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Artikel

Opdracht- en ander onderzoek in het juridische domein

Een persoonlijke visie vanuit de rechtssociologie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden commissioned research, academic research, legal policy, socio-legal studies, independency
Auteurs Prof. mr. Nick Huls
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author asserts, based on his own experiences in this field, that the independence of research and researchers is not a given, but must always be conquered and defended. He relates the necessity of doing commissioned research to developments in Dutch legal academia and describes its strengths and weaknesses. He then makes the comparison with ‘pure’ academic research. He shows that most lecturers must fight and defend their independence against all sorts of developments within the modern university. There is not much room anymore to do one’s own free research. He concludes that neither academic nor commissioned research takes place in a vacuum without power relations.


Prof. mr. Nick Huls
Prof. mr. N. Huls is emeritus hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

‘Slimme Don’: de intelligente maffiabaas van Rusland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden intelligent criminals, Russian Mafia, Semjon Mogilevitsj, organized crime, financial crimes
Auteurs Prof. dr. D. Siegel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Drawing on material from her extensive study of Russian organized crime, the author sketches a portrait of Semjon Mogilevitsj. This Russian ‘godfather’ enjoys the reputation of being the smartest and highest educated mafia boss worldwide. Indeed Mogilevitsj obtained a master’s degree in Economics with good results, but this alone doesn’t explain his phenomenal successes in criminal as well as in legal business. Describing the steady expansion of his criminal activities from Russia into Israel, the United States, Eastern Europa, Italy and Canada, the author suggests that the social and economic circumstances in Russia just before and during the collapse of the Soviet Union might have served as an ideal playing ground for Mogilevitsj to develop the specific social intelligence and skills needed to successfully run a criminal organization.


Prof. dr. D. Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Een verblijfsvergunning, maar dan?

De sociaaleconomische integratie van vluchtelingen in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden refugee integration, integration policies, civic integration, family reunification, naturalization
Auteurs Dr. J.F.I. Klaver
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Integration is an essential element of refugee protection. This article presents data on the socio-economic integration of refugees in the Netherlands who have received a residence status between 2000 and 2010. Many refugees are unable to integrate successfully into the Dutch labor market, which results in high levels of welfare dependency and poverty. The article furthermore discusses developments in Dutch integration policies, with a specific focus on civic integration, family reunification and citizenship. These policies are increasingly characterized by imposing more stringent requirements on migrants as a precondition for obtaining permanent residency and citizenship. As such, these policy developments prove to be counterproductive to refugee integration in the Netherlands. A brief comparison between the Netherlands on the one hand and Denmark, the United Kingdom and Belgium/Flanders on the other, shows that the Netherlands pursue a particularly severe course with regard to imposing integration requirements on refugees.


Dr. J.F.I. Klaver
Dr. Jeanine Klaver is werkzaam als manager onderzoek bij Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek en houdt zich vooral bezig met onderzoek naar vraagstukken rondom integratie en migratie, met bijzondere aandacht voor de integratie van vluchtelingen.
Artikel

Wat doen daders met hun geld?

Uitkomsten van de Monitor Georganiseerde Criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden Money laundering, Organised crime, Financial crime, Criminal infiltration approach, Social opportunity structure
Auteurs E.W. Kruisbergen, E.R. Kleemans en R.F. Kouwenberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the authors use empirical data from the Dutch Organised Crime Monitor to give empirical insight into the investments of organised crime offenders in legal economy. Using a dataset of 1,196 individual investments, they look into what kind of assets offenders purchase and where these assets are located. The authors use the empirical results to assess the tenability of different theoretical perspectives and assumptions that are present in the literature on money laundering and organised crime: the standard economic approach, the criminal infiltration approach and the social opportunity structure. The results of this study show that offenders predominantly invest in their home country and that their investments consist of tangible, familiar assets such as residences and other real estate and companies from well-known sectors. Investments such as bonds as well as stocks in companies in which offenders are not personally involved, were only found in a small number of cases. To put it differently: offenders usually stay close to home with their investments. Based on these results, the concept of social opportunity structure seems to be best suited to understand offenders’ investment choices.


E.W. Kruisbergen
Drs. Edwin Kruisbergen werkt bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

E.R. Kleemans
Prof. dr. Edward Kleemans is hoogleraar Zware Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

R.F. Kouwenberg
Drs. Ruud Kouwenberg werkt bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Artikel

Toegang tot recht in beweging

Over burgers en hun oplossingsstrategieën

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden access to justice, civil justice, administrative law, dispute resolution, legal assistance
Auteurs M. ter Voert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Both in public policy and in scientific research, the concept of access to justice has been subject to change. In the seventies access to justice was mainly understood as access to a lawyer and a judge. In the nineties the perspective widens to alternative forms of dispute resolution, self-help and juridification of problems. The present article focuses on access to justice for citizens who experienced civil and administrative problems. Firstly, it illustrates the change in public policy with respect to dispute resolution. Secondly, it describes the shifting views on access to justice in empirical research. Furthermore it presents the results of socio-legal research into the dispute resolution of citizens and discusses what these results tell us about access to justice.


