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Artikel

Verdachten met een LVB in het politieverhoor

De invloed van verhoormethoden op de inhoud van verklaringen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden interrogation methods and techniques, suspect and witness, (borderline) intellectual disability, false confessions, false statements
Auteurs P.R. Kranendonk MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The main goal of an interrogation is to elicit truthful information about the involvement of a suspect or witness in a criminal act. Some interrogation methods and techniques are useful for extracting information from otherwise unwilling suspects, but they can also elicit false confessions or statements from innocent (and vulnerable) suspects and witnesses. Multiple studies show that a large proportion of false confessions are made by suspects with an intellectual disability. Intellectual disabilities are often difficult to recognize, because of an individual’s streetwise behavior. This vulnerable group is extremely sensitive to suggestibility, compliance and acquiescence. Some interrogation methods and techniques used by the police can have a severe influence on these features and therefore on the reliability of statements. Given the overrepresentation of people with an intellectual disability in the Dutch criminal justice system, it is of great importance to prevent unwanted risks in the interrogation.


P.R. Kranendonk MSc
Robin Kranendonk MSc doet als promovenda bij de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam onderzoek naar de knelpunten en risico’s bij het verhoren van verdachten en getuigen met een LVB.
Artikel

LVB-jongeren in de ZSM-procedure

Over kwetsbaarheid en recidiverisico

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden intellectual disability, recognition, criminal court, ZSM method, recidivism
Auteurs Drs. M. Teeuwen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, there are signs that young people with a (mild) intellectual disability are overrepresented in the criminal justice system. It turns out that especially a large majority of the repeated offenders have an intellectual disability. Therefore it would be relevant to know whether and when an intellectual disability is recognized by professionals in the criminal procedure. What is the impact of not recognizing the specific disability on the offender in the criminal justice procedure and on recidivism? The author focuses on a rather new accelerated out-of-court settlement of criminal cases, the so-called ZSM method. She concludes that the high speed of this procedure increases the vulnerability of suspects with a (mild) intellectual disability, especially because the various professionals involved in this procedure seem to lack substantial awareness of the problem. This situation increases the risk of false confessions and witnessing and might also contribute to recidivism.


Drs. M. Teeuwen
Drs. Marigo Teeuwen is socioloog en werkzaam bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam. De auteur dankt Robin Kranendonk en Marijke Malsch voor hun opbouwende feedback.
Artikel

Ontspoorde zorg, gehechtheid en interactie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2015
Trefwoorden derailed care, attachment behavior, mentalization, effectiveness of interaction, elder abuse
Auteurs Drs. T. Royers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Caring for someone can be very strainful. In this article the author states that stress reactions are not necessarily due to the burden of the emotional or practical care load itself. More important factors are the individual capability to regulate emotions and the way in which careseeker and caregiver interact on emotional topics such as pain, panic, sorrow, depression, and anger. The author starts from the attachment theory and describes the importance of attachment for someone who feels threatened, sick or fearful. Deep stress may hinder the caregiver to be aware of the thoughts, emotions and acts of the other person. Several effective and non-effective interaction patterns are described. The author argues that without self regulation the risk of care derailing and mistreatment will be substantial while the need for external regulation grows.


Drs. T. Royers
Drs. Theo Royers is socioloog. Hij werkt zelfstandig als trainer-coach en adviseur via Labez te Zutphen. Samen met Maria van Bavel schreef hij Oud leed. Basisboek ouderenmishandeling (2012).
Artikel

De liefjes van prostituees: pooiers of partners?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden prostitution, anti-trafficking, sex work, human trafficking, abusive relationships
Auteurs Drs. M. Verhoeven en Dr. B. van Gestel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we show what relationships may exist between sex workers and their partners. These relationships are diverse and sometimes complex by the presence of both intimacy and intimidation or violence. From the women’s perspective these relationships are not primarily defined as ‘violent’ and ‘involuntary’, they also provide them love, protection and security. From a governments perspective with a focus on human trafficking and exploitation of sex workers, these relationships are quickly mistrusted. In the latest measures to prevent exploitation, all sex workers are questioned about their relationships. Although this may be important for the identification of potential exploitation, in practice the opposite happens: women keep silent about their relationships towards government officials. In other words, an increasing focus on combating exploitation may enforce the stigma on relationships of sex workers.


