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    Socially effective justice requires innovative legislation that allows the judge to experiment with simple procedures that bring parties together in order to prevent escalation of disputes. For that reason, the Dutch government has enabled experiments with low-threshold local civil courts. This article focuses on the experiences with such a court in Rotterdam. The court provides a simple, fast and cheap procedure with the aim of reaching a solution to the dispute in joint consultation. The article provides insight into the nature and the number of disputes that have been dealt with up to now.


Mr. Wim Wetzels
Mr. W.J.J. Wetzels is als kantonrechter/senior rechter A verbonden aan de Rechtbank Rotterdam.
Artikel

De Rijdende Rechter als rolmodel

Hoe reality televisie het beeld van de rechtspraak beïnvloedt

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden The Iterant Judge, Dutch television, American tv judges, Low threshold courts, Binding dispute solution
Auteurs Mr. Annerie Smolders
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The tremendously popular television programme De Rijdende Rechter (The Itinerant Judge) has an uncomfortable relationship with official legal practice. Many people indeed think that the itinerant judge who arrives in their street to personally check neighbourly grievances has come as a representative of the Law with a capital L. It is not clear where reality TV stops and current legal practice begins. Things have become more complicated because the itinerant judge has become a symbol of the ‘close-to-the-people’ judge that is embraced by legal practice today. In this article the murky boundary between TV judges and official judiciary is investigated, taking into account the cult status of the itinerant judge, the effect of imagination on reality, similar phenomena in the United States and the current situation in the Netherlands.


Mr. Annerie Smolders
Mr. A. Smolders is publicist en voormalig rechter. Zij richt zich, onder meer als gastonderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), op de verhouding tussen rechter en algemeen publiek, met als doel het publieke debat hierover te verbreden en van meer context te voorzien.
Artikel

Graven naar de wortels van onveiligheidsgevoelens

Resultaten van een onderzoek in twaalf buurten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of crime, tailor-made policy, neighborhoods, avoidance behavior, social stability
Auteurs Dr. Remco Spithoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of this article is to search for a more focused approach of fighting back against ‘the fear of crime’. It is based on a study of the backgrounds of risen levels of fear of crime in twelve neighborhoods in the regions of Utrecht and Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Eight central themes could be identified in the stories of 240 respondents: specific locations, avoidance behavior, social stability, social quality, superdiversity, negative neighborhood images, burglary, and societal pessimism. Despite the fact that these central themes appeared in the overall analysis, every neighborhood showed another mix of factors explaining risen levels of fear of crime. This means that policies to reduce ‘the fear of crime’ should focus on specific, local explanations and should always be tailor-made.


Dr. Remco Spithoven
Dr. R. Spithoven is als lector Maatschappelijke Veiligheid verbonden aan de Academie voor Bestuur, Recht en Ruimte van de Hogeschool Saxion. Hij is tevens research-fellow bij de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en redacteur van Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.
Artikel

Etnische diversiteit en onveiligheidsgevoelens in de buurt

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of crime, ethnic diversity, neighborhoods, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, geo-linguistic classification
Auteurs Iris Glas MSc en Dr. Roel Jennissen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Living in a multicultural environment may be accompanied with an increased fear of crime. Residents may become alienated in a very diverse environment and withdraw themselves in their own social world. This ‘hunkering down’ may ensue feelings of unsafety. However, social scientists have done hardly any research on whether citizens who live in a multicultural environment in Western Europe actually feel more unsafe. This study seeks to contribute to fill in this knowledge gap. The authors’ research reveals that residents are more likely to feel unsafe in neighborhoods with a high degree of ethnic diversity. The aforementioned correlation is the most noticeable in neighborhoods consisting of people on medium incomes.


