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Artikel

Uitdagingen in publiek-private samenwerking in de aanpak van drugscriminaliteit in de Rotterdamse haven

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden public private partnerships, Rotterdam harbor, security, drugs, crime
Auteurs Dr. Lieselot Bisschop, Dr. Robby Roks, Prof.dr. Richard Staring e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the challenges associated with public-private partnerships in tackling drug crime in the port of Rotterdam. The authors identified the actors involved in the fight against drug crime and, more generally, security in the port. The authors show how these various actors view the subject of drug crime (so-called mentalities), what they set as objectives (finalities) and how they try to achieve these objectives. Subsequently the various aspects of the interactions between these actors are being analyzed. The article is empirically based on 76 interviews with public and private actors in the port of Rotterdam, that were conducted in the period from January 2018 to February 2019, and an analysis of literature, news items, government reports and other documents.


Dr. Lieselot Bisschop
Dr. L.C.J. Bisschop is als universitair docent werkzaam bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R. Roks is als universitair docent werkzaam bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Prof.dr. Richard Staring
Prof.dr. R. Staring is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Elisabeth Brein MSc
E. Brein MSc is als onderzoeker en programmamanager verbonden aan de Rotterdam School of Management van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Opdracht- en ander onderzoek in het juridische domein

Een persoonlijke visie vanuit de rechtssociologie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden commissioned research, academic research, legal policy, socio-legal studies, independency
Auteurs Prof. mr. Nick Huls
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author asserts, based on his own experiences in this field, that the independence of research and researchers is not a given, but must always be conquered and defended. He relates the necessity of doing commissioned research to developments in Dutch legal academia and describes its strengths and weaknesses. He then makes the comparison with ‘pure’ academic research. He shows that most lecturers must fight and defend their independence against all sorts of developments within the modern university. There is not much room anymore to do one’s own free research. He concludes that neither academic nor commissioned research takes place in a vacuum without power relations.


Prof. mr. Nick Huls
Prof. mr. N. Huls is emeritus hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Bericht uit een fluwelen kooi

Over het onbehagen van een politieonderzoeker

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden history of police studies, police history, societal perspective, creativity, interpassivity
Auteurs Dr. Guus Meershoek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch police research is predominantly of a policy supporting or evaluative nature. Significant publications, such as those that started police research in the 1970s, are rare. This loss is analyzed in this article. Firstly, the author describes how the research community has changed: police officers who were disillusioned with the organization and mastered scientific competencies were succeeded by university-educated researchers who had to earn a position in the police. Secondly, the police integrated the societal urge for change, transformed it into a style of management and immunized themselves in this way against innovation. Thirdly, researchers exchanged social scientific theories for policy concepts, focusing on efficiency and excluding a societal perspective on the police. Finally, by recognizing the impact of research as a criterion of success, researchers relinquished their judgment on the quality of their research to police managers. Improvement of the situation depends first of all on the creativity and boldness of researchers.


Dr. Guus Meershoek
Dr. G. Meershoek is als lector Politiegeschiedenis verbonden aan de Politieacademie en is tevens werkzaam als docent Safety Governance bij de afdeling Bestuurskunde van de Universiteit Twente.
Artikel

Graven naar de wortels van onveiligheidsgevoelens

Resultaten van een onderzoek in twaalf buurten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of crime, tailor-made policy, neighborhoods, avoidance behavior, social stability
Auteurs Dr. Remco Spithoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of this article is to search for a more focused approach of fighting back against ‘the fear of crime’. It is based on a study of the backgrounds of risen levels of fear of crime in twelve neighborhoods in the regions of Utrecht and Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Eight central themes could be identified in the stories of 240 respondents: specific locations, avoidance behavior, social stability, social quality, superdiversity, negative neighborhood images, burglary, and societal pessimism. Despite the fact that these central themes appeared in the overall analysis, every neighborhood showed another mix of factors explaining risen levels of fear of crime. This means that policies to reduce ‘the fear of crime’ should focus on specific, local explanations and should always be tailor-made.