Drs. M. Verhoeven
Drs. Maite Verhoeven is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het WODC.

Dr. B. van Gestel
Dr. Barbra van Gestel is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Van stoornis naar neurocognitie in de behandeling van tbs-patiënten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden disordered offenders, neurocognition, DSM-V, risk taxation, Good Lives Model
Auteurs K. von Borries, E. Bulten en Th. Rinne
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Psychology, psychiatry, criminology and sociology provide scientific knowledge for the forensic psychiatry about disorders, the behaviour of offenders, offenses and the influence of the environment. In recent decades the What Works principles (risk, need, responsivity) became theoretical cornerstones of forensic psychiatry. However, additional theories have gained popularity: models addressing protective factors and the well-being of the delinquent. As in general psychiatry neurobiological research about the relationship between the brain and behaviour is influencing forensic psychiatry more and more. The translation of these results into regular assessment and treatment seems a matter of time. The development of a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery is an attempt to bridge the gap between this basic neurobiological-neurocognitive research and forensic psychiatric practice. This article describes the influence of the neurocognitive, neuropsychological knowledge in general and in particular the construction of this battery and its usefulness in daily practice. Whether this development is the beginning of a fundamental paradigm shift or an addition to the current approach, remains to be seen.


K. von Borries
Drs. Katinka von Borries is verbonden aan de Pompestichting in Nijmegen.

E. Bulten
Dr. Erik Bulten is verbonden aan de Pompestichting in Nijmegen.

Th. Rinne
Dr. Thomas Rinne is werkzaam bij het Pieter Baan Centrum van het Nederlands Instituut voor Forensische Psychiatrie in Utrecht.
Artikel

Zeven jaar na de Commissie Visser: een nieuw evenwicht?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden TBS order, mentally disordered offenders, Parliamentary Inquiry Commission, leave permit, forensic care institutions
Auteurs M.J.F. van der Wolf en L. Noyon
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 1988 the Dutch entrustment order for dangerous mentally disordered offenders (TBS) is organised around three basic principles: treatment, legal protection and social security. In 2006 the Parliamentary Inquiry Commission ‘Visser’ reviewed the TBS order and made seventeen recommendations. This article seeks to investigate to what extent the implementation of these recommendations contributed to developments like the increasing restraints on leave permits and a lengthened average stay. Since 2006 there has been a strong emphasis on security. For a balanced execution of the TBS order more attention is needed for treatment and legal protection.


M.J.F. van der Wolf
Mr. dr. Michiel van der Wolf is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling strafrecht van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

L. Noyon
Lucas Noyon is als onderzoeksassistent verbonden aan de afdeling strafrecht van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Verkorten van de tbs-verblijfsduur: een weg uit de crisis?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden forensic care budget cuts, TBS order, treatment time, risk society, risk analysis
Auteurs M.H. Nagtegaal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The economic crisis in the Netherlands forces the Ministry of Security and Justice to cut expenses. In the forensic psychiatric sector, the main savings are expected from reducing the length of stay of forensic psychiatric patients (TBS-patients) in high security hospitals. Currently, over 70% of all TBS-patients do not reach the now set goal of successfully terminating their treatment program within eight years. The present article questions whether it is plausible that this goal will be reached. Research has shown that there are several possible measures that can be undertaken to reduce the length of stay. Examples of these are identifying subgroups of patients who take particularly long to complete their treatment and setting up interventions for those patients, reducing the focus on risks in society and in forensic practice, and the inclusion of protective factors in risk assessment. These factors may help in finding a way out of the crisis.


M.H. Nagtegaal
Dr. Marleen Nagtegaal is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Forensische zorg anno 2013 en de plek van de tbs daarbinnen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden forensic care system, TBS order, forensic care budget, treatment capacity, extramural forensic care
Auteurs A.A. van Gemmert en N.H. Tenneij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The organization and execution of forensic care in the Netherlands has changed considerably over the last six years. In this paper the authors define forensic care as all mental health care for adults under the criminal law, including care for the intellectual disabled, and addiction care. Before 2007 the Ministry of Security and Justice sole responsibility was the financing and execution of the measure detention under a hospital order (the so-called TBS-measure). All other forms of forensic care were then provided under the responsibility of the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports. Nowadays, the Ministry of Security and Justice is responsible for all forensic care. The main reasons for this change were the increase observed in the number of patients detained under a hospital order and an increase in the length of stay necessary for the successful completion of the treatment, which resulted in an overload of the TBS-system, an observed lack of care possibilities for the detained, and a lack of transition between forensic and regular care.


