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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2011 x

    The gold industry in the (former) Soviet Union has always been vulnerable to criminality, such as large-scale smuggling from the gold mines in the north of the country, to the sale of fake gold by Russian migrants in Western Europe. Gold and golden jewels are smuggled and counterfeited; corrupt customs and police officials participate directly or indirectly in gold-related criminal activities. Customers in Russia and other former Soviet republics are constantly being warned about the risk of buying counterfeit gold jewellery, which is sold even in legal shops. This article describes the ‘criminal gold market’ in Russia and analyses the motives and modus operandi of the offenders.


D. Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is als hoogleraar criminologie verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Emissiehandel: van paradijs naar bastion

Hoe criminelen hun weg vonden naar het systeem van emissiehandel en er weer uitgewerkt worden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2011
Auteurs A.P. Maljaars
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    After a quiet and fluent start, the EU wide environmental policy instrument CO2 emissions trading has now become a target of hackers and other criminals. The Dutch Emissions Authority (NEa) published a report regarding the fraud. Several fraud types occur, like VAT fraud, hacking and identity fraud. The author analyses the vulnerabilities of the emissions trading system and describes the measures that have been taken to prevent abuse. The emissions trading is in the middle of a transition from a paradise for fraudsters to a safe and secured fortress. It has appeared that cooperation between several expert fields is crucial in order to prevent and solve fraud.


A.P. Maljaars
Drs. Bram Maljaars is coördinator registratie emissiehandel bij de Nederlandse Emissieautoriteit (NEa).
Artikel

Geen smoesjes meer

De strategie van ‘removing excuses’ toegepast op financiële facilitators

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2011
Auteurs M.R.J. Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminals sometimes use so-called financial facilitators to invest their ill-gotten gains without drawing attention to themselves. These facilitators are experts at getting round anti-money laundering procedures. Because of their expertise and unique capabilities they play an important role in criminal networks. It therefore stands to reason that law enforcement focuses on them. That focus often translates in prosecution when laws are broken. However, what can we do to prevent financial experts in breaking the law? In this article the focus lies on the method of removing excuses. This technique is employed in every day crimes but has not been put to the test in the context of organized crime. Interviews with police officers show that the technique of removing excuses could work under certain conditions. However, it turns out that an important differentiation lies in the sort of activities financial facilitators undertake. Not all financial activities take place in the legal financial-economic system. Instead of distinguishing between the three classical phases of money laundering (placement, layering, integration), a two-pronged focus is proposed on those who are involved in cash based transactions and those who construct smokescreens on paper.


M.R.J. Soudijn
Dr. Melvin Soudijn is als senior wetenschappelijk onderzoeker werkzaam bij het KLPD. Hij schreef deze bijdrage op persoonlijke titel.
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2011
Auteurs H. Nelen en L.M. Moerings
Auteursinformatie

H. Nelen
Gastredacteur prof. dr. mr. Hans Nelen is als hoogleraar criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht.

L.M. Moerings
Gastredacteur prof. dr. mr. Martin Moerings is hoogleraar penologie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden en rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de rechtbank Arnhem. Tevens is hij redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Ontzetting uit beroep of ambt

Herleving van een weinig gebruikte straf?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2011
Auteurs M. Malsch, W.C. Alberts, J.W. de Keijser e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Offenders can be deprived from their profession or office by a court. The Dutch legislator has recently increased possibilities for the judge to disqualify offenders who committed certain crimes within their professional occupation. This article discusses a study on the penalty of expulsion from a profession or an office. It appears that this penalty is not often imposed. Most cases concern sex crime cases and fraud cases. Although it is a penalty, the prosecutors and judges general aim at preventing new crimes when considering a disqualification. It is not known whether convicted persons comply to this penalty. The prosecution does not actively supervise observance. Respondents in this study fear that relapse into new crime within a profession happens, but figures are lacking on this point. Positive and negative sides of the disqualification are discussed in the article.


M. Malsch
Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR te Amsterdam. Daarnaast is zij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Haarlem en in het Hof Den Bosch.

W.C. Alberts
Drs. Wendy Alberts MSc was verbonden aan het NSCR voor het onderzoek naar ontzetting uit beroep of ambt en werkt thans bij de Reclassering.