Dr. Remco Spithoven
Dr. R. Spithoven is als lector Maatschappelijke Veiligheid verbonden aan de Academie voor Bestuur, Recht en Ruimte van de Hogeschool Saxion. Hij is tevens research-fellow bij de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en redacteur van Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.
Artikel

Waarom het onderzoek naar veiligheidsbeleving een nieuwe impuls nodig heeft

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of crime, critique, fear reduction, security policy, fear drop
Auteurs Marnix Eysink Smeets
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The security landscape has changed rapidly. New or revived threats have emerged, such as terrorism and cybercrime, bringing new or revived fears and anxieties as well. Actors in security policy feel a need to address these fears, but do not know how. Can the criminological subdiscipline of fear of crime studies provide the knowledge and understanding that is needed? A quick scan of the state of the art in this research domain, gives two reasons why it cannot: (1) fear of crime studies have yielded much knowledge on operationalization, measurement and determinants of fear of crime, but far less in mechanisms, trends, effects and influenceability, whereas insight in the latter issues is what is mostly needed in security policy; and (2) fear of crime studies are still mainly focused on the ‘traditional’ fear of crime, while fear of new crimes and threats remains under-researched. A shift of focus in fear of crime studies is urgently needed.


Marnix Eysink Smeets
M.W.B. Eysink Smeets is lector Publiek Vertrouwen in Veiligheid en hoofd van de Onderzoeksgroep Recht & Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Inholland. Hij is tevens directeur van de Landelijke Expertisegroep Veiligheidspercepties (LEV), een platform voor onderzoek naar veiligheid, veiligheidsbeleid en veiligheidsbeleving. De auteur legt momenteel de laatste hand aan zijn dissertatie Public reactions to crime and insecurity, onder supervisie van prof. Martin Innes en prof. Trevor Jones, beiden verbonden aan Cardiff University.
Artikel

Georganiseerde kinderpornonetwerken op het darkweb

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden child pornography, Dark Web, organized crime
Auteurs Madeleine van der Bruggen MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The emergence of Dark Web child pornography forums and their availability to large offender communities has enabled a professional form of child pornography distribution as well as an increased exchange of criminal and social capital. Offenders have access to a new platform in which strong ties and long-lasting relationships with co-offenders are formed. Moreover they could be classified as organized crime, because child pornography Dark Web forums are characterized by a hierarchical order, a clear role division and illegal power structures that regulate the illegal activities. The implications from a law enforcement as well as from scientific perspective are discussed.


Madeleine van der Bruggen MSc
M. van der Bruggen MSc MA is als promovendus verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden en werkzaam bij de Dienst Landelijke Recherche van de Nationale Politie.
Artikel

De ‘non-human (f)actor’ in cybercrime

Cybercriminele netwerken beschouwd vanuit het ‘cyborg crime’-perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden cyborg crime, cybercrime, cybercriminal networks, botnet, actor-network theory
Auteurs Dr. Wytske van der Wagen en Frank Bernaards LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Botnets, banking malware and other high-tech crimes are increasingly analyzed by criminological scholars. Their distributed and automated nature poses however various theoretical challenges. This article presents an alternative approach, denoted as the ‘cyborg crime’ perspective, which adopts a more hybrid view of networks and also assigns an active role to technology. The value of this approach is demonstrated by reflecting on findings from earlier empirical work that analyzes conversations between cybercriminals involved in botnets and related activities. The research shows that technological nodes can take an important position in the organizational structure of cybercriminal networks and do not merely have a functional role. Viewing technology as an actor within a criminal network might offer new criminological insights in both the composition of these networks and how to disrupt them.


Dr. Wytske van der Wagen
Dr. W. van der Wagen is als universitair docent verbonden aan de Erasmus School of Law (sectie Criminologie). In juni 2018 promoveerde zij aan de Rijkuniversiteit Groningen op het proefschrift From cybercrime to cyborg crime: An exploration of high-tech cybercrime, offenders and victims through the lens of actor-network theory.

