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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2018 x
Artikel

Het Nader rapport bestuurlijke boetestelsels: een stap terug in duidelijkheid?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden administrative penal law, administrative fines, serious conduct, system of sanctions, harmonisation
Auteurs Mr. dr. Arnt Mein en Mr. dr. drs. Benny van der Vorm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recently the Dutch Government has responded to an advise from the advisory body Raad van State concerning the relationship between the administrative and the penal system of sanctions.
    Nowadays administrative sanctions are imposed in the Netherlands for serious offenses, whereas the original intention was to only use these procedures for minor felonies. It is unclear why some offenses are subject to a judicial judgment, while others are dealt with in administrative proceedings. Moreover, it appears that the administrative fines are often significantly higher than fines imposed by a judge. The government feels that harmonisation between the maximum of the administrative and penal fine should be realized. With regard to the choice between administrative and penal law, the government hasn’t found a criterion for deciding which offenses should be subject to a judicial judgment and which can be dealt with in administrative proceedings. The authors argue that the government could have offered more clarity by using the criterion of ‘serious criminal conduct’ as defined in criminal law. Criminal law has to be chosen when there is serious criminal conduct. In other cases it is possible to choose the administrative procedure.


Mr. dr. Arnt Mein
Mr. dr. A.G. Mein is lector bij de faculteit Maatschappij en Recht van de Hogeschool van Amsterdam.

Mr. dr. drs. Benny van der Vorm
Mr. dr. drs. B. van der Vorm is universitair docent Straf(proces)recht en is verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut en het Montaigne Centrum voor Rechtsstaat en Rechtspleging van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Access_open ‘Buiten de rechter om?’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden sanctions, Judiciary, penal law, administrative law, rule of law
Auteurs Dr. Frank van Tulder en Mr. Saskia Sicking
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Judiciary has only a very limited role in the imposition of sanctions with traffic offenses. With other minor offenses its role is rather limited and has decreased. There has been a striking shift from the imposition of penal sanctions to sanctions based on administrative law in this area. With major offenses (crimes) the role of the judiciary is still significant and has not diminished over the last 20 years. This despite policy efforts to boost out of court sanctioning.
    The Judiciary is a fundamental pillar of the rule of law. It offers legal protection, by judging and, if necessary, penalizing violations of norms in a fair trial. In this way not only justice is done with individual cases. Case law has wider implications: confirmation and development of norms and thus general prevention. To fulfil this aim a certain volume of cases and openness of the judgment process is necessary.


Dr. Frank van Tulder
Dr. F. van Tulder is onderzoeker/adviseur bij de afdeling Strategie van de Raad voor de rechtspraak, verantwoordelijk voor het economisch en statistisch onderzoek bij de Rechtspraak.

Mr. Saskia Sicking
Mr. S. Sicking is hoofd van de afdeling Strategie van de Raad voor de rechtspraak en tevens rechter.
Artikel

Ruim baan? Uitsluiting en zelfuitsluiting van de arbeidsmarkt

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden criminal records, screening, young adults, labor market, self-exclusion
Auteurs Dr. mr. Elina van ’t Zand-Kurtovic
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, the number of criminal record screenings performed each year skyrocketed to more than one million. Yet, empirical evidence on its effects has been largely absent. In this article the author addresses parts of the findings of her PhD research, which aimed to fill this gap, by providing a subjective perspective of how having a criminal record impacts the process of re-entry into society, particularly into the labor market, for young adults. It is based on the lived experiences of 31 young adults having a criminal record who were followed during their process of reintegration into the labor market. The vivid, real-life stories of young adults’ strategies of dealing with the stigma of a criminal record, and how this subsequently influences their position in the labor market, highlight the counterproductive effects of increasingly widespread criminal record screening. They provide evidence that many young adults adopt self-exclusion as a strategy for avoiding rejection and exclusion.


Dr. mr. Elina van ’t Zand-Kurtovic
Dr. mr. E.G. van ’t Zand-Kurtovic is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Toezicht in de Wiv 2017

Kansen en uitdagingen voor een effectief en sterk toezichtstelsel

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017, Oversight, Effectiveness, Safeguards, Mass Surveillance
Auteurs Mr. dr. Mireille Hagens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The new Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017 has generated a lot of criticism in The Netherlands. Although the act was adopted in parliament in July 2017, the implementation will take place in May 2018. Beforehand an advisory referendum will give the public the opportunity to express their opinion on the new act: the modernisation of the investigatory powers of the services and the strengthening of the necessary safeguards and oversight mechanisms. Both have met with their share of criticism. In this paper the focus is on the enhanced oversight mechanism. It is argued that although different choices could have been made regarding the organisation of oversight, the new system fulfills the requirements set by the European Court of Human Rights. The real question is whether the new act provides for effective and strong oversight in practice to ensure a proper balance between national security and privacy protection in this digital era. The opportunities and challenges are explored.


Mr. dr. Mireille Hagens
Mr. dr. M. Hagens is senior-onderzoeker bij de Commissie van Toezicht op de Inlichtingen- en Veiligheidsdiensten (CTIVD) en gastonderzoeker bij de faculteit Recht, Economie, Bestuur en Organisatie van de Universiteit Utrecht. Deze bijdrage is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.
Artikel

De Wiv 2002 en Wiv 2017 op enkele hoofdlijnen vergeleken

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden New Intelligence and Security Services Act, Advisory referendum, Powers of intelligence and security services, Safeguards, Supervision
Auteurs Drs. Rob Dielemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Last year, Dutch parliament approved the proposal for a new Intelligence and Security Services Act (Wiv 2017). This law will replace the current Intelligence and Security Services Act 2002 (Wiv 2002). The Wiv 2017 should be considered feasible with effect from 1 May 2018. Before that time however, an advisory referendum on the new law will be held on 21 March. This article first discusses the nature of the law and the need for innovation. Subsequently, a comparison of both laws takes place in general terms, with regard to the powers of the intelligence and security services, the safeguards, the supervision, the complaint handling and the international cooperation between intelligence and security services. It is argued that the extension of the powers of the services in the Wiv 2017 is only limited in scope, while the safeguards have been considerably strengthened. The introduction of a binding judgment in complaint handling also contributes to a better and more effective legal protection for citizens.


Drs. Rob Dielemans
Drs. R.J.I. Dielemans is werkzaam bij de Directie Constitutionele Zaken en Wetgeving van het Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties. Dit artikel is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.
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