Iris Glas MSc
I. Glas MSc is PhD-kandidaat aan de Erasmus School of Social and Behavioural Sciences van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Dr. Roel Jennissen
Dr. R. Jennissen is als senior wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid.
Artikel

Het zwaard van Damocles: burgemeesters wil is wet

Over het punitieve karakter van een bestuursrechtelijke herstelsanctie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Mayor’s powers, house eviction, public order, hemp nursery, administrative sanction
Auteurs Mr. Maartje Schaap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Under Article 13b (1) of the Dutch Opium Act, the mayor is authorized to impose an order under administrative coercion when drugs are sold, delivered, supplied or present in houses or premises This much-discussed article, also cited as the ‘Damocles Law’, gives the mayor the power to close drug shelters even before the suspect’s guilt has been established in legal proceedings. It is not necessary to show that the interests of public policy are at stake. Moreover, the means of defense against the closure are very limited. The author argues that the current application of Article 13b is exclusively punitive in nature, whereby in case of criminal prosecution, there is also a violation of the ne bis in idem principle.


Mr. Maartje Schaap
Mr. M.R.M. Schaap is werkzaam als strafrechtadvocaat bij De Haan Strafrechtadvocaten te Groningen.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Auteurs Dr. Eric Bervoets en Mr.drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Eric Bervoets
Dr. E.J.A. Bervoets is bestuurskundige en criminoloog en zelfstandig gevestigd onderzoeker.

Mr.drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Krijger als opsporingsambtenaar?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden armed forces, law enforcement, criminal investigation, military operation, Rules of Engagement
Auteurs dr. Joop Voetelink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands armed forces are increasingly involved in activities within the Netherlands as well as abroad, that can be characterized as law enforcement. Military personnel, however, are not trained as law enforcement officials and perform these non-military tasks based on their military skills and drills. Nevertheless, their efforts eventually must lead to a criminal persecution of a suspect. Therefore, it is important that military personnel are well aware of the particular requirements set out by criminal procedures while planning and executing a military action and, whenever possible, operate in close collaboration with authorized law enforcement officials.


dr. Joop Voetelink
Kolonel dr. J.E.D. Voetelink is universitair hoofddocent militair recht aan de Nederlandse Defensie Academie (NLDA).
Artikel

Het gebiedsverbod als wapen tegen verspreiding van jihadistisch gedachtegoed

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden freedom of movement, religion and expression, counterterrorist measure, system of restrictions on fundamental rights, constitutional censorship prohibition
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. Jan Brouwer en Prof. mr. Jon Schilder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In mid-August 2017, the Minister of Justice and Security prohibited the controversial preacher Jneid from exhibiting in the vicinity of ‘his’ bookshop, annex mosque in the Schilderswijk in The Hague. By means of this ban, the minister wanted to prevent Jneid from carrying out his ‘intolerant’ message any longer in an environment where many young people are susceptible to radicalization. The Temporary Act on Counterterrorism was supposed to provide an adequate basis for such a ban. This article argues that a measure restricting the freedom of movement with the aim of preventing someone from conveying his message is against the constitutional prohibition of censorship and may therefore not be imposed.


Prof. mr. dr. Jan Brouwer
Prof. mr. dr. J.G. Brouwer is hoogleraar-directeur van het Centrum voor Openbare Orde en Veiligheid van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Prof. mr. Jon Schilder
Prof. mr. A.E. Schilder is hoogleraar staats- en bestuursrecht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Rechtsbescherming tegen de cumulatie van privaatrechtelijke en strafrechtelijke gebiedsverboden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden soccer banning order, pub banning order, criminal charge, accumulation, legal protection
Auteurs Mr. dr. drs. Benny van der Vorm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There are different types of banning orders (criminal, administrative and private banning orders) and also various procedures for imposing these orders. According to the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (EctHR) it is unlikely that the private banning orders can be labelled as a criminal charge. The nature of the private banning orders is not punitive. These orders are to be regarded as recovery sanctions. However, applying the ‘Engel criteria’ will lead to the conclusion that some criminal banning orders are to be considered as a criminal charge. Accumulation between criminal and private law banning orders might be troublesome, but it is possible. It is recommended that the Public Prosecution Service is cautious when it comes to demanding a criminal banning order, when a private banning order has already been imposed.