M. ter Voert
Dr. Marijke ter Voert is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Deuren op slot

Naar een verklaring voor de internationale daling van criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2012
Trefwoorden Crime Victim Survey, Crime levels, Marxist criminology, Crime opportunity theory, Crime prevention
Auteurs J.J.M. van Dijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the opening section the author refers to the classical book of Dutch criminologist Willem Bonger on the links between poverty/social injustice and levels of crime. He then introduces his own work on the International Crime Victim Survey (ICVS) since 1989. The ICVS trend data on crime in Western countries during 1989 up to 2010 show a curvilinear movement peaking around 2000. The upward trend seems to track economic growth and to have mainly been caused by increased opportunities of crime. His analytical results concerning car theft and household burglary suggest that the international falls in crime since 2000 are largely caused by improved security. A comparative analysis shows for example that burglary rates have fallen in countries with high levels of home security such as Great Britain and the Netherlands and have continued to rise in low security countries such as Denmark and Switzerland. The author concludes that criminology has evolved both methodologically and theoretically since the publication of Bonger’s book in 1905. Some fundamental principles of the discipline, however, appear to have remained unchanged. Van Dijk’s own work is, just like that of Bonger, policy- oriented. It is driven by the motivation to assist governments in finding better ways to reduce suffering of human beings from crime, either as victims or as offenders.


J.J.M. van Dijk
Prof. dr. mr. Jan van Dijk is als hoogleraar verbonden aan Intervict, het International Victimology Institute van de Universiteit van Tilburg. De oorspronkelijke Engelse titel van deze lezing luidt Closing the doors, een verwijzing naar een boek over suïcidepreventie van Ron Clarke, getiteld Suicide: Closing the exits. In dit boek en in een daarna verschenen artikel van Ron Clarke en Pat Mayhew werd empirisch bewijs gepresenteerd van het feit dat een verandering in de samenstelling van het aardgas in huishoudens in Groot-Brittannië en Nederland halverwege de jaren tachtig leidde tot een abrupte daling van het aantal mensen dat zelfmoord pleegde met behulp van gas, zonder dat er een duidelijke verschuiving naar andere manieren van zelfdoding optrad (Clarke & Mayhew 1989). Als een zeer gemotiveerde daad zoals zelfmoord kan worden teruggedrongen door eenvoudige situationele maatregelen, waarom, vroegen de auteurs zich af, zou dat dan niet kunnen met diverse vormen van opportunistische diefstal, zoals joyriding of inbraken in de wijk? Inderdaad, waarom niet?
Artikel

Misdaad en straf

Bespiegelingen over (de dood)straf vanuit religieus perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2011
Auteurs J.A.A.C. Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What does a religious perspective imply for the justification of the state imposing punishment on perpetrators of criminal offences under criminal law? As religion is experiencing a revival, it is not a strange idea to examine what a religious perspective can teach us in relation to criminal law. What religious fundamentalism and conservatism have to offer in this respect seems quite clear, namely retributive action by the state, as God's representative on earth, against conduct contrary to the dogmas of the Holy Scriptures. Nevertheless, research shows that conventional believers also often recognize the value of forgiveness and reconciliation. What is not clear, however, is what mysticism has to offer in relation to criminal law. In contradiction to conventional criminal law, from a mystical perspective there is no call for intentional infliction of pain in responding to crime. To avenge evil with evil is dismissed for both moral and practical reasons. Encouraging the spiritual awakening of man forms the alfa and omega of a mystical approach to crime.


J.A.A.C. Claessen
Mr. dr. Jacques Claessen is als universitair docent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht. Tevens is hij mederedacteur van de Nieuwsbrief Strafrecht.

    In this article the author explores - on the basis of Mitchel Lasser's book Judicial deliberations - the possibilities of enlarging the legitimacy of the Dutch Cassation Court (Hoge Raad). After a broad theoretical analysis of several concepts of legitimacy he describes the societal position of de Hoge Raad as highest court vis-à-vis rivals, such as the European Courts, the Council of State (Raad van State) and the Council of the Judiciary (Raad voor de rechtspraak). He argues that the cassation institute has to innovate itself and suggest new ways of exerting judicial leadership.


N.J.H. Huls
Prof. mr. dr. Nick Huls is hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en de Universiteit Leiden. Tot 1 januari 2009 was hij programmaleider van het onderzoeksprogramma Rechtspleging van de EUR.
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