Frank Bernaards LLM
F. Bernaards LLM is werkzaam als operationeel specialist bij Team High Tech Crime van de Dienst Landelijke Recherche.
Artikel

Access_open De aard en aanpak van georganiseerde cybercrime

Bevindingen uit een internationale empirische studie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden cybercrime, traditional organized crime, organization structure of cybercrime groups, policing cybercrime
Auteurs Dr. Geralda Odinot, Dr. Christianne de Poot en Dr. Maite Verhoeven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Worldwide, the digitalization of society is proceeding rapidly and this brings new forms of crime. The threats arising from different types of cybercrime are real and constantly evolving, as the internet with its anonymity and borderless reach, provides new opportunities for criminal activities. This article describes some results from an international empirical study aimed to gather more insight on the link between cybercrime and organized crime as well as on the question whether cybercrime is organized. It shows how cybercriminals cooperate with each other and what this organization structure looks like.


Dr. Geralda Odinot
Dr. G. Odinot is wetenschappelijk onderzoeker en trainer forensisch interviewen How2Ask. Ten tijde van de uitvoering van het onderzoek waarop dit artikel is gebaseerd, was zij werkzaam als onderzoeker bij het WODC.

Dr. Christianne de Poot
Dr. C.J. de Poot is als senioronderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC. Zij is tevens hoogleraar Criminalistiek aan de Vrije Universiteit en lector Forensisch onderzoek aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam en de Politieacademie.

Dr. Maite Verhoeven
Dr. M.A. Verhoeven is als beleidsmedewerker Rechtshandhaving & Ketensamenwerking Cariben verbonden aan het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid. Ten tijde van de uitvoering van het onderzoek waarop dit artikel is gebaseerd, was zij werkzaam als onderzoeker bij het WODC.
Artikel

Hybridisering van de zwaardmachten: realiteit of fictie?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden militarization of the police, constabularisation of the military, peace support operations, blurring of police and military functions, high-end policing
Auteurs Dr. Peter Neuteboom en Hans Hovens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    National and international security are becoming increasingly interdependent. The question is whether this leads to a certain level of militarization of the police and constibularisation of the military. In some of their operations and units, the Dutch police apply tactics, technologies and organizational principles that resemble those of the military. The police also contribute to international peace support operations and stability missions to train or monitor police in post-conflict areas. The Dutch army has been involved in some sort of interim policing during several stability missions and increasingly support the Dutch police in law enforcement operations by providing search and analytical support. Finally, as a police force with a military status, the Royal Marechaussee has acquired a structural and strong position in the Dutch police system. Although there is some sort of convergence, the authors conclude that the level of militarization of the police and constabularisation of the military remains limited.


Dr. Peter Neuteboom
Dr. P.C.J. Neuteboom is directeur Duurzaamheid en Opsporing bij de Inspectie Leefomgeving & Transport en research fellow bij de Nederlandse Defensie Academie.

Hans Hovens
J.L. Hovens is kolonel b.d. van de Koninklijke Marechaussee.
Artikel

Verbanning en uitzetting in Noordwest-Europa sinds de vroegmoderne periode

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden banishment, expulsion, history, early modern period, Northwest Europe
Auteurs Dr. Margo De Koster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To supplement recent debates concerning the expulsion of criminal foreigners and the repelling of poor refugees with longer-term insights, this contribution examines banishment practices in early modern and modern Northwest Europe. It argues that banishment, a sanction involving a person’s geographical and social exclusion, served both to punish deviants and to monitor mobile newcomers. Expulsion practices were shaped mainly by concerns about the regulation of access to the labor market and poor relief. The profile of the expellee displays remarkable continuity across time: the poor unwanted stranger, lacking social bonds and, in the case of female migrants, perceived as being prone to prostitution. Albeit banishment often proved only temporary and thus not effective, authorities continued to rely on it because of its symbolic function, displaying their diligence in purifying and protecting local society. This was much to the detriment of the expellees, who were driven into marginality and illegality.