Mr. dr. drs. Benny van der Vorm
Mr. dr. drs. B. van der Vorm is universitair docent straf(proces)recht en verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut en het Montaigne Centrum voor Conflictoplossing en Geschillenbeslechting van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Access_open Verbanning uit het semipublieke domein

Toegangsverboden in juridisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden The semi-public domain, Misconduct, Exclusion orders, Civil court, Complaints committees
Auteurs Mr. dr. Mandy van Rooij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The semi-public domain covers the places that are accessible to the public but which are controlled by private entities. Shopping malls, public transport, bars and sports events are examples of such places. In case of misconduct, the private manager may impose exclusion orders. This sanction relies on legal contracts and the exclusive nature of the right to property. The legal framework consists therefore primarily of private law. Exclusion orders may not be imposed without reason. Prevention of disorder and harm may be a legitimate reason. The length and range of the ban must relate to the gravity of the disruption. In addition to this, public laws on non-discrimination and privacy are applicable. The civil court is competent to check the exclusion orders in de semi-public domain. The author sees added value in complaints committees, in which both public and private actors partake. Complaint committees can thrive if their assessment frameworks are transparent.


Mr. dr. Mandy van Rooij
Mr. dr. A.E. van Rooij verdedigde in 2017 aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam haar proefschrift Orde in het semipublieke domein. Particuliere en publiek-private orderegulering in juridisch perspectief, uitgegeven bij Boom juridisch (Den Haag). Deze bijdrage is gebaseerd op dit promotieonderzoek. Inmiddels is zij werkzaam als wetgevingsjurist bij het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties en verbonden als onderzoeker aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de VU.
Artikel

Verdachten met een LVB in het politieverhoor

De invloed van verhoormethoden op de inhoud van verklaringen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden interrogation methods and techniques, suspect and witness, (borderline) intellectual disability, false confessions, false statements
Auteurs P.R. Kranendonk MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The main goal of an interrogation is to elicit truthful information about the involvement of a suspect or witness in a criminal act. Some interrogation methods and techniques are useful for extracting information from otherwise unwilling suspects, but they can also elicit false confessions or statements from innocent (and vulnerable) suspects and witnesses. Multiple studies show that a large proportion of false confessions are made by suspects with an intellectual disability. Intellectual disabilities are often difficult to recognize, because of an individual’s streetwise behavior. This vulnerable group is extremely sensitive to suggestibility, compliance and acquiescence. Some interrogation methods and techniques used by the police can have a severe influence on these features and therefore on the reliability of statements. Given the overrepresentation of people with an intellectual disability in the Dutch criminal justice system, it is of great importance to prevent unwanted risks in the interrogation.


P.R. Kranendonk MSc
Robin Kranendonk MSc doet als promovenda bij de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam onderzoek naar de knelpunten en risico’s bij het verhoren van verdachten en getuigen met een LVB.
Artikel

Het signaleren en registreren van LVB in het justitiële domein: stof tot nadenken

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden mild intellectual disabilities, criminal justice system, Recognition, Registration, Prevalence
Auteurs Dr. H.L. Kaal en Mr. B.J. de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A recent study on the registration of mild intellectual disabilities (MID) in the judicial domain raised various questions regarding the possibilities for and desirability of recognition and registration of MID in the criminal justice system (CJS). There is general unanimity on the necessity to recognize MID. Identifying a MID, however, is not without its pitfalls. That said, not everywhere within the CJS is the same level of exactitude in recognizing MID needed. Sometimes, screening for a MID will suffice. When a (probable) MID has been identified, choices about the desirability of registration have to be made. This raises issues regarding trust, privacy, professional freedom, and the measure of control granted to the delinquent. This article discusses some of the questions raised, not with the aim of solving them, but in order to stimulate the discussion necessary to achieve an aligned criminal justice system.


Dr. H.L. Kaal
Dr. Hendrien Kaal is als lector Licht Verstandelijke Beperking en Jeugdcriminaliteit verbonden aan de Hogeschool Leiden en het Expertisecentrum William Schrikker.