J.W. de Keijser
Dr. Jan de Keijser werkte eerder bij het NSCR en is nu als universitair hoofddocent criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

J.F. Nijboer
Prof. mr. dr. Hans Nijboer is hoogleraar Bewijs en Bewijsrecht bij dezelfde faculteit en tevens als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR.

    Teenagers between twelve and eighteen years of age are protected by Dutch criminal law against sexual encounters that cannot be qualified as non-consensual. If these teenagers are approached without force they are thus protected against such a contact, but they could have played a sexual active role nevertheless. This paper deals with how officials of the police and justice departments value sexual contacts between youngsters as lewd and in what circumstances these interactions are possibly permissible. What is the motivation for initiating criminal law and how to explain the distinction between the alleged offender and the alleged victim? The juridical valuation of the professionals dealing with criminal law is analysed followed by some critical remarks regarding the protection of sexual active youngsters against other sexual active youngsters as well as the act of sex as transgression.


J.C.W. Gooren
Mr. drs. Juul Gooren is verbonden aan de Haagse Hogeschool voor de opleiding Integrale Veiligheidskunde. Het onderzoek waarop dit artikel is gebaseerd, is mogelijk gemaakt door financiering van het Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Seksualiteit (FWOS).
Artikel

Misdaad en straf

Bespiegelingen over (de dood)straf vanuit religieus perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2011
Auteurs J.A.A.C. Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What does a religious perspective imply for the justification of the state imposing punishment on perpetrators of criminal offences under criminal law? As religion is experiencing a revival, it is not a strange idea to examine what a religious perspective can teach us in relation to criminal law. What religious fundamentalism and conservatism have to offer in this respect seems quite clear, namely retributive action by the state, as God's representative on earth, against conduct contrary to the dogmas of the Holy Scriptures. Nevertheless, research shows that conventional believers also often recognize the value of forgiveness and reconciliation. What is not clear, however, is what mysticism has to offer in relation to criminal law. In contradiction to conventional criminal law, from a mystical perspective there is no call for intentional infliction of pain in responding to crime. To avenge evil with evil is dismissed for both moral and practical reasons. Encouraging the spiritual awakening of man forms the alfa and omega of a mystical approach to crime.


J.A.A.C. Claessen
Mr. dr. Jacques Claessen is als universitair docent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht. Tevens is hij mederedacteur van de Nieuwsbrief Strafrecht.

    In 2007 the option of videoconferencing for the hearing of witnesses and the questioning of accused persons in criminal proceedings was introduced in the Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure. So far videoconferencing has only scarcely been used in criminal proceedings, mostly because of a lack of technical means. This however should change rapidly, because of the installation of videoconferencing facilities in all criminal courts and prisons. It remains to be seen whether judges will be convinced that scrutinizing witnesses and accused persons through an audiovisual connection is an acceptable alternative to face-to-face proceedings. If so, the use of videoconferencing can be applied in a wide range of situations, varying from decisions on the pre-trial detention of accused persons to the hearing of witnesses in a criminal trial.


P.A.M. Verrest
Mr. dr. Pieter Verrest is werkzaam bij de sector straf- en sanctierecht van de directie Wetgeving van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. De auteur schrijft dit artikel op persoonlijke titel.
Artikel

Terrorismebestrijding en securitisering

Een rechtssociologische verkenning van de neveneffecten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2011
Auteurs B.A. de Graaf en Q. Eijkman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article offers an analysis of the side effects caused by the increased counterterrorism measures adapted in Dutch law and public policy after 9/11. Taking clues from Foucault's thinking on securitisation and Beck's risk society, it is argued that focus, referent subject and object of security measures and deployment of counterterrorism laws have shifted from the concrete individual to society and risk prevention as a whole (1), that this shift induces function creep (2) and a much quicker deployment of measures, resulting in an increasing suspect population (3). Rather than arguing against the legality and legitimacy of these measures, the authors analyse the epistemological shift in reasoning and unpack the various probabilistic arguments (as opposed to evidence-based arguments) behind the wave of securitisation after 9/11 - resulting in a lack of knowledge about, transparency and accountability of the generated side effects.


B.A. de Graaf
Dr. Beatrice de Graaf (universitair hoofddocent) is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Terrorisme en Contraterrorisme van de Universiteit Leiden (Campus Den Haag).

Q. Eijkman
Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman (senioronderzoeker) is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Terrorisme en Contraterrorisme van de Universiteit Leiden (Campus Den Haag).
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