A.A. van Gemmert
Nol van Gemmert is verbonden aan de afdeling Informatieanalyse en Documentatie van de Dienst Justitiële Inrichtingen (DJI) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

N.H. Tenneij
Dr. Nienke Tenneij is als beleidsadviseur werkzaam bij de Dienst Justitiële Inrichtingen (DJI) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Artikel

De politiefunctionaris en het risico op PTSS

Een terechte zorg of medicalisering van een beroepsgroep?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden police officers, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), psychosocial problems, medicalization
Auteurs M.J.J. Kunst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Several policy measures have recently been undertaken to enhance resilience in Dutch police officers. The author of this article argues that these initiatives rely on false beliefs about the stressful nature of police work. Police officers are often exposed to traumatic or otherwise stressful events, but this does not necessarily render them at an increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other (trauma-related) psychosocial problems. After a discussion of empirical studies which support his view, he speculates that these false beliefs are grounded in the Western tendency to qualify stressful events as (potentially) traumatic. This tendency to medicalize stressful events is reflected both in the history of the diagnostic criteria for PTSD in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the empirical literature. The author concludes with pointing out a potential negative by-effect of this medicalization tendency: simulating PTSD (symptoms) for external motives, such as financial gain.


M.J.J. Kunst
Dr. mr. Maarten Kunst is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Frontlijnwerken in de grote stad

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden frontline social work, Rotterdam, crisis situations, tailor-made approach, protection of the less-privileged
Auteurs B. Rombout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the activities and working methods of the Rotterdam social aid agency Bureau Frontlijn. It is based on the personal views and experiences of the author, Bureau Frontlijn director Barend Rombout, a former policeman who switched to social work in the disadvantaged districts more than ten years ago. The teaching of skills, coaching and training are key concepts in the work of Bureau Frontlijn. Many people suffering from a crisis because of unemployment, divorce, homelessness or early pregnancy are not adequately helped by state institutions, but instead get entangled in all kinds of bureaucratic procedures. What is needed in social aid is a more comprehensive and tailor-made approach. Even though individual responsibility is important, society has a moral obligation to protect the less privileged, because many of them have been in a disadvantaged situation since their birth or even earlier.


B. Rombout
Barend Rombout is hoofd van Bureau Frontlijn in Rotterdam.
Artikel

Niet voor wie niet tegen bloed kan

Een laatste handdruk pro Justitia

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden forensic psychiatry, forensic psychiatric hospital, forensic psychiatric patients, risk management, work motivation
Auteurs E.J.P. Brand
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Having a job is an all day reality, having a job in a prison or a forensic psychiatric hospital is not. Dealing on a daily basis with disturbed people who have committed a severe crime requires a highly professional attitude. For the professional working in this field, individual thoughts and feelings (of disgust of the criminal and his crime for example, so common amongst the public) are not an option, while at the same time the given means for doing the work are highly dependent on public opinion as expressed by the media and political spokesmen. Ed Brand, forensic psychologist for more than thirty years, describes the change in risk management which took place in those years on the social and political level in the treatment of psychiatric disturbed offenders. In his account he also refers to the changes in his personal life before he stopped his work in state prisons and forensic psychiatric hospitals.


E.J.P. Brand
Dr. Ed Brand (1955), psycholoog, werkte vanaf 1982 achtereenvolgens in de CAD-Alcoholkliniek in Haarlem (de huidige Brijderstichting), in het Penitentiair Selectie Centrum in Den Haag, in de FOBA (nu: PPC) in Amsterdam en als hoofd behandeling in de Oostvaarderskliniek (tbs) in Amsterdam (nu in Almere); daarnaast was hij consulent bij de Reclassering Den Haag en Leiden en lid van de Commissie van Toezicht van de justitiële jeugdinrichting Amsterbaken in Amsterdam. Hij promoveerde in 2001 op Het persoonlijkheidsonderzoek in het strafrecht (Deventer: Gouda Quint). Sinds 2009 werkt hij in Gezondheidscentrum Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel en in een psychiatrische polikliniek bij Mentrum/Arkin, de overkoepelende GGZ-instelling in Amsterdam. Correspondentieadres: ejp.brand@telfort.nl.
Artikel