Dr. Margo De Koster
Dr. Margo De Koster is als universitair docent Historische Criminologie verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Artikel

Aanzetten tot verbetering van de opsporing

‘Handelen naar Waarheid’ een jaar later

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden national police force, police reform, change, organizational dynamics, leadership
Auteurs Dr. N. Kop en Dr. P. Klerks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The authors reflect on ‘Handelen naar waarheid’ (Acting on truth), an assessment of the state of criminal investigations in The Netherlands, which appeared in May 2016. This report, assigned by the police and public prosecution service and written by four inside experts, caused substantial turmoil in the police organization and beyond. The report addresses six domains: professionalism, attitude and behavior, direction and leadership, capacity for change, organizational structure and business management. The critical and transparent self-reflection by the police received praise from policymakers, journalists and academic observers. It also met with recognition and appreciation in the law enforcement community, in particular among investigators and prosecutors. In the wake of the report, a reform program was organized to modernize both the police and the prosecution service in order to increase the quality and effectiveness of their work. Such reform is deemed necessary because crime problems have become ever more complex and citizens increasingly organize their own (counter-)investigations. The authors conclude that in spite of many recent initiatives, truly innovative practices remain scarce. Also, the crucial ambitions to increase the educational level of investigators and the organizational culture are still far from realized.


Dr. N. Kop
Dr. Nicolien Kop is als lector Criminaliteitsbeheersing & Recherchekunde verbonden aan de Politieacademie.

Dr. P. Klerks
Dr. Peter Klerks is raadadviseur bij het Parket-Generaal, Openbaar Ministerie. Hij levert zijn bijdrage op persoonlijke titel.
Artikel

Opheldering verzocht?

Over de drastische daling van het aantal opgehelderde misdrijven

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden police, crime, detection rates, crime prevention, security policy
Auteurs Drs. B. de Koning
Auteursinformatie

Drs. B. de Koning
Drs. Bart de Koning (1967) is onderzoeksjournalist en auteur van de boeken Alles onder controle: de overheid houdt u in de gaten, Operatie Blauw: weg met de bureaucratie bij de Nederlandse politie en De veiligheidsmythe: over politie, justitie en misdaad in Nederland. De Koning studeerde economie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en werkte onder meer voor Quote, FemBusiness en HP/De Tijd. Tegenwoordig is hij zelfstandig journalist. Hij schrijft over de politie op De Correspondent en publiceert onder andere in Volkskrant, Vrij Nederland en Maarten.
Artikel

Terrorisme- en radicaliseringsstudies

Een explosief onderzoeksveld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden terrorism studies, radicalization studies, definition, analysis levels, pitfalls
Auteurs Prof.dr. B.A. de Graaf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Studying terrorism and radicalization is quite problematic because of a lack of reliable sources. Finding out what motivates terrorists often boils down to educated guessing. The author describes the search for an academic definition of terrorism and summarizes the development of this discipline since the 1970s, thereby distinguishing research on three levels: macro, micro and meso. While before 9/11 few academics were involved in this research field, it ‘exploded’ thereafter. Important factor contributing to this expansion is the greater availability of government funds and relevant data for this type of research. However, the growth of this discipline isn’t just good news, researchers should be aware of a number of pitfalls identified as the proximity to government power, too much self-confidence (hybris) of researchers pretending to have designed a ‘unified theory’, the abundance of funds for this type of research, resulting in a lot of low-quality research, and finally the politicization of the subject, which could limit the academic freedom.