Mr. B.J. de Jong
Mr. drs. Bart de Jong is adviseur en onderzoeker bij Bureau Integriteit (BING), onderzoeks- en adviesbureau op het gebied van integriteit en ongewenste omgangsvormen.
Artikel

Jeugdigen en jongvolwassenen met licht verstandelijke beperkingen en criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden Youth, mild intellectual disability, Criminality, Diagnosis, Prevention
Auteurs Prof. dr. X. Moonen en Dr. H. Kaal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In criminological literature there is an ongoing discussion about the relation between intellectual disability and criminality. Because of differences of definitions and measurement methods prevalence figures may vary. Recent assessment of prevalence in the Netherlands using a valid Dutch screener (the SCIL) reveals a relatively high percentage of people with mild intellectual disability and borderline intelligence in the Dutch criminological system. People with mild intellectual disability and borderline intelligence cannot be considered as belonging to one group. Five typologies with even more subtypes based on mixed characteristics can be distinguished. A need for early detection and personalized interventions is stressed as is treatment based on the specific characteristics of these subtypes.


Prof. dr. X. Moonen
Prof. dr. Xavier Moonen is als bijzonder hoogleraar Kennisontwikkeling over kinderen en jongvolwassenen met licht verstandelijke beperkingen en gedragsproblemen verbonden aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Hij is tevens bijzonder lector Inclusie van mensen met verstandelijke beperkingen aan de Zuyd Hogeschool Heerlen en werkt als beleidsadviseur voor Koraal te Sittard.

Dr. H. Kaal
Dr. Hendrien Kaal is als lector Licht Verstandelijke Beperking en Jeugdcriminaliteit verbonden aan de Hogeschool Leiden en het Expertisecentrum William Schrikker.
Artikel

Liquidatie van een Solid Soldier?

Het ‘niet-zeker-weten’ en de ‘realness’ rondom de dood van Sin

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2017
Trefwoorden violence, murder, gangs, street culture, ethnography
Auteurs Dr. R.A. Roks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During an ethnographic research on the Rollin 200 Crips, a Dutch ‘gang’, Sin – one of the author’s informants – was shot and killed in Amsterdam. In this article, the author focuses on the ways in which the Rollin 200 Crips interpreted and made sense of Sin’s death. Several narratives of interpretation could be discerned in the aftermath of his death. Firstly, speculations and rumors about the motives brought feelings of uncertainty and suspicion to the fore, contrasting the otherwise instrumental logic of violence the Rollin 200 Crips communicated during the author’s fieldwork and in the media. In addition, Sin’s death produced a number of narratives about the ‘realness’ of Dutch gang life. For these reasons, Sin’s death represents an impressive, important and meaningful moment during the author’s fieldwork and, more generally, in the history of the Rollin 200 Crips.


Dr. R.A. Roks
Dr. Robby Roks is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Hoe de bezwaarprocedure bij de overheid kan profiteren van inzichten uit empirisch onderzoek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden administrative authorities, objection procedure, conflict, dispute resolution, neutrality
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. A.T. Marseille
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, someone who disagrees with an administrative order is only allowed to seek redress with the administrative courts after he has lodged an objection with the administrative authority responsible for the order. Administrative authorities have much freedom with respect to the organization of their objection procedure. Their freedom concerns two aspects of handling objections. Firstly, they can choose between setting up an independent external advisory committee or using only their own personnel in preparing their decision. Secondly, they can choose to model their objection procedure after the procedure before the administrative courts or to opt for a more consensual, as opposed to a more conflictual, style of dispute resolution. This article focuses on the question to what extent results of recent research can help administrative authorities in making a choice between these options. While the available research does not provide specific and finite answers as to which way the procedure should be organized, it does show that it is important that the procedure is characterized by information, consultation and neutrality.


Prof. mr. dr. A.T. Marseille
Prof. mr. dr. Bert Marseille is als hoogleraar bestuurskunde verbonden aan de vakgroep Staatsrecht, Bestuursrecht en Bestuurskunde van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

Data Protection by Design als argument in het FBI vs. Apple-debat

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden FBI vs. Apple, Data Protection by Design, Data Protection by Default, GDPR, privacy
Auteurs Dr. C. Cuijpers en S. van Schendel LLB
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Adhering to a strict interpretation, Data Protection by Design (DPbD) can conflict with the needs of law enforcement in their fight against terrorism and criminality. An illustration of this tension can be found in the case of FBI vs. Apple, where the FBI wants Apple to help bypass security on an iPhone in order to gain access to data. The FBI needs the help of Apple – or third parties – to get such access, for which they might need to create new legal mandates. However, private parties like Apple, may want to design their products in such a way that evading and breaking the security of the system is not possible, as consumers demand secure and privacy friendly devices. This article adds to this debate by posing DPbD as an argument in favor of private parties not to cooperate in making their products less secure and less privacy friendly. This argument is especially relevant when a similar case unfolds in the EU under the new regime of the General Data Protection Regulation in which DPbD is explicitly embedded.


Dr. C. Cuijpers
Dr. Colette Cuijpers is als Associate Professor verbonden aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT).

S. van Schendel LLB
Sascha van Schendel, LLB is als student-assistent verbonden aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT).
Artikel

Technologie voor opsporing en handhaving

Kansen, ervaringen en knelpunten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden technology in policing, effectiveness, promising technologies, legal obstacles, success stories
Auteurs Mr. dr. ir. B. Custers en B. Vergouw MSc.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Police forces and law enforcement agencies in many countries are continuously trying to optimize the use of technologies in policing and law enforcement. Efforts are being made to remove existing technological, legal and organizational obstacles to create more opportunities of promising technologies, both existing and new. This contribution describes the results of a survey among 46 police forces and other law enforcement agencies in eleven countries. Their experiences with policing technologies and their needs and preferences in this regard are described. The prevalence and satisfaction of existing technologies, including wiretapping, fingerprints, DNA research, database coupling, data mining and profiling, camera surveillance and network analyses were investigated. Legal, technological and organizational obstacles for the use of technology in policing were mapped and the extent to which policing technologies are evaluated and yield success stories was investigated. The main obstacles, according to the respondents, are insufficient financial resources and insufficient availability of technology. One in four organizations is lacking any clear, appealing success stories and half of the respondents indicated they were not performing any evaluations on the effectiveness of using particular technologies in policing. As a result, the information available on whether technologies in policing are actually working is very limited.


Mr. dr. ir. B. Custers
Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers is universitair hoofddocent en hoofd onderzoek bij eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Eerder was hij hoofd van de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC.

B. Vergouw MSc.
Bas Vergouw MSc. is werkzaam als digitaal onderzoeker bij de Autoriteit Consument en Markt (ACM) en houdt zich voornamelijk bezig met open source intelligence.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Auteurs dr. ir. Bart Custers en drs. Marit Scheepmakers
Auteursinformatie

dr. ir. Bart Custers
Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers is universitair hoofddocent en hoofd onderzoek bij eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Eerder was hij hoofd van de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC.

drs. Marit Scheepmakers
Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen
Artikel

IS en zijn voorgangers: gewelddadig radicalisme in historisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Islamic State, apocalypse, narrative, political violence, terrorism
Auteurs Prof. dr. B.G.J. de Graaff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Islamic State uses an age old apocalyptic narrative to attract followers and legitimatize its existence. The author shows which narrative elements were used during earlier stages of violence-inciting apocalyptic manifestations in Christianity and Western ideology and how they can be retraced in the communications and enactments of Islamic State. The use of such a narrative explains why the movement has been so much more powerful in attracting followers than al-Qaeda.


Prof. dr. B.G.J. de Graaff
Prof. dr. Bob de Graaff is hoogleraar inlichtingen- en veiligheidsstudies aan de Nederlandse Defensieacademie te Breda en de Universiteit Utrecht. Van 2007 tot 2009 was hij hoogleraar terrorisme en contraterrorisme aan de Campus Den Haag van de Universiteit Leiden, waar hij het Centrum voor Terrorisme en Contraterrorisme (CTC) oprichtte.
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