Het aanzien van de Staat

Over de praktijk van tenuitvoerlegging van de levenslange straf

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden life imprisonment the Netherlands, effects of life imprisonment, reintegration, pardon policy, pardon cases
Auteurs W.F. van Hattum
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 1870 in the Netherlands the death penalty was replaced by the sanction nearest to that effect: lifelong imprisonment. For the government though this penalty was acceptable only in connection with the possibility of mercy. The sanction was to be executed humanely and should not result in torture. The way the sanction was executed since, the administration developed a policy of mercy taking into account the devastating effects of the sanction. This policy resulted in mental care for the convicted and his release after approximately twenty years imprisonment. More than hundred years later, about 2004, the policy of mercy changed. Since then, according to the responsible ministers, life imprisonment should end by the onset of death. In this article the practice under the old and the new policy is illustrated by a case study. The conclusion is that like the death penalty lifelong imprisonment corrodes the prestige of the State.


W.F. van Hattum
Mr. dr. Wiene van Hattum is universitair docent bij de Vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en voorzitter van het in 2008 opgerichte Forum Levenslang.
Artikel

Naar een compensatoir regime voor levenslang- en zeer langgestraften

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden life imprisonment the Netherlands, prison regime, prison living conditions, prison policies, human rights
Auteurs G. de Jonge
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Though small in numbers life and long-term prisoners pose special problems for the Dutch prison administration in terms of their treatment. A new approach is to concentrate these prisoners in three units specially designated for them. It is still unclear however what the regime in those facilities will look like. The author argues for introducing there a ‘compensatory regime’ that can counteract to some degree the harmful effects of life and long-term imprisonment.


G. de Jonge
Prof. mr. dr. Gerard de Jonge is emeritus bijzonder hoogleraar detentierecht aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Strafrecht en Verlichting

Over het karakter van een waarlijk verlicht strafrechtssysteem

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden criminal law system, Enlightenment, legal theory, retribution, risk assessment
Auteurs J.A.A.C. Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines the influence of the Enlightenment on the development of our criminal law system, using a legal theory perspective. On the basis of the dialectical character of this movement and the enlightened view on mankind, it is postulated that a true enlightened criminal law system is one in which there is both room for retribution, free will and responsibility as well as for prevention, causal determinism and risk. Furthermore, it is put forth that the daily practice of the criminal law has by now moved too far into the direction of prevention, causal determinism and risk, due to the ‘scientification’ and the simultaneous demoralisation of criminal law. As a result of these developments, it is out of the question to talk of a balanced and, consequently, of a truly enlightened criminal law system. Within the framework of the ‘scientification’ of the criminal law system, additional attention is devoted to the recent topic of neuroscience.


J.A.A.C. Claessen
Mr. dr. Jacques Claessen is als universitair docent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht. Hij is tevens rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Limburg.
Artikel

Wilsvrijheid en strafrechtelijke verantwoordelijkheid

Een rondgang langs fysicalisme, connectionisme en belichaamde cognitie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden free will, criminal responsibility, fysicalism, connectionism, embodied cognition
Auteurs F. de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the author defends two propositions related to the concepts of free will and criminal responsibility. Free will is defined as the capability of distancing oneself from one’s immediate surroundings and reflect on impulses. The first proposition is that it is a mistake to suppose – as do many neuroscientists adhering to objectivist theories on the human mind – that the concept of free will refers to a postulated natural phenomenon, the existence of which could, in principle, be established or falsified. Instead, the concept of free will constitutes a practice; it is a human artefact that is part and parcel of the differing means by which mankind structures intersubjective life. The second proposition is that the criminal law legitimately presupposes that persons normally act out of free will and that they, consequently, are morally responsible and accountable for the wrongful actions they perform. The author claims that his arguments for both propositions are supported by insights from the neuroscientific fields of connectionism and embodied cognition.


F. de Jong
Mr. dr. Ferry de Jong is als universitair docent strafrecht verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: f.dejong1@uu.nl.
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