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Artikel

Uitdagingen in publiek-private samenwerking in de aanpak van drugscriminaliteit in de Rotterdamse haven

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden public private partnerships, Rotterdam harbor, security, drugs, crime
Auteurs Dr. Lieselot Bisschop, Dr. Robby Roks, Prof.dr. Richard Staring e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the challenges associated with public-private partnerships in tackling drug crime in the port of Rotterdam. The authors identified the actors involved in the fight against drug crime and, more generally, security in the port. The authors show how these various actors view the subject of drug crime (so-called mentalities), what they set as objectives (finalities) and how they try to achieve these objectives. Subsequently the various aspects of the interactions between these actors are being analyzed. The article is empirically based on 76 interviews with public and private actors in the port of Rotterdam, that were conducted in the period from January 2018 to February 2019, and an analysis of literature, news items, government reports and other documents.


Dr. Lieselot Bisschop
Dr. L.C.J. Bisschop is als universitair docent werkzaam bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R. Roks is als universitair docent werkzaam bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Prof.dr. Richard Staring
Prof.dr. R. Staring is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Elisabeth Brein MSc
E. Brein MSc is als onderzoeker en programmamanager verbonden aan de Rotterdam School of Management van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2019
Auteurs Mr. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Mr. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Kinderbescherming over de grens

Lessen voor Nederland en leren van Denemarken?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2019
Trefwoorden child protection, youth care systems, international comparison, Denmark, trust versus risk management
Auteurs Drs. Caroline Vink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In view of the recent problems arising from the decentralization of the Dutch youth care system, this article examines whether the Netherlands could learn from decentralization experiences in other countries. The author focuses on Denmark, where such decentralization took place fairly recently. In addition, elements of the organization of youth care in Germany and Norway are also discussed. It becomes clear that the Netherlands has a relatively complex system with many different organizations with overlapping tasks and powers. In the Netherlands, much attention is paid to control and risk management. In Denmark, on the other hand, there is much more confidence in the capacities of parents and children to find solutions. It is noticeable that in the vast majority of cases there is consensus between parents, child/youngster and care providers about how to deal with the problems. The most important lesson that the Netherlands can learn from abroad – and especially the Danes – is: invest in underlying values and principles and give professionals and families time, support and space.


Drs. Caroline Vink
Drs. C. Vink is senior adviseur bij het Nederlands Jeugdinstituut in Utrecht. Zij adviseert en ondersteunt gemeenten en zorgaanbieders met betrekking tot de transitie en transformatie van de zorg voor jeugd.
Artikel

Access_open Van sleutelen aan het stelsel naar bouwen aan inhoudelijke vernieuwing

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2019
Trefwoorden Decentralization Dutch youth care, System change, Pedagogical civil society, Prevention, Social issues
Auteurs Dr. Saskia Wijsbroek, Dr. Marije Kesselring en Dr. Dorien Graas
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyzes the decentralization and transformation of Dutch youth care since 2015. The authors point out that many problems still exist and in some cases have become worse. To fundamentally reform youth care much more is needed than just money or a system change. It is necessary, also according to international research, to create a strong pedagogical basis or ‘pedagogical civil society’. Also prevention on various levels (universal, selective, indicated) should receive a lot of attention, while the same applies to improving primary care support, such as youth health care, GP practice support, youth work and school social work. It would also be wise to invest in intensive youth care with long-lasting effects. Generally there should be a strong focus on tackling local and (supra)regional social issues.


Dr. Saskia Wijsbroek
Dr. S.A.M. Wijsbroek werkt als lector Jeugd bij het Kenniscentrum Sociale Innovatie aan de Hogeschool Utrecht en als universitair docent bij de onderzoeksgroep Jeugd en Gezin aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Dr. Marije Kesselring
Dr. M. Kesselring is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het lectoraat Jeugd bij het Kenniscentrum Sociale Innovatie aan de Hogeschool Utrecht.

Dr. Dorien Graas
Dr. T.A.M. Graas werkt als lector Jeugd bij het Kenniscentrum Gezondheid en Welzijn aan de Hogeschool Windesheim.
Artikel

De Rijdende Rechter als rolmodel

Hoe reality televisie het beeld van de rechtspraak beïnvloedt

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden The Iterant Judge, Dutch television, American tv judges, Low threshold courts, Binding dispute solution
Auteurs Mr. Annerie Smolders
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The tremendously popular television programme De Rijdende Rechter (The Itinerant Judge) has an uncomfortable relationship with official legal practice. Many people indeed think that the itinerant judge who arrives in their street to personally check neighbourly grievances has come as a representative of the Law with a capital L. It is not clear where reality TV stops and current legal practice begins. Things have become more complicated because the itinerant judge has become a symbol of the ‘close-to-the-people’ judge that is embraced by legal practice today. In this article the murky boundary between TV judges and official judiciary is investigated, taking into account the cult status of the itinerant judge, the effect of imagination on reality, similar phenomena in the United States and the current situation in the Netherlands.


Mr. Annerie Smolders
Mr. A. Smolders is publicist en voormalig rechter. Zij richt zich, onder meer als gastonderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), op de verhouding tussen rechter en algemeen publiek, met als doel het publieke debat hierover te verbreden en van meer context te voorzien.
Artikel

Facebookvrienden worden met de verdachte

Over undercoverbevoegdheden op internet

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden undercover operations, investigative powers, infiltration, Internet, jurisdiction
Auteurs Mr.dr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article investigates which online undercover investigative methods are applied in practice and how they fit in the Dutch legal framework. In particular, the three special investigative powers of a pseudo purchase, systematic information gathering and infiltration are examined. Investigative powers cannot be applied unilaterally (across state borders). When law enforcement officials cannot reasonably determine the location of the suspect, the online unilateral application of undercover investigative powers is allowed. However, there is still a risk that diplomatic tensions arise with the involved state. States should agree in treaties under which circumstances cross-border online undercover operations are allowed.


Mr.dr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans
Mr. dr. J.J. Oerlemans is als onderzoeker verbonden aan eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Nieuwe online opsporingsbevoegdheden en het recht op privacy

Een analyse van de Wet computercriminaliteit III

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden cybercrime, Dutch Cybercrime Act, hacking, investigative powers, privacy
Auteurs Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2018 the Dutch parliament accepted new cybercrime legislation (the Cybercrime III Act) that creates several new online criminal offences and gives law enforcement agencies new investigative powers on the Internet. This article describes the background of Dutch cybercrime legislation and the contents of the Cybercrime III Act. The newly introduced cybercrimes are discussed as well as the new investigative competences. Particularly the legitimacy and the necessity of the investigative power of the police to hack computer systems of suspects may significantly interfere with the right to privacy.


Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers
Mr. dr. ir. B.H.M. Custers is associate professor en onderzoeksdirecteur bij eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open De aard en aanpak van georganiseerde cybercrime

Bevindingen uit een internationale empirische studie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden cybercrime, traditional organized crime, organization structure of cybercrime groups, policing cybercrime
Auteurs Dr. Geralda Odinot, Dr. Christianne de Poot en Dr. Maite Verhoeven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Worldwide, the digitalization of society is proceeding rapidly and this brings new forms of crime. The threats arising from different types of cybercrime are real and constantly evolving, as the internet with its anonymity and borderless reach, provides new opportunities for criminal activities. This article describes some results from an international empirical study aimed to gather more insight on the link between cybercrime and organized crime as well as on the question whether cybercrime is organized. It shows how cybercriminals cooperate with each other and what this organization structure looks like.


Dr. Geralda Odinot
Dr. G. Odinot is wetenschappelijk onderzoeker en trainer forensisch interviewen How2Ask. Ten tijde van de uitvoering van het onderzoek waarop dit artikel is gebaseerd, was zij werkzaam als onderzoeker bij het WODC.

Dr. Christianne de Poot
Dr. C.J. de Poot is als senioronderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC. Zij is tevens hoogleraar Criminalistiek aan de Vrije Universiteit en lector Forensisch onderzoek aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam en de Politieacademie.

Dr. Maite Verhoeven
Dr. M.A. Verhoeven is als beleidsmedewerker Rechtshandhaving & Ketensamenwerking Cariben verbonden aan het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid. Ten tijde van de uitvoering van het onderzoek waarop dit artikel is gebaseerd, was zij werkzaam als onderzoeker bij het WODC.
Artikel

Uit de schaduw

Perspectieven voor wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar dark markets

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden Dark markets, Hansa, Silk Road, Bayonet, scientific research
Auteurs Thijmen Verburgh MSc, Eefje Smits MSc en Rolf van Wegberg MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the authors present the lessons learned from previous research efforts into dark markets. First the important features of dark markets are discussed, i.e. anonymity and trust, as well as the question how data on dark markets can be collected. Next, the authors illustrate how this data can be used to study the phenomenon of dark markets itself as well as the impact of police interventions on dark markets.


Thijmen Verburgh MSc
T. Verburgh MSc is als onderzoeker verbonden aan TNO.

Eefje Smits MSc
E. Smits MSc is werkzaam als onderzoeker bij TNO.

Rolf van Wegberg MSc
R. van Wegberg MSc is als onderzoeker verbonden aan TNO en de Technische Universiteit Delft.

Lucas Bolsius
L.M.M. Bolsius is burgemeester van Amersfoort.
Artikel

De ontwikkeling van het aantal door bestuursorganen behandelde overtredingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden administrative sanctions, trend, minor offences, restorative sanctions, punitive sanctions
Auteurs Dr. Debora Moolenaar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper looks at the number of administrative sanctions for minor offences since 2005. Administrative sanction can be divided into two categories: restorative sanctions and punitive sanctions. Information is limited and dispersed. The number of offences handled by welfare agencies has decreased with 21% in the period 2005-2016. In the same period the number of administrative sanctions for traffic offences imposed by the police/public prosecutor have decreased with 14% (mainly originating from automated traffic cameras). Also administrative sanctions imposed by supervisory financial agencies have decreased with 58%. For some organisations the observation period is a shorter. In the period 2011-2016 the number of administrative sanctions for traffic offences imposed by municipalities has increased with 41% and the number of administrative sanctions imposed by supervisory non-financial agencies have decreased with 47%. There is no information available on administrative sanctions for tax fraud.


Dr. Debora Moolenaar
Dr. D.E.G. Moolenaar is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Hybridisering van de zwaardmachten: realiteit of fictie?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden militarization of the police, constabularisation of the military, peace support operations, blurring of police and military functions, high-end policing
Auteurs Dr. Peter Neuteboom en Hans Hovens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    National and international security are becoming increasingly interdependent. The question is whether this leads to a certain level of militarization of the police and constibularisation of the military. In some of their operations and units, the Dutch police apply tactics, technologies and organizational principles that resemble those of the military. The police also contribute to international peace support operations and stability missions to train or monitor police in post-conflict areas. The Dutch army has been involved in some sort of interim policing during several stability missions and increasingly support the Dutch police in law enforcement operations by providing search and analytical support. Finally, as a police force with a military status, the Royal Marechaussee has acquired a structural and strong position in the Dutch police system. Although there is some sort of convergence, the authors conclude that the level of militarization of the police and constabularisation of the military remains limited.


Dr. Peter Neuteboom
Dr. P.C.J. Neuteboom is directeur Duurzaamheid en Opsporing bij de Inspectie Leefomgeving & Transport en research fellow bij de Nederlandse Defensie Academie.

Hans Hovens
J.L. Hovens is kolonel b.d. van de Koninklijke Marechaussee.
Artikel

Krijger als opsporingsambtenaar?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden armed forces, law enforcement, criminal investigation, military operation, Rules of Engagement
Auteurs dr. Joop Voetelink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands armed forces are increasingly involved in activities within the Netherlands as well as abroad, that can be characterized as law enforcement. Military personnel, however, are not trained as law enforcement officials and perform these non-military tasks based on their military skills and drills. Nevertheless, their efforts eventually must lead to a criminal persecution of a suspect. Therefore, it is important that military personnel are well aware of the particular requirements set out by criminal procedures while planning and executing a military action and, whenever possible, operate in close collaboration with authorized law enforcement officials.


dr. Joop Voetelink
Kolonel dr. J.E.D. Voetelink is universitair hoofddocent militair recht aan de Nederlandse Defensie Academie (NLDA).
Artikel

Strategische sturing van de KMar bij dreigingen en crisissituaties

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden crisis management, threat management, Royal Marechaussee, hybrid organization, ‘Good Governance’
Auteurs Drs. Etienne van Veenendaal en Dr. Jörg Noll
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Royal Military Police (Royal Marechaussee) is an organization of hybrid character, i.e. it is a police force and military force. Due to recent (inter)national developments the Royal Marechaussee has faced some challenges, especially in the event of a threat or near crisis. Those can be analyzed with the model of good governance and its four dimensions: legislation and regulations, implementation, a shared problem orientation and democracy. The Royal Marechaussee seems to focus primarily on the first two dimensions, while neglecting the need for a shared definition of the problem and awareness of the democratic context in crisis situations. This article uses two cases concerning Schiphol Airport to show how the model contributes on the one hand to the analysis of recent threat and crisis management and on the other hand to its improvement.


Drs. Etienne van Veenendaal
Drs. E. van Veenendaal is luitenant-kolonel bij de Koninklijke Marechaussee en werkzaam als universitair docent politieoptreden bij de vakgroep Militair Operationele Wetenschappen aan de Faculteit Militaire Wetenschappen.

Dr. Jörg Noll
Dr. J.E. Noll is als universitair hoofddocent Internationale Conflictstudies verbonden aan de Faculteit Militaire Wetenschappen.
Redactioneel

Access_open Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Auteurs dr. Marc Schuilenburg en Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

dr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr.mr. M.B. Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Hij is tevens lid van de redactieraad van Justitiële verkenningen.

Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Opgeruimd staat netjes

Over de sociologie van gebiedsverboden en de praktijk van het Collectief Winkelverbod

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden collective shopping ban, shoplifting, public space, purification, Mary Douglas
Auteurs Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author reports on an ethnographic research conducted on the Collective Shopping Ban, a measure taken in the Netherlands in an effort to make shopkeepers co-responsible for maintaining safety and security. By describing the practice of the Collective Shopping Ban in The Hague, he investigates how the involved shopkeepers are dealing with offenses like theft, nuisance, intimidation, and vandalism. The author describes the sociological background of banning orders and what the banning of people means in terms of purification of public space.


Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. M. Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Het gebiedsverbod als wapen tegen verspreiding van jihadistisch gedachtegoed

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden freedom of movement, religion and expression, counterterrorist measure, system of restrictions on fundamental rights, constitutional censorship prohibition
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. Jan Brouwer en Prof. mr. Jon Schilder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In mid-August 2017, the Minister of Justice and Security prohibited the controversial preacher Jneid from exhibiting in the vicinity of ‘his’ bookshop, annex mosque in the Schilderswijk in The Hague. By means of this ban, the minister wanted to prevent Jneid from carrying out his ‘intolerant’ message any longer in an environment where many young people are susceptible to radicalization. The Temporary Act on Counterterrorism was supposed to provide an adequate basis for such a ban. This article argues that a measure restricting the freedom of movement with the aim of preventing someone from conveying his message is against the constitutional prohibition of censorship and may therefore not be imposed.


Prof. mr. dr. Jan Brouwer
Prof. mr. dr. J.G. Brouwer is hoogleraar-directeur van het Centrum voor Openbare Orde en Veiligheid van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Prof. mr. Jon Schilder
Prof. mr. A.E. Schilder is hoogleraar staats- en bestuursrecht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Rechtsbescherming tegen de cumulatie van privaatrechtelijke en strafrechtelijke gebiedsverboden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden soccer banning order, pub banning order, criminal charge, accumulation, legal protection
Auteurs Mr. dr. drs. Benny van der Vorm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There are different types of banning orders (criminal, administrative and private banning orders) and also various procedures for imposing these orders. According to the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (EctHR) it is unlikely that the private banning orders can be labelled as a criminal charge. The nature of the private banning orders is not punitive. These orders are to be regarded as recovery sanctions. However, applying the ‘Engel criteria’ will lead to the conclusion that some criminal banning orders are to be considered as a criminal charge. Accumulation between criminal and private law banning orders might be troublesome, but it is possible. It is recommended that the Public Prosecution Service is cautious when it comes to demanding a criminal banning order, when a private banning order has already been imposed.


Mr. dr. drs. Benny van der Vorm
Mr. dr. drs. B. van der Vorm is universitair docent straf(proces)recht en verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut en het Montaigne Centrum voor Conflictoplossing en Geschillenbeslechting van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Staatloosheid als moderne vorm van uitsluiting

Naar een duurzame oplossing voor staatlozen in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden statelessness, determination procedure, legislative proposal, limbo, exclusion
Auteurs Marlotte van Dael MSc, Mr. Jelle Klaas en Loïs Vaars LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article maps the current Dutch practice on statelessness, and tries to expose the current issues in particular. The published legislative proposal for a statelessness determination procedure in September 2016 is an attempt by the Dutch government to solve part of these problems after wide criticism from, among others, the Advisory Committee on Migration Affairs (ACVZ) in 2013. The introduction of a statelessness determination procedure is a long awaited development and a step in the right direction with a view of improving current practice and law for stateless persons residing in the Netherlands. However, significant deficiencies in the legislative proposal risk to greatly undermine the operation and value of the new procedure, especially for those currently left in limbo and excluded from society. This article focuses on the shortcomings in the procedure and provides recommendations how to revise these to ensure that stateless persons are enabled to demonstrate their statelessness adequately and obtain the rights associated with it as intended in the Statelessness Conventions signed by the Netherlands.


Marlotte van Dael MSc
M. van Dael MSc is als projectcoördinator en onderzoeker staatloosheid verbonden aan het ASKV/Steunpunt Vluchtelingen.

Mr. Jelle Klaas
Mr. J. Klaas is mensenrechtenadvocaat en Litigation Director NJCM.

Loïs Vaars LLM
L. Vaars LLM is dossierhouder staatloosheid bij het Public Interest Litigation Project (PILP).
Artikel

Ruim baan? Uitsluiting en zelfuitsluiting van de arbeidsmarkt

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden criminal records, screening, young adults, labor market, self-exclusion
Auteurs Dr. mr. Elina van ’t Zand-Kurtovic
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, the number of criminal record screenings performed each year skyrocketed to more than one million. Yet, empirical evidence on its effects has been largely absent. In this article the author addresses parts of the findings of her PhD research, which aimed to fill this gap, by providing a subjective perspective of how having a criminal record impacts the process of re-entry into society, particularly into the labor market, for young adults. It is based on the lived experiences of 31 young adults having a criminal record who were followed during their process of reintegration into the labor market. The vivid, real-life stories of young adults’ strategies of dealing with the stigma of a criminal record, and how this subsequently influences their position in the labor market, highlight the counterproductive effects of increasingly widespread criminal record screening. They provide evidence that many young adults adopt self-exclusion as a strategy for avoiding rejection and exclusion.


Dr. mr. Elina van ’t Zand-Kurtovic
Dr. mr. E.G. van ’t Zand-Kurtovic is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.
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