Prof.dr. B.A. de Graaf
Prof. dr. Beatrice de Graaf is als hoogleraar History of International Relations & Global Governance verbonden aan de faculteit Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

De verschuiving van illegale drugsmarkten van Nederland naar België

Perceptie of realiteit?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden drug policy, drug markets, Displacement, the Netherlands, Belgium
Auteurs Dr. F. De Middeleer en Dr. B. De Ruyver
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recent figures indicate that certain drug markets, or at least parts of it, shift from the Netherlands to Belgium. However, it is still unclear whether it is a displacement of some parts of the illicit drug markets or whether it should be seen as a diversification of certain parts of some illicit drug markets in terms of spreading of risks and taking profit of new opportunities. In this respect, this article contributes to an ongoing research (DISMARK) by providing an overview of drug policy measures most recently taken by the Netherlands, from a Belgian point of view, and by trying to link these developments to drug-related trends in Belgium. It is clear that both countries will have to invest in a common approach of their common drug problems. However, it is not yet possible to draw any profound conclusions on the actual displacement of illicit drug markets.


Dr. F. De Middeleer
Freja De Middeleer MSc. is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP) van de Universiteit Gent.

Dr. B. De Ruyver
Dr. Brice De Ruyver is als hoogleraar Strafrecht verbonden aan de Universiteit Gent en directeur van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP) aldaar.
Artikel

Cultureel erfgoed én crimineel probleem: over de subcultuur van woonwagenbewoners

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden traveler communities, Subculture, Noord-Brabant, Criminality, multi-agency approach
Auteurs Drs. R. Witte en Dr. H. Moors
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the Province of Noord-Brabant, the ‘traveler community’ possesses a specific position, coloring the developments in crime throughout the region and being a main focus for major concern among policymakers and professionals. The authors reflect on the historical development of the ‘traveler community’ and their perceived subculture as well as on state response to these developments. Along this, the attempts of social work to contribute to social climbing of ‘travelers’ outside criminality in the 1980s and 1990s are portrayed. The contribution rounds up with some reflections on the present call for a ‘multi-agency approach’ towards organized and undermining crime in which again, and increasingly so, the importance of the so-called ‘soft side of crime prevention and repression’ is underlined.


Drs. R. Witte
Drs. Rob Witte is senior adviseur en onderzoeker bij EMMA, Experts in Media en Maatschappij, in Den Haag.

Dr. H. Moors
Dr. Hans Moors is partner bij EMMA, Experts in Media en Maatschappij, in Den Haag. www.emma.nl.
Artikel

Ontwikkelingen in de jeugdcriminaliteit, 1997 tot 2015

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden trends in juvenile and young adult crime, crime drop, Cybercrime, explanations for the crime drop, social media
Auteurs Dr. A.M. van der Laan, Dr. M.G.C.J. Beerthuizen en Dr. H. Goudriaan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2008 juvenile crime rates in the Netherlands annually decreased. The decrease is shown in official police and justice crime, as well as in self-reported delinquency. However, this crime drop mainly accounts traditional offline crime, whereas little is known about cybercrime amongst juveniles and young adults. According to the Juvenile Crime Monitor, approximately 20% of juveniles and young adults report involvement in cyber or digitized delinquency. Trends with regard to cyber or digitized crime are not (yet) available. Previous research indicates that multiple factors are responsible for the crime drop amongst juveniles. These explanations mainly regard to offline factors and are primarily focused on traditional offline crime. In this article the increased use of social media is also discussed as a potential explanation.


Dr. A.M. van der Laan
Dr. André van der Laan is senior onderzoeker en plaatsvervangend afdelingshoofd bij de afdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC. Zie www.wodc.nl/organisatie/medewerkers/CRS/AndrevanderLaan.aspx.

Dr. M.G.C.J. Beerthuizen
Dr. Marinus Beerthuizen is onderzoeker bij de afdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC. Zie www.wodc.nl/organisatie/medewerkers/CRS/RikBeerthuizen.aspx.

Dr. H. Goudriaan
Dr. Heike Goudriaan is senior onderzoeker en plaatsvervangend afdelingshoofd bij het Team Rechtsbescherming en Veiligheid van het CBS in Den Haag.
Artikel

Verdampende jeugdcriminaliteit

Verklaringen van de internationale daling

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden youth crime, crime decline, technology, crime prevention, police registration
Auteurs Drs. A.C. Berghuis en J. de Waard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Registered youth crime figures in the Netherlands show a spectacular downward trend from 2007 (minus 60%). In this article the authors show that this trend can be observed in a lot of other countries. They argue that a number of international developments has created a climate favorable for juvenile crime reduction: more (situational) crime prevention, less use of alcohol, more commitment to schooling, more satisfaction with living conditions, and changing activity patterns during leisure time. For the Netherlands this coincides with a diminished willingness of the Dutch police to follow up on suspicions that a youngster has committed a minor offense. The authors discuss the worldwide dissemination of smartphones and online games that started in 2006/2007, as well as the subsequent changes in the use of free time, which might have contributed to juvenile crime reduction.


Drs. A.C. Berghuis
Drs. Bert Berghuis was voorheen raadadviseur op het terrein van rechtshandhaving bij het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

J. de Waard
Jaap de Waard is als senior beleidsmedewerker verbonden aan het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Artikel

Lessen uit de aanpak van jeugdgroepen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden juvenile crime, focussed policing, youth groups, group dynamic processes, integral approach
Auteurs Dr. H. Ferwerda en Drs. T. van Ham
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Attention for youth group crime is important, because the majority of juvenile crime is committed in groups or is the result of group dynamic processes. The police makes an inventory of youth groups with the help of an instrument (called ‘the shortlist’). In the Netherlands this has contributed to an integral approach on the group, domain and individual level. Although there are some side effects, findings suggest that this approach is effective. This fact, together with other developments in juvenile crime, has led to the further development of the shortlist instrument. Its basis, i.e. applying focus and an integral analysis of a youth group as a starting point for an integral approach, is herein maintained.


Dr. H. Ferwerda
Dr. Henk Ferwerda is directeur van Bureau Beke in Arnhem.

Drs. T. van Ham
Drs. Tom van Ham is als onderzoeker verbonden aan Bureau Beke in Arnhem.
Artikel

Social media en smartphones als verklaring voor de daling in jeugdcriminaliteit?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden juvenile crime, Delinquency, social media, Smartphones, time use
Auteurs Prof. dr. F. Weerman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution explores the hypothesis that the rise of social media use and smartphone possession since 2007 contributed substantially to the international decrease in juvenile crime. The author addresses three processes that aid in understanding how social media and smartphones may have contributed to decreasing juvenile crime statistics. First, activity patterns of young people may have been altered in such a way that substantial less time is spent with unstructured socializing in public places. Second, the rise of social media may have led to additional and alternative possibilities to fulfill psychological and social needs of adolescents, taking away many immaterial motivations for juvenile crime. Third, it is possible that social media and smartphone use have facilitated a shift from offline to online juvenile crime, which is less detected and visible in official crime figures. While these theoretical arguments make the hypothesis plausible, research is needed to provide empirical evidence on the role of social media and smartphones in juvenile crime.


Prof. dr. F. Weerman
Prof. dr. Frank Weerman is bijzonder hoogleraar Jeugdcriminologie binnen de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus School of Law in Rotterdam. Hij is tevens senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Trends in de overrepresentatie van jongens en jongemannen met een Marokkaanse achtergrond in de verdachtenstatistiek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden crime trend, recorded crime, Moroccans, the Netherlands, cultural dissonance
Auteurs Dr. R. Jennissen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Similar to the total youth crime, the share of Moroccan boys and men who are suspected of committing a crime is decreasing. The percentage of suspects among male Moroccan teens and early twenties declined with as much as 35% in the period from 2005 to 2015. However, the share of 12- to 24-year-old males with a Dutch background who were suspected of committing a crime, declined even more sharply. Therefore, the overrepresentation of Moroccans increased. The increased amount of cultural dissonance among Moroccan boys and young adults seems to be the most probable explanation for the increased overrepresentation of this group in recorded crime. Cultural dissonance is where migrants have to steer a middle course between two highly contrasting cultures, namely the culture of their country of origin (of their parents) and that of the country in which they are residing.


Dr. R. Jennissen
Dr. Roel Jennissen is als senior wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid. Hij schreef dit artikel op persoonlijke titel.
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