschool Rotterdam.
Artikel

De best mogelijke rechtspraak

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Legal system, Effectiveness, Legal innovations, Dispute resolution, New technologies
Auteurs Prof.dr. Maurits Barendrecht
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article outlines the need in the Netherlands for socially effective justice that better resolves citizens’ problems. The author argues that new forms of dispute resolution should be integrated in the justice system. The author first describes various types of innovations. Then he outlines the obstacles to innovations. A major obstacle is that many stakeholders in the existing legal system are simultaneously the gatekeepers for the admission of innovations. It is necessary to create an infrastructure that welcomes, reinforces, tests, finances and imports new treatments for legal problems.


Prof.dr. Maurits Barendrecht
Prof. dr. M. Barendrecht is als research director verbonden aan The Hague Institute for Innovation of Law (HiiL).
Artikel

Nieuwe online opsporingsbevoegdheden en het recht op privacy

Een analyse van de Wet computercriminaliteit III

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden cybercrime, Dutch Cybercrime Act, hacking, investigative powers, privacy
Auteurs Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2018 the Dutch parliament accepted new cybercrime legislation (the Cybercrime III Act) that creates several new online criminal offences and gives law enforcement agencies new investigative powers on the Internet. This article describes the background of Dutch cybercrime legislation and the contents of the Cybercrime III Act. The newly introduced cybercrimes are discussed as well as the new investigative competences. Particularly the legitimacy and the necessity of the investigative power of the police to hack computer systems of suspects may significantly interfere with the right to privacy.


Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers
Mr. dr. ir. B.H.M. Custers is associate professor en onderzoeksdirecteur bij eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Auteurs Edwin Kruisbergen
Auteursinformatie

Edwin Kruisbergen
Gastredacteur dr. E.W. Kruisbergen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid.
Artikel

Uit de schaduw

Perspectieven voor wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar dark markets

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden Dark markets, Hansa, Silk Road, Bayonet, scientific research
Auteurs Thijmen Verburgh MSc, Eefje Smits MSc en Rolf van Wegberg MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the authors present the lessons learned from previous research efforts into dark markets. First the important features of dark markets are discussed, i.e. anonymity and trust, as well as the question how data on dark markets can be collected. Next, the authors illustrate how this data can be used to study the phenomenon of dark markets itself as well as the impact of police interventions on dark markets.


Thijmen Verburgh MSc
T. Verburgh MSc is als onderzoeker verbonden aan TNO.

Eefje Smits MSc
E. Smits MSc is werkzaam als onderzoeker bij TNO.

Rolf van Wegberg MSc
R. van Wegberg MSc is als onderzoeker verbonden aan TNO en de Technische Universiteit Delft.
Artikel

Het zwaard van Damocles: burgemeesters wil is wet

Over het punitieve karakter van een bestuursrechtelijke herstelsanctie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Mayor’s powers, house eviction, public order, hemp nursery, administrative sanction
Auteurs Mr. Maartje Schaap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Under Article 13b (1) of the Dutch Opium Act, the mayor is authorized to impose an order under administrative coercion when drugs are sold, delivered, supplied or present in houses or premises This much-discussed article, also cited as the ‘Damocles Law’, gives the mayor the power to close drug shelters even before the suspect’s guilt has been established in legal proceedings. It is not necessary to show that the interests of public policy are at stake. Moreover, the means of defense against the closure are very limited. The author argues that the current application of Article 13b is exclusively punitive in nature, whereby in case of criminal prosecution, there is also a violation of the ne bis in idem principle.


Mr. Maartje Schaap
Mr. M.R.M. Schaap is werkzaam als strafrechtadvocaat bij De Haan Strafrechtadvocaten te Groningen.
Artikel

Opgeruimd staat netjes

Over de sociologie van gebiedsverboden en de praktijk van het Collectief Winkelverbod

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden collective shopping ban, shoplifting, public space, purification, Mary Douglas
Auteurs Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author reports on an ethnographic research conducted on the Collective Shopping Ban, a measure taken in the Netherlands in an effort to make shopkeepers co-responsible for maintaining safety and security. By describing the practice of the Collective Shopping Ban in The Hague, he investigates how the involved shopkeepers are dealing with offenses like theft, nuisance, intimidation, and vandalism. The author describes the sociological background of banning orders and what the banning of people means in terms of purification of public space.


Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. M. Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Ruim baan? Uitsluiting en zelfuitsluiting van de arbeidsmarkt

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden criminal records, screening, young adults, labor market, self-exclusion
Auteurs Dr. mr. Elina van ’t Zand-Kurtovic
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, the number of criminal record screenings performed each year skyrocketed to more than one million. Yet, empirical evidence on its effects has been largely absent. In this article the author addresses parts of the findings of her PhD research, which aimed to fill this gap, by providing a subjective perspective of how having a criminal record impacts the process of re-entry into society, particularly into the labor market, for young adults. It is based on the lived experiences of 31 young adults having a criminal record who were followed during their process of reintegration into the labor market. The vivid, real-life stories of young adults’ strategies of dealing with the stigma of a criminal record, and how this subsequently influences their position in the labor market, highlight the counterproductive effects of increasingly widespread criminal record screening. They provide evidence that many young adults adopt self-exclusion as a strategy for avoiding rejection and exclusion.


Dr. mr. Elina van ’t Zand-Kurtovic
Dr. mr. E.G. van ’t Zand-Kurtovic is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.
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