Zoekresultaat: 17 artikelen

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Artikel

De Nederlandse staat van internetvrijheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden internet freedom, legislation the Netherlands, retainment of customer data, privacy, net neutrality
Auteurs O.L. van Daalen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    When thinking of restrictions on internet freedom, people often look to countries such as Egypt and Libya. But internet freedom in countries such as the Netherlands also warrants close examination. This article discusses a selection of Dutch measures which infringe on the fundamental right to privacy and communication freedom on the internet. With regard to privacy, it starts with the Dutch law requiring telecommunications providers to retain customer data, such as all records and location data. Also the plans to monitor internet traffic by the intelligence services as well as the lack of transparency on data requests by the Dutch government are discussed. With regard to communications freedom, the new Dutch law on net neutrality is analysed and described as positive for internet freedom. However, the author also sees developments threatening internet freedom. He mentions plans to introduce web blocking for websites facilitating copyright infringement and a draft law to allow the police to take down websites without judicial intervention. The author argues that the Netherlands should significantly improve its own state of internet freedom, especially if it wants to credibly claim that other countries should protect internet freedom.


O.L. van Daalen
Mr. Ot van Daalen is directeur van de digitale burgerrechtenbeweging Bits of Freedom.
Artikel

De exfiltratie van verdachte en veroordeelde criminelen

Over de onmisbaarheid van een effectieve regeling voor coöperatieve criminele getuigen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2012
Auteurs C. Fijnaut
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure and the related guidelines of the College of Procurators-General are for all sorts of historical and ideological reasons heavily restrictive when it comes to the use of cooperative witnesses in criminal proceedings. What strikes most is that even in very serious cases it is not possible to grant a witness complete or partial immunity in exchange for his important cooperation. This contribution describes the problems arising sometimes in criminal cases wherein prosecutors, despite the existing narrow framework, make a deal with such a witness. The article outlines not only the historical and international background of the use of cooperative witnesses, but also its contemporary legal framework in the United States, Italy, the United Kingdom and Germany. The outcome of this comparative exercise is that at least the current legal provisions should be evaluated and that this evaluation should take into account the system and experiences in other countries as well as the problems of serious crime in the Netherlands and the leniency policies that govern the efforts to contain serious white collar crime like e.g. cartels.


C. Fijnaut
Prof. dr. em. Cyrille Fijnaut was tot voor kort als hoogleraar internationaal en vergelijkend strafrecht verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Hij is thans voorzitter van de Toegangscommissie van de Commissie Evaluatie Afgesloten Strafzaken (CEAS).

    Because of the special characteristics of the Internet, cybercrime inherently crosses national borders and has fewer natural barriers than classic cross-border crime. This triggers the question whether criminal law with its traditional national focus is able to combat cybercrime. Can legislatures respond to technological change with sufficient speed in an internationally aligned approach? This article tries to answer this question by mapping the dynamics of cybercrime law, focusing particularly on the interplay between European and Dutch legislative initiatives. It shows that the dynamics consist of a European framework of minimum standards on major issues, with much room for national legislatures to interpret the standards and to add initiatives of their own where the European framework remains silent. Although this has worked well so far, if cybercrime continues to transform into large-scale organised crime, a step-change in the dynamics towards more steering European approaches may be necessary.


B.J. Koops
Prof. dr. Bert-Jaap Koops is hoogleraar regulering van technologie bij TILT - Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs Marit Scheepmaker

Marit Scheepmaker
Artikel

Cyberwar? What war?

Meer in het bijzonder: welk recht?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs A.R. Lodder en L.J.M. Boer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an overview of cyberwar from an international law perspective, in particular from the framework of the laws of war. It discusses some of the difficulties in applying these laws to cyberattacks, further complicated by the characteristics of the Internet. A distinction is made between cyberwar, -crime, -espionage and -terrorism, and the different fields of law that apply to these distinct ‘cyberevents’. Next to discussing several historic cyberattacks, the question is raised whether cyberwar is merely a hype or whether we should be taking this threat seriously. Rather than answering this question, the authors feel that the actual threat posed by ‘cyber’ is less important than the political and military prominence gained by this phenomenon in these past few years. The authors conclude by stating that a lot of work has yet to be done to address the issues raised by the occurrence of cyberwar.


A.R. Lodder
Prof. Arno Lodder is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de afdeling Transnational Legal Studies van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

L.J.M. Boer
Lianne Boer is als promovendus verbonden aan de afdeling Transnational Legal Studies van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

    This article describes the main security threats in cyberspace as well as the various types of actors behind these threats. The author discusses the reaction of existing and new state security agencies towards the new cyber threats. After analyzing the main obstacles in tracing cybercriminals he gives some recommendations for a more effective strategy against cybercrime.


R. Prins
ir. Ronald Prins is cybersecurity-specialist en directeur en medeoprichter van Fox-IT. Hij studeerde Technische Wiskunde aan de TU Delft en heeft zich daarna gespecialiseerd als cryptograaf. Bij het Nederlands Forensisch Instituut was hij werkzaam als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker.

    When it comes to cybersecurity usually little attention is payed to internal threats, i.e. from within organizations themselves which may - intentional or not - breach the confidentiality of digitally stored information. When a secret reaches the media, it often generates a lot of public attention. Not only because of the content or the curiosity-value of the secret itself, but also because of the - sometimes shockingly simple - way the secret has been leaked. This kind of security breach in particular gives rise to negative publicity, which not only impacts the organization which it concerns, but also reflects badly on other peers in the sector, especially in the case of breaches that are government-related. In this article, the author explores the issues of the leaking of secrets in ‘cyberspace’ by using several examples - such as the WikiLeaks affair - to illustrate the effects of ICT developments in the last two to three decades on vulnerabilities in information security. The article then focuses on new developments in ‘Alternative Workplace Strategies’ and the related use of new technologies in relation to the vulnerabilities in information security. Organizations can reduce the threats by facilitating their employees with smart solutions which are also results of new technologies.


J.H. Maat
Mr. Johri Maat, MSSM is senior adviseur bij het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties en gespecialiseerd in security science & management. Dit artikel